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Conference Program

PEET III: The Monographic Process

Partnerships For Enhancing Expertise In Taxonomy (PEET)
Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC
25-29 March 2000

Conference Sponsor:
National Science Foundation - Partnerships for Enhancing
Expertise in Taxonomy - DEB 9712484

Student Workshop Sponsors:
National Science Foundation - Research Experiences for Undergraduates - DBI 9820303
US Department of Agriculture-Beltsville
US Geological Survey-Biological Resource Division
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History

Friday, March 24th, Evening Event, Natural History Building
5:00-8:00 PM - Opening Reception & Registration Executive Conference Room, Natural History Building, 10th & Constitution Ave., NW

Saturday, March 25th, Morning Session, Ripley Center
8:00-9:00 AM - Continental Breakfast, Ripley Center Rm. 3111

Session I: What is a Monograph? Ripley Center Rm. 3111 Chair: Paula DePriest (Smithsonian Institution)
9:00-9:15 AM - Welcome. Paula DePriest (Smithsonian Institution)

9:15-9:45 AM - What is a PEET Monograph? James Rodman (Program Director, NSF)

9:45-10:45 AM - The Ideal Monograph. Ron Petersen (University of Tennessee) and Rudiger Bieler (Field Museum, Chicago)

10:45-11:15 AM - Coffee Break, Ripley Center Rm. 3111.

Electronic Demonstration, Ripley Center Rm. 3113: Defining Your Space - A Glossary on the Web. Robert Magill (Missouri Botanical Garden)

11:15-12:15 AM - Panel Discussion: Issues in Monography Moderator: James Rodman (Program Director, NSF), Jody Martin (Los Angeles County Museum), Barry OConnor (University of Michigan), Don Pfister (Harvard University) and Christoffer Schander (Woods Hole)

Saturday, March 25th, Afternoon Session Ripley Center

12:15-1:30 PM Box Lunch, Ripley Center Rm. 3111
Poster set-up, Ripley Center Rm. 3111
Electronic Demonstration, Ripley Center Rm. 3113: Digital Imaging Methods for Monographic Illustration, James B. Woolley (Texas A&M) & John Heraty (University of California, Riverside)

Session II: From Specimens to Concepts, Ripley Center Rm. 3111. Chair: Stephen Cairns (Smithsonian Institution)

1:30-2:30 PM - Specimens and Observations: The Basis of Hypotheses, Concepts and Classifications. Gary Samuels (USDA-Beltsville)

2:30-3:30 PM - Panel Discussion: Handling Specimens and Collections. Moderator: Gary Samuels (USDA-Beltsville), Chuck Delwiche (University of Maryland), Terry Gosliner (California Academy of Sciences) Mike Irwin (University of Illinois) and Brett Ratcliffe (University of Nebraska)

3:30-4:00 PM Coffee Break, Ripley Center Rm. 3111.
Electronic Demonstration, Ripley Center Rm. 3113. BASIS (Biological and Systematic Information System): A Taxonomic Cataloging System John Heraty (University of California, Riverside)

4:00-5:30 PM - Collection Tours & Taxonomic Group Discussions

Saturday, March 25th, Evening Events. NHB & Ripley Center 6:00-7:30 PM Dinner, Natural History Building Atrium Café

7:30-9:30 PM Poster Session & Reception, Ripley Center Rm. 3111

Sunday, March 26th, Morning Session Ripley Center

8:00-9:00 AM - Continental Breakfast, Ripley Center Rm. 3111

Session III: Species Treatments, Ripley Center Rm. 3027 Chair: Mary Liz Jameson (University of Nebraska)

9:00-9:45 AM - Elements of Species Treatments. Jon Coddington (Smithsonian Institution)

9:45-10:15 AM - Issues in Species Description I: Nomenclature, Types and Typification Versus Usage Ray Stotler (Southern Illinois University)

10:15-10:45 AM - Issues in Species Description II: Writing the Description—Describing Versus Diagnosing. Daphne Fautin (University of Kansas)

10:45-11:15AM - Coffee Break, Ripley Center Rm. 3111

Electronic Demonstrations, Ripley Center Rm. 3111 & 3113.
   Instructional Web Sites for 'Molecular Systematics' and 'Photosynthetic Life.' Chuck Delwiche (University of Maryland).
   A Relational Database for Elasmobranch Tapeworms Kirsten Jensen & Janine N. Caira (University of Connecticut)

11:15-11:45 AM - Issues in Species Description III: Characters—Diagnostic Versus Synapomorphic Characters. James B. Woolley (Texas A&M)

11:45-12:15 AM - Issues in Species Description IV: Reporting Specimens or Populations in Monographs: How Much is Enough? John Heraty (University of California, Riverside)

Sunday, March 26th, Afternoon Session, Ripley Center

12:00-1:30 PM Box Lunch, Ripley Center Rm. 3111
Electronic Demonstrations, Ripley Center Rm. 3111 & 3113
   Demonstration of a Nomenclatural Database-Therevid Names. Kevin Holston (University of Illinois)
   An Illustrated Nomenclator of the Fossombroniineae Barbara Crandall-Stotler & Ray Stotler (Southern Illinois University)

Session IV: Training a New Generation of Monographers, Ripley Center Rm. 3027, Chair: Amelie Scheltema (Woods Hole)

1:30-2:15 PM - Species Descriptions in Support of Monography Judy Winston (Virginia Museum of Natural History)

2:15-3:00 PM - Panel Discussion: Training in Monography Moderator: Mark Metz (University of Illinois), Paula DePriest (Smithsonian Institution), Samuel Hammer (Boston University) and Gustavo Hormiga (George Washington University)

3:00-3:45 PM - Coffee Break, Ripley Center Rm. 3111
Electronic Demonstration, Ripley Center Rm. 3113
A Virtual Classroom and Laboratory for Biology. Richard E. Triemer (Rutgers University)

3:45-4:30 PM - Breakout Discussions: Recommendations for Training Students

4:30-5:00 PM - Conclusions from Breakout Discussions

Sunday, March 26th, Evening Event, Natural History Building

6:00-7:30 PM - Dinner, Natural History Building Atrium Café

7:30-10:00 PM - Bluegrass Performance - The Gary Ferguson Band

Monday, March 27th, Morning Session Ripley Center

7:30-8:30 AM - Continental Breakfast, Ripley Center Rm. 3111

Session V: Dissemination of Monographic Products, Ripley Center Rm. 3027, Chair: Jon Norenburg (Smithsonian Institution)

8:30-9:30 AM - How will Monographs Look in the Future? Steve Ashe (University of Kansas)

9:30-10:15 AM - Panel Discussion: Dissemination of Modern Monographic Products. Moderator: Mike Irwin (University of Illinois), Steve Ashe (University of Kansas), Stephen D. Gaimari (Smithsonian Institution), Mary Liz Jameson (University of Nebraska) and Les Watling (University of Maine)

10:15-10:45 AM Coffee Break, Ripley Center Rm. 3111
Electronic Demonstrations, Ripley Center Rm. 3111 & 3113
   Electronic Illustration. Jill Marie Mullett (University of Illinois)
   Interactive Illustrated Key and Literature on CD. Les Watling & Sarah Gerken (University of Maine)

10:45-12:15 AM PEET Monographic Products, Class of 1995:
   Electronic Dissemination of Results through Web- Accessible Databases. Norman Johnson (Ohio State University)
   WebKeys and WebMandala: It's a Start! Gail E. Kampmeier (University of Illinois)

Monday, March 27th, Afternoon Session, Ripley Center

12:15-1:30 PM - Box Lunch, Ripley Center Rm. 3111
Electronic Demonstrations, Ripley Center Rms. 3111
PEET III Web Products. Ellen R. Farr (Smithsonian Institution)

1:30-3:30 PM PEET III Undergraduates — Behind-the-Scenes Tour of the National Museum of Natural History. Mary Sangrey (Research Training Program, Smithsonian Institution)

Session VI: Business Meeting, Ripley Center Rm. 3027

1:30-2:30 PM - Business Meeting

3:00-3:30 PM - Coffee Break, Ripley Center Rm. 3111

Session VII: PEET III Student Workshop Opening Session, Ripley Center Rm. 3027

3:30-3.45 PM - Welcome Wayne Mathis (Smithsonian Institution)

3:45-4:30 PM - From Cladograms to Classifications. Norman Platnick (American Museum of Natural History)

6:00-7:30 PM - Dinner, Natural History Building Atrium Café

Tuesday, March 28th, Morning Workshop, Natural History Building

7:00-8:30 AM - Continental Breakfast, Natural History Building Atrium Café

Workshop I: Character Data Basing/DELTA, Natural History Building, Cathy Kerby Seminar Room, East Court CE340

8:30-10:00 AM - Michael G. Pogue (USDA), David Farr (USDA) & Ellen R. Farr (Smithsonian Institution)

10:00-10:15 AM - Coffee Break, Cathy Kerby Seminar Room, East Court CE340

10:15-12:00 AM - Workshop I, Pogue (cont.)

Tuesday, March 28th, Afternoon Workshop Natural History Building

12:00-1:00 PM - Box Lunch, Natural History Building Executive Conference Room

Workshop II: Illustration in Support of Monography, Natural History Building, Cathy Kerby Seminar Room, East Court CE340

1:00-2:30 PM - George L. Venable (Smithsonian Institution)

2:30-2:45 PM - Coffee Break, Cathy Kerby Seminar Room, East Court CE340

2:45 - 5:00 PM - Workshop II, Venable (cont.)

6:00-7:30 PM - Dinner, Natural History Building Atrium Café

Wednesday, March 29th, Morning Workshop Natural History Building

7:00-8:00 AM - Continental Breakfast, Natural History Building Atrium Café

Workshop III: Phylogenetic Analysis, Natural History Building Cathy Kerby Seminar Room, East Court CE340

8:00-10:00 AM - Diana L. Lipscomb (George Washington University), David L. Swofford & James C. Wilgenbusch (Smithsonian Institution)

10:00-10:15 AM - Coffee Break, Cathy Kerby Seminar Room, East Court CE340

10:15-12:00 AM Workshop III, Lipscomb, Swofford, & Wilgenbusch (cont.)

Wednesday, March 29th, Afternoon Workshop, Natural History Building

12:00-1:00 PM - Box Lunch, Natural History Building Atrium Café

Workshop VI: Nomenclature, Natural History Building, Waldo Schmitt Room, West 218-B

1:00 AM-3:30 PM - Dan H. Nicolson (Smithsonian Institution) and James B. Woolley (Texas A&M)

2:30-2:45 PM - Coffee Break, Waldo Schmitt Room, West 218-B

2:45 - 4:00 PM Workshop IV, Nicolson & Woolley (cont.)

Abstracts PEET III Conference
Smithsonian Institution, 25-27 March 2000

9521526 [Petersen/Hughes (also 9978011)]

Ronald H. Petersen and Karen W. Hughes, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
Phylogenetic and Biogeographical Studies in Flammulina (Fungi, Basidiomycete)

Morphological analysis, mating studies and analysis of ribosomal ITS sequences were used to determine that a number of new species were hidden within the epithet Flammulina velutipes including F. populicola (growing on Populus roots), F. rossica and F. elastica) For true F. velutipes, data suggest that the center of origin was Asia, spreading to Pacific North America via the Bering land bridge and to Europe and Eastern North America, possibly via the North Atlantic land bridge. Hybridization was suspected in this group based on morphology and the ability of some species to interbreed in vitro, and was confirmed by finding a hybrid ITS sequence in F. velutipes

9521648 [Johnson]

Norman F. Johnson, Luciana Musetti, and Eric J. Dotseth. Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
Advances in systematics of parasitoid wasps through PEET monographic research (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, Pelecinidae, Monomachidae)

Our work concentrated on Scelionidae (Acanthoscelio, Thoronini, Telenominae), Pelecinidae and Monomachidae. Pelecinidae is endemic to the New World; Monomachidae has austral-disjunct distribution. Both are basal within the superfamily Proctotrupoidea and important in understanding the relationships in this Jurassic group. They served as model systems for the development of species-level databases. Acanthoscelio is a Neotropical endemic and provides the basis for study of Scelionini, important in the biocontrol of locusts. Results to date include four publications on the Pelecinidae: fossils, immatures, world revision, and analysis of geographic parthenogenesis; and first documentation of Monomachidae in New Guinea. Monographs on Monomachidae and Acanthoscelio are in the final stages of preparation. This work led to the Hymenoptera On-Line database, providing real-time queries for specimen data and production of distribution maps and graphs of seasonal phenology.

Norman F. Johnson, Luciana Musetti, and Eric J. Dotseth, Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
Electronic Dissemination of Results: Top Ten Reasons I Can't Possibly Database

Taxonomic monographs are built upon the data associated with specimens and observations. Access to these data is essential for evaluation of the published results and for further development of understanding of taxonomy and systematics. Electronic database management systems are powerful tools in information management. Web-accessible databases now power the economic expansion attributed to the Internet and are a critical component of the burgeoning areas of genomics and proteomics. Yet there are very few specimen-level databases available on-line. We examine the reasons most often heard for this state of affairs.

9521752 [Holsinger]

T.R. Sawicki and J.R. Holsinger, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA
Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Subterranean Amphipod Genus Bahadzia (Hadziidae)

The amphipod genus Bahadzia and two new stygobiont species were first described by Holsinger & Yager in 1985 from anchialine caves in the Bahamas and Turks & Caicos Islands. Subsequent exploration of anchialine caves throughout the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and Yucatan Peninsula has resulted in the discovery of nine new species, two of which are currently being described. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus using PAUP is presented in the form of a biological/area cladogram. The analysis demonstrates a strong correspondence of nested subsets of species with isolated geographic localities. Future studies of this genus will include a total evidence analysis using the 18S rRNA gene.

S. Koenemann and J.R. Holsinger, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA
Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the subterranean amphipod genus Bactrurus (Crangonyctidae)

As part of our investigation of the systematics of crangonyctid amphipods, the subterranean genus Bactrurus Hay, 1902, was revised. The research combined descriptive taxonomy with analyses of phylogeny and biogeography, utilizing morphological data. In addition, DNA sequence analyses were conducted to further determine the phylogenetic relationships of selected crangonyctid taxa.
     In order to realize molecular analyses of the genus Bactrurus and related taxa, two collection trips were carried out during the spring of 1999, including excursions to caves and associated groundwater habitats in parts of eastern and central USA. Following the fieldwork, 18S (small subunit) rDNA sequencing of Bactrurus, Stygobromus, Crangonyx, and several additional amphipod taxa was conducted. Molecular and morphological analyses are compared and differences between the two are discussed, especially as the results affect biogeographic interpretation.

9521755 [Ashe (9978110)]

Rodney S. Hanley, Division of Entomology, Snow Hall, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas
A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hoplandriini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae)

The staphylinid subfamily Aleocharinae, with over 900 genera and 12,000 species, is generally regarded to be the most taxonomically difficult group of Coleoptera. Aleocharines are abundant components in both temperate and tropical regions with most 3-5 mm in length. The aleocharine tribe Hoplandriini is mostly restricted to the Americas and the Indo-Australian region, and includes 21 genera and over 240 species. Historically, the group is thought to be the sister group of the tribe Aleocharini based on few morphological and behavioral characters. A phylogenetic analysis of representative genera of the Hoplandriini was performed using morphological characters. Results indicate that the Hoplandriini is currently polyphyletic with three genera belonging to other tribes. Given taxonomic changes, the Hoplandriini represents a monophyletic assemblage with two major clades. The phylogenetic placement and the evolution of morphological, ecological, and life history patterns are discussed.

9521783 [Watling/Kornfield]

P.A. Haye, and I. Kornfield, School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME
Family Relationships within the Cumacea (Crustacea: Peracarida)

Cumacean family definitions frequently include morphological characters which are shared across families. One character used to define families is the telson. Three of the families posses a fused telson; the five other families have an articulated telson. These two groups are assumed to be natural groups. Another character, the process on the endopod of the pleopods, is shared by a combination of families and its not concordant with telson character states. Given the potential for convergence, classification of cumaceans might not be reflecting evolutionary relationships. Molecular phylogenetic data has proven to be informative in distinguishing higher level taxa. Using conserved primers for the mitochondrial genome, partial sequences for COI and COII were obtained. Cumacean specific primers were then designed to obtain sequence from additional taxa. Data obtained provides information useful for elucidating phylogenetic relationships and for examining validity of family definitions.

9521811 [Lichtwardt/Ferrington]

Robert W. Lichtwardt, Matias J. Cafaro, and Merlin M. White, Deptartment of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
Toward a monograph of the Trichomycetes, fungal associates of arthropods

Only a small fraction of extant Trichomycetes are known. Field work in various parts of the world have provided numerous specimens to understand better their species richness, host specificity, affects on their hosts, biogeography, and co-evolution with arthropods. We have made numerous axenic cultures and preserved unculturable fungi in DNA extraction buffer for use in molecular systematics. Since 1995 we have discovered nine new genera and well over fifty new species. All of this information will be used to develop new taxonomies, phylogenies, and interactive data bases and keys for a new comprehensive monograph to be published on the internet.

9521819 [Fautin (also 9978106)]

B.J. McCloskey, M.D. Fullerton, and D.G. Fautin. University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Applications of a Bioinformatics Database for Sea Anemones

We provide examples of questions that can be addressed with our database containing geographical and bibliographical information on all described species of anemones. Using the geographical component, we compare Arctic and Antarctic anemone faunas and assess the number of species from greater than 50 deg., 60 deg., 66.5 deg. latitude. Using the bibliographic component, we graph the cumulative number of anemone species described through time. Considering the intensity of taxonomic research in this area, the number of species being described has not declined, and so, anemone diversity is incompletely known. Supported by REU supplements, one in bioinformatics.

A. Ardelean, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
Tentacle branching pattern in the sea anemone family Actinodendronidae Haddon 1898

The family Actinodendronidae is a monophyletic group of three genera of exclusively tropical sea anemones. They have the oral disc drawn out into a variable number of ramified lobes that make them resemble a tree. My research focuses on the structure of the tentacles and their growth pattern, characters that are species-specific and therefore valuable for taxonomy. The genera of Actinodendronidae have been defined on the basis of the disposition of secondary branches on the oral lobes. I suggest that the growth pattern of the terminal branches is of more importance in defining genera. My findings may require one or more additional genera of Actinodendronidae.

V.A. Cappola (1) and D.G. Fautin (2). (1)Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas,, (2) KU Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Rsearch Center, Lawrence, Kansas,
Reassessment of the Anthozoan Order Ptychodactiaria

Cnidarian class Anthozoa includes orders Ptychodactiaria, Actiniaria, and Scleractinia. We assess whether Ptychodactiaria merits ordinal status. It contains three monospecific genera (Dactylanthus, Preactis, and Ptychodactis) in two families (Preactiidae and Ptychodactiidae). Ptychodactiaria was originally characterized by lack of basilar muscles, absence of ciliated tracts, and gonads in a layer on either side of the mesenterial mesoglea. It was redefined to accommodate basilar muscles and ciliated tracts in Preactis. Features of Preactis are intermediate between those of other ptychodactiarians and actiniarians. Except for its basilar muscles and ciliated tracts, Preactis is more similar to Dactylanthus than either genus is to Ptychodactis.

T.R. White, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
Conspecificity of the clonal and solitary forms of two clownfish sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) using ITS1 sequence data

Of the 10 species of clownfish sea anemones, only Entacmaea quadricolor and Heteractis magnifica reproduce asexually; the two species occur as clonal clusters and solitary individuals. Clonal and solitary forms of each species are morphologically identical but may differ in size, ecology, and clownfish symbiont. Clonal and solitary morphs of Metridium senile in the Pacific and Anthopleura elegantissima were thought to be conspecific despite ecological and some morphological differences. However, allozymes supported the clonal and solitary forms being separate species. I used ITS1 sequence to determine that clonal and solitary forms of E. quadricolor and H. magnifica are conspecific.

9521883 [Stotler/Crandall-Stotler (also 9977961)]

D.C. Cargill, B.J. Crandall-Stotler and R.E. Stotler, Dept. Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL
Reinvestigation of spore characters within the liverwort species complex, Fossombronia foveolata Lindb.

Species separation in Fossombronia Raddi has been based largely on spore characters. F. brasiliensis and F. crispa have been considered conspecific with F. foveolata based on spore and elater characters, but sequences of the rbcL gene suggest that these taxa are genetically separate. Reinvestigation of spore and elater characters at the SEM level was undertaken to determine if they mirrored the DNA results. Sixteen populations with the typical ‘foveolata’ spore ornamentation were measured and subjected to both univariate and multivariate analyses. A UPGMA cluster analysis showed a distinct clustering of the lectotype of F. crispa with an herbarium collection of F. zeyheri(=F. crispa), while the lectotype and isotype of F. foveolata cluster together. The North and Latin American taxa form a third cluster. The results aren't congruent with the rbcL data, but reveal inconsistencies with the spore data that cast doubt upon their sole use as a diagnostic species character.

D.M. Krayesky, B.J. Crandall-Stotler and James R. Bray, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale IL
The systematic status of Fossombronia cristula Austin

The systematic status of F. cristula has been uncertain. Some authors (Evans 1915; Scott & Pike 1987) have suggested that this taxon is perhaps only a form of F. foveolata in which elaters are not completely developed, but have nonetheless, recognized it as a species. Schuster (1992) concludes that elater morphology is the sole defining character of the taxon and reduces F. cristula to a variety under F. foveolata. Using OM and SEM methods, we have conducted a comprehensive investigation of sporophyte and gametophyte characters of these taxa and have identified several characters in addition to elater morphologies that separate them. These include plant color, oil body and pseudoperianth morphology, gametangia arrangement and thallus branching habit. Differences in spore wall sculpturing also tend to separate the taxa. Common garden experiments show that the F. cristula elater morphology is a heritable trait. We therefore conclude that F. cristula is a distinct species.

9521925 [Irwin/Yeates/Weigmann (9977958)]

G.E. Kampmeier(1), M.E. Irwin(2), and F.C. Thompson(3), (1)Illinois Natural History Survey, Box 5 NSRL-EASB, 1101 West Peabody Ave., Urbana, IL, (2)University of Illinois, Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Sciences, Box 8 NSRL-EASB, 1101 W. Peabody, Urbana, IL 61801, (3)USDA-ARS Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, NHB-169, Washington, DC
MANDALA: A Database Weaving Together Information on Specimens, Nomenclature, and Literature for Systematics Research

The name MANDALA emphasizes the interwoven relationships underlying a suite of databases developed in FileMaker(tm) Pro for our project on the Diptera family, Therevidae. Specimens are tagged with unique numbers and identified by taxon name, which includes the history of the name, its use in the literature, misuse or changes, hierarchical classification, location of holotype, valid name, and synonomies. Also attached to specimen records is information about collecting locality, including latitude and longitude for use in biogeographic studies, conditions surrounding the collecting event, floral and faunal associations, collectors, determinations, illustrations, and the collection location where the specimen is and has been housed. MANDALA is cross platform (Macintosh, Win95, and WinNT) and it can be easily modified for use with other taxa. There is context-sensitive and general help available, electronic tracking of problems, and tracking of structural changes over versions.

A. Buck(1), J. Dunlop(1), J. Mullett(1), and G.E. Kampmeier(2), (1) University of Illinois, 1101 W. Peabody, Urbana, IL 61801, (2) Illinois Natural History Survey, 1101 W. Peabody, Urbana, IL
Specimen Label Eccentricities from Antiquity to the Present

Undergraduate students work with data entry on the therevid systematics project using the database Mandala. Their tasks include entry of specimens, organismal associations, illustrations, and literature, as well as data interpretation (geocoding specimen localities). Despite intimate dealings with insects, their formal entomological training is quite limited. While entering specimen information into Mandala, they have encountered many label ambiguities. In many cases, a minor amount of research with a computer can help resolve the problem. In others, only personal knowledge from the collector and/or collection notes can. Both cases are time consuming and often introduce error into the data. The inspiration for this project was the frustration of the undergraduates at the University of Illinois who were entering the data, of trying to extract meaning from the ambiguities. Our hope is to present examples of those ambiguities in an informative, yet humorous, way.

9521926 [Huhndorf]

Fernando A. Fernández, François M. Lutzoni, and Sabine M. Huhndorf, Department of Botany, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL
A Multifaceted Approach to Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships in the Genus Chaetosphaeria

Sequence data of the nuclear large-subunit ribosomal DNA have revealed that species groupings within the pyrenomycetous genus Chaetosphaeria are concordant with groupings based on morphological characters of their anamorphs. In general, strongly supported species clades based on nrDNA possess anamorphs that have been historically placed in the same form-genus. However, phylogenetic relationships among those species groups that produce morphologically different anamorphs are unclear. In order to provide evidence to support or challenge the nrDNA-based phylogeny, sequences of the ß-tubulin gene were generated for 38 species of Chaetosphaeria and allied genera. Data show species with versicolorous ascospores intermixed with species with hyaline ascospores, corrobating previous results from analyses of the nrDNA data showing ascospore coloration as a homoplasious morphological character. Discussion is centered on comparing phylogenetic trees derived from nrDNA, ß-tubulin, and morphology.

Andrew N. Miller (1,2), François M. Lutzoni (2), and Sabine M. Huhndorf (2), (1)Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, (2)Department of Botany, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL, USA
Phylogenetic Relationships of Lasiosphaeria and Cercophora (Lasiosphaeriaceae, Sordariales) Inferred from Large Subunit nrDNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

The pyrenomycetous genera, Lasiosphaeria and Cercophora, have been delimited solely on ascospore morphology. Lasiosphaeria includes species with hyaline, cylindrical ascospores, and Cercophora contains species in which one end of the ascospore swells and may or may not turn brown. Taxa within both genera represent a continuum in the degree of swelling and coloration of the ascospores. Other characters such as ascomal wall morphology and vestiture have not been adequately investigated for delimiting genera. In order to assess the relationship of these genera and determine the phylogenetic potential of various characters, species that varied in their vestiture, wall, and ascospore morphology were chosen from several disjunct populations. The large subunit nrDNA and ITS region were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses performed. The results of this study will better reflect the phylogenetic relationships among members of these two genera and help stabilize their classification.

9521943 [Caira/Henry]

C.J. Healy, K. Jensen, G.A. Tyler and J.N. Caira, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
On the identities of tetraphyllidean, lecanicephalidean and diphyllidean tapeworms as revealed through new collections

At the start of this project, the brevity of existing descriptions and lack of type material greatly hampered the generation of diagnoses for most tetraphyllidean, lecanicephalidean and diphyllidean tapeworm genera. Consequently, collection of new material of as many genera as possible was made a project priority. Over the last four years, material representing 83% of the existing genera has been obtained from approximately 300 species of sharks and rays globally, greatly facilitating preparation of generic diagnoses. The new collections also allowed clarification of antiquated host identities. Seventeen new tetraphyllidean and five new lecanicephalidean genera were discovered as a result of these collections.

Kirsten Jensen, Deptartment of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, U-43, 75 N. Eagleville Rd., Storrs, CT
A relational database for elasmobranch tapeworms

To date, our FileMaker Pro database includes 824 species of tapeworms with type host and type locality data, information on where type specimens are deposited, and selected notes on their taxonomic history. We have obtained and verified citations of over 700 articles that include data on tetraphyllidean, lecanicephalidean or diphyllidean tapeworms. Our database includes images of the original figures and PDF’s of the original descriptions for over 3/4 of all the species. In additon, 1,263 specimens from museum collections are entered, most of which represent specimens we have personally examined. A particular challenge was adding an extra component to the database to allow incorporation of host information for the parasites. Linking host and parasites species as well as host and parasite specimens allows host lists for tapeworm species and tapeworm species lists for hosts to be generated. The mapping and identification components are under development.

9521944 [Pfister/Donoghue]

K.R. Peterson(1), D.H. Pfister(1), and S. Kurogi(2), (1)Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA, (2)Miyazaki Museum, Miyazaki City, Japan
Chorioactis geaster: two populations or two species?

Chorioactis geaster (Pezizales, Ascomycota, Fungi) is known from Texas, USA and Kyushu, Japan. Many aspects of the biology of this conspicuous yet rare fungus remain enigmatic. For instance, due to ecological differences as well as the extreme geographical, and likely temporal and genetical, separation of the populations, they may represent two species. Additionally, recent collections from Japan are associated with a Conoplea anamorph that can be found even when the locally rare C. geaster ascomata are absent. We use molecular, morphological, and other data to examine these issues within a phylogenetic framework.

R.N. Weinstein (1), T. Iturriaga, (2) and D.H. Pfister(1), (1)Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, (2)Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela
Molecular, Morphological and Monographic Studies of "Cookeina" ("Sarcoscyphaceae")

"Cookeina" is a prominent tropical/sub-tropical genus of discomycetes that produces large, brightly colored apothecia. Some species of "Cookeina" have limited regional distributions; others ("C. speciosa" and "C. tricholoma") are pan-tropical. Within these widespread species, color variations and other morphological variations have been observed, even within a single habitat (i.e. a single log). Nucleotide sequences from both ITS and LSU regions (with morphological evidence) are being used to investigate color variations and geographic distribution to gain further resolution within a clade. Results support the geographically distinct species but resolution within taxa indicates that in some cases these color variants represent distinct lineages.

K. Hansen(1), T. Læssøe(1)and D.H. Pfister(2), (1)Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 2 D, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark, (2)Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA
Molecular and morphological phylogenetics in Peziza (Pezizales, Ascomycota)

Peziza, with ca. 100 species, is the largest genus within the Pezizales. Ecologically it covers an extremely broad range of niches and is primarily restricted to the temperate zones, but a few strictly tropical species are known. Intergeneric and infrageneric relationships of Peziza are poorly understood and controversial. Recent molecular studies suggest that the genus is not monophyletic. Preliminary analyses, based on nuclear LSU rDNA sequences, from a broad sampling of taxa within Peziza and from related genera, suggest that all other genera in the Pezizaceae, including several hypogeous, are nested within Peziza. Multiple lineages that correlate with spore morphology, guttulation and pigments in the paraphyses are supported. Pezizaceae and Ascobolaceae are characterized by asci that turn blue in Melzer's reagent. The location and intensity of the blueing reaction varies and our results indicate that different types of blueing correspond to different lineages

9522034 [Magill/Allen]

Bruce Allen, Christina Casado, Steve Churchill, Robert Magill, Zacharia Magombo and Michelle Price, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO
A revision of Pilotrichella (C. Müller) Bescherelle sensu.stricta in the Meteroriaceae for the Neotropics

Pilotrichella of the Meteoriaceae, has been collected from the tropical regions but has never been properly understood. Our studies have indicated that the 57 species of the genus Pilotrichella s.l. as previously circumscribed is polyphyletic and has been shown to contain two elements Orthostichella C. Müller and Pilotrichella s.s. Preliminary stages of the revison have focusesd on the determination of Pilotrichella s.s. Pilotrichella s.s is represented in the Neotropics by three distinct species: P. flexilis which is the most common and widespread species in montane forests, P. cuspidans which is restricted to the Greater Antilles, and P. quitensis which is restricted to the high elevational reions of Ecuador to Bolivia. The P. flexilis specimens from the southeast Brazil and Mexico are now considered to represent a new distinct taxon. Of the remaining names P. mauiensis, from the pacific Hawaiian Islands appears only weakly distinct from P. flexilis.

Michelle J. Price, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO
A review of the neotropical genus Rhynchostegiopsis Müll. Hal. (Hookeriaceae: Musci)

Rhynchostegiopsis is a genus of six species distributed in montane regions of the Neotropics. Species are found on logs, soil and trees in humid forests. This habitat preference is responsible for morphological variability observed within species. The genus is characterized by serrate leaf margins, ecostate leaves with thin walled elongate cells, no alar development, no central strand, no pseudoparaphyllia and well developed endostomial cilia. Rhynchostegiopsis is an interesting genus as its lack of characters are as influential in its ordinal placement as those that distinguish it. Some are found more commonly in other families and it has been considered close to the Hypnaceae (endostomial cilia, cucullate calyptrae), Hookeriaceae (lack of pseudoparaphyllia) and Leucomiaceae (lack of costal development, cucllate calyptrae). It is tentatively placed in the Hookeriaceae based on gametophytic and sporophytic characters it shares with other members of this large variable family.

Z.L.K. Magombo, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove, St. Louis, MO
Systematic and phylogenetic studies of the moss family Diphysciaceae

The circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of the Diphysciaceae Mohr has been controversial. Presently, the family contains three genera, Diphyscium Mohr (19-21 species), Muscoflorschuetzia Crosby (1 species) and Theriotia Card. (2 species). It is placed in the order Buxbaumiales with the family Buxbaumiaceae Schwaeg. A study was carried out to investigate taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of the Diphysciaceae. Preliminary results based on morphological,rbcL and trnL data show the Buxbaumiales to be paraphyletic, with the Diphysciaceae sister to Bryales, and the Buxbaumiaceae sister to the Diphysciaceae/Bryales clade. Basal to the Buxbaumiaceae are Polytrichales, Oedipodiaceae, Tetraphidales and Andreaeales. Only one genus, Diphyscium Mohr is recognized in the Diphysciaceae, Theriotia and Muscoflorschuetzia are reduced to synonymy. The genus has 13 accepted species forming two sister clades and investigations are underway for a complete family monograph.

9712241 [Triemer/Farmer]

Eric W. Linton, Dana Hittner, Stacy Zimmermann, Carole Lewandowski, and Richard E. Triemer, Rutgers University, Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Rd., Piscataway, NJ
Phylogeny of the Euglenophytes using Molecular Sequence Data

Almost since the creation of the genus Euglena in 1838 (Ehrenberg), some of the taxa assigned to this genus were separated, and reorganized into new genera based on specific morphological characters. The utility of many of these characters in diagnosing genera has since come into question. Therefore, we have used SSU rDNA data to generate a phylogenetic framework with which to assess the validity of these genera. Analyses were performed using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and distance methods, resulting in trees of the same topology. The euglenoid clade is composed of phagotrophic euglenoids at the base, followed by a divergence of the phototrophs that in-turn gave rise to osmotrophs. Taxa from the photosynthetic genera Euglena, Phacus, and Lepocinclis are not monophyletic, but are intermixed with each other and with osmotrophic taxa. Preliminary trees based on the LSU rDNA suggest similar topologies and demonstrate the need for reevaluation of generic limits.

Dana Hittner and Richard E. Triemer, Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ
Ultrastructure of Euglena ehrenbergii and Review of the Species Complex

Species designations in many protozoan taxa are based primarily on morphologic distinctions, many of which were described centuries ago. While most of these schemes remain valid, others conflict. We have used light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques to clarify the positions of certain taxa in the Euglenida, a protistan group established in the 1800's. We have begun by investigating the Euglena ehrenbergii complex. Taxonomic distinctions in this complex rely on few characters, many of which are plastic, and some appear to vary depending on culture conditions. Clonal isolates for each "taxon" within the species complex were established and maintained in the laboratory. From these we have observed variability in form caused by culture conditions. Furthermore, ultrastructural analyses reveal commonalties which cause us to speculate that these taxa will collapse into a single species. We are in the process of collecting SSU rDNA data to test this hypothesis.

B. S. Leander and M. A. Farmer, 154 Barrow Hall, Center for Ultrastructural Research, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA
Evolutionary Morphology of the Euglenid Pellicle

Euglenids are a clade of unicellular eukaryotes that share a cell cortex or pellicle composed of proteinaceous strips arranged in parallel. TEM and SEM were used to examine in detail the morphological diversity associated with the pellicle. In some taxa, the number of pellicle strips around the cell periphery reduces as whorls at the cell’s anterior and posterior end. Patterns of strip reduction are shown to have three linked states: exponential, pseudoexponential, and linear. Several euglenids were also found to possess rows of pellicle pores. The number of strips between rows of pores displays a series of character states that differ by a power of two. We have also provided a set of terms needed for comparative analyses of strip substructure. We identify characters and states associated with strip substructure and present current wisdom about the diversity and evolution of strips. These morphological data are currently being expanded and coupled with a maturing SSU rDNA data set.

Patrick J. P. Brown and Mark A. Farmer, Center for Ultrastructural Research, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA
The evolution of the euglenoid chloroplast

Euglenoid flagellates are protists. There exists within this group a sub-assemblage of taxa that possess, or have possessed a chloroplast. Traditional methods of taxonomic classification within this group have relied heavily on chloroplast morphology. There has been little done to resolve the incongruities within this group using modern molecular and microscopic tools. Our aim is to contribute towards a monograph re-evaluating the taxonomy of the photosynthetic euglenoids. The primary tools utilized will be confocal microscopy, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis. Molecular phylogenies constructed using the DNA sequence of the large sub-unit of the chloroplast encoded, CO2 fixing enzyme RuBisCo (rbcL) will be used to determine the efficacy and polarity of morphological characters. It will also add an independent, non-nuclear molecular data set to analyses using 18S rDNA. Confocal microscopy and TEM are being used to evaluate morphological and ultrastructural characters.

9712308 [Stewart/Samuels]

Priscila Chaverri(1), Barrie Overton(1), Kadri Põldmaa(1), Gary Samuels(2), and Elwin Stewart(1), (1)Pennsylvania State University, Dept. of Plant Pathology, University Park, PA, (2)USDA-ARS, Systematic Botany & Mycology Lab, Beltsville, MD
Toward a monograph of Hypocreaceae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales)

The Hypocreaceae is a family of ascomycetes that comprises two principle genera, Hypocrea and Hypomyces and a number of satellite genera. Species of Hypomyces mainly grow on mushrooms and bracket fungi but most of the species of Hypocrea inhabit decaying wood. In their asexual phase some species cause diseases of commercially produced mushrooms while others are used in producing commercially available preparations. Early taxonomy emphasized morphology of sexual fructification. We incorporate sexual and ‘free living’ asexual phases into a single taxonomy. LSU and ITS sequences of the rDNA are used to evaluate delimitation of genera and species, respectively. Results of analyses show a close correlation between asexual morphology and clades defined. These clades cross the groups that were previously defined on the basis of sexual phenotype. In the course of the monographic treatment of the Hypocreaceae, concepts of several species and genera will be redifined.

9712353 [Hormiga/Coddington]

Ingi Agnarsson, Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, 2023 G Street NW, Washington, D.C.,
Anelosimus and Theridiid systematics: preliminary morphological phylogenetic analyses

Theridiidae is one of the largest and most diverse families of spiders. I present the first cladistic analysis of theridiids, based on morphological data. Among the important issues I address are: theridiid monophyly; theridiid sister relationship to nesticids; the monophyly and placement of the putative theridiid subfamily Hadrotarsinae, and the monophyly and placement of the theridiid genus Anelosimus. The results strongly support the monophyly of theridiids, based on several morphological characters. The subfamily Hadrotarsinae is a strongly supported monophyletic group that comes out sister to other theridiids, and thus may merit a family rank. The placement of nesticids as sister to theridiids plus hadrotarsines is strongly supported. Anelosimus appears to be a polyphyletic group, its current members belong to several not closely related clades. A study of Tanzanian material revealed several new species of Anelosimus, being the first to be discovered from Africa south of Sahara.

Jeremy A. Miller, Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 20052 and Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, NHB-105, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
Progress in Neotropical Erigonine Systematics (Araneoidea, Linyphiidae, Erigoninae)

I report preliminary results from an investigation of the higher level systematics of erigonine spiders with emphasis on genera endemic to the Neotropics. The cladistic analysis builds on the previous work on erigonine phylogeny of Gustavo Hormiga. I have added exemplar taxa representing Neotropical genera and new characters. The implications of this analysis for the evolution of both novel and traditional characters are discussed.
     The small number of studies that have concentrated on Neotropical linyphiids indicate that there are many new taxa yet to be discovered. Most of the erigonine genera in the Neotropics are monotypic. These monotypic genera are typically known from few specimens, often representing only one sex. Monotypic genera convey no grouping information and thus do not provide a testable phylogenetic hypothesis. By using systematic methods to identify clades supported by putative synapomorphies, genera can be redelimited as testable hypotheses of monophyletic groups.

9712355 [Nadler/Baldwin]

I. T. De Ley(1), P. De Ley(2), J. G. Baldwin(1), M. Mundo-Ocampo(1), S. A. Nadler(3) and Dan Bumbarger(1), (1)University of California-Riverside, USA, (2)University of Ghent, Belgium, (3)University of California-Davis, USA
Three new species of Nothacrobeles (Nematoda: Cephalobidae) from the Mojave Desert, California

Three new species of Nothacrobeles are described from localities in the Mojave desert, and comparative detailed scanning electron micrographs of the lip region are included. Nothacrobeles n. sp. 1 is characterized by the presence of long post-vulval sac and the lip region has three apparently unique tubular adoral projections (Fig. 1F; 2D). Both Nothacrobeles n. sp. 2 and Nothacrobeles n. sp. 3 are smaller than any other known species within the genus (Fig. 3). Nothacrobeles n. sp. 2 has labial probolae that are short and spatulate without a basal ridge (Fig. 4A-C) whereas those of Nothacrobeles n. sp. 3 are flattened and plate-like (Fig. 4D-F). Furthermore, Nothacrobeles n. sp. 3 is unique by its extremely short corpus (<25 µm long in adult females) especially relative to the isthmus, and the small size of its guard processes. The genus diagnosis of Nothacrobeles needs to be emended to accommodate some of the distinctive characteristics of these new species.

S. Patricia Stock, Steven A. Nadler, and Ashleigh B. Smythe, Department of Nematology. University of California, Davis. One Shields Ave. Davis, CA
Morphological and molecular characterization of the genus Panagrellus (Cephalobina: Panagrolaimidae): taxonomic status and phylogenetic affinities

Panagrellus Thorne, 1938 comprises 11 currently known species. These nematodes have a worldwide distribution and are found in many habitats. Diagnosis of Panagrellus species is problematic since few morphological features (with unknown number of specimens measured and lack of standard descriptions of variance) were reported in the original descriptions. This study was designed to review the taxonomic status of Panagrellus species by combining classical morphological and molecular methods. Eleven isolates, maintained in culture, and fixed material from type specimens of 6 species were studied. Morphological analysis included the examination of 23 and 25 morphometric characters for females and males, respectively. The taxonomic usefulness of morphometric data was evaluated by multivariate statistics (principal component and canonical discriminant analyses). The utility of nucleotide sequences (including 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains) for species diagnosis is evaluated and discussed.

9712447 [Ratcliffe/Jameson]

Aura Paucar, University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, NebraskaA faunistic survey of the Rutelinae (Scarabaeidae) of Ecuador

A faunistic survey of the Rutelinae (Scarabaeidae) was conducted in order to determine the diversity of the group in Ecuador and to examine distributional patterns. Results showed that, in Ecuador, the Rutelinae are distributed in all zoogeographical areas except the Galapagos, and occupy a wide variety of habitats ranging from sea level to the high Andes. The areas with greater diversity are the tropical habitats on both sides of the Andes, the subtropical regions, and the temperate zone. Ecuador has 283 species and 38 genera recognized to date. Furthermore, 26.8% of the species are endemic to Ecuador.

Mary Liz Jameson(1) and Kaoru Wada(2), (1)University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, (2)Laboratory of Animal Ecology, Joetsu University of Education, Toyko, Japan
Revision of the Southeast Asian genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Scarabaeidae) and its classification

The genus Peltonotus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) includes seventeen species (ten of which are new) that are distributed in southeast Asia and Indonesia. The position of the genus in the Scarabaeidae has been debated, either being placed in the Dynastinae (tribe Cyclocephalini) or in the Rutelinae (tribe Rutelini, subtribe Pelidnotina). Based on the literature, genera that are purportedly closely related to Peltonotus (Neohyphus Heller and Melanhyphus Fairmaire) are placed in the tribe Oryctoderini (Dynastinae). We conducted preliminary phylogenetic analyses to determine the phylogenetic relationships of Peltonotus and to determine the tribal placement of the genus in the subfamily Dynastinae. Results demonstrate that the genus is monophyletic, but additional outgroup taxa are needed to resolve the relationship of the genus Peltonotus to the Cyclocephalini and Oryctoderini (both Dynastinae).

Federico C. Ocampo(1) and Paula Posadas(2), (1)University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, (2)Universidad Nacional de La Plata
A new genus and species of Entimini. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entimini)

We present a new genus and species of Entimini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae) endemic to the Islas Malvinas (Falkand Islands). This genus is distinguished from other genera of Entimini by the following combination of caracters: frons without fovea, rostrum lacking carinae, and foretibiae with external margin straight and with a spatula-like projection on its apex. The new species in the genus is recognized by the combination of the following characters: middle tibiae with one spur at the inner margin and foretibeia with two spurs at the inner apical margin.
   We also present a list of the curculionids recorded from Islas Malvinas. These species belong to 12 genera and three subfamilies: three genera belong to Entiminae, eight to Cyclominae, and one to Cossoninae.

9712463 [Lipscomb/Norenburg]

M.L. Schwartz(1), and J.L. Norenburg(2), (1)George Washington University, Washington, DC, and (2)National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
Problems inferring coelomate protostome phylogeny from elongation factor 1 alpha sequence data

Despite numerous studies investigating the relationship of coelomate protostomes, the evolutionary history of this group is not well understood. A nuclear protein-coding gene, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a), was used to investigate these relationships. Nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences of 51 coelomate protostomes from Genbank were analyzed in a parsimony analysis. Amino acid data yielded results congruent with other studies. Nonsensical topologies, however, resulted for the nucleotide data set. Large amounts of homoplasy may be present in the nucleotide data. Possible paralogue sequences present in nucleotide data introduces an uncontrolled variable and may account for the lack of well-corroborated trees. Synonymous substitution of amino acids accounts for some of the differences between the topologies of the nucleotide and amino acid data sets. EF1a, with the available sequence data, is not effective at recovering deep divergences among the coelomate protostomes.

S. A. Maslakova(1), V. V. Malakhov(2), J. L. Norenburg(3), (1)George Washington University, Washington DC, (2)Moscow State University, Russia, (3)National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC
Indirect development in the order Hoplonemertea (Phylum Nemertea).

Nemertean worms display two basic types of development. A specialized planktonic larva, the pilidium, characterizes the order Heteronemertea. The juvenile worm developes via ‘imaginal discs’ and sheds most of the larval body during a radical metamorphosis. Species of the orders Palaeo- and Hoplonemertea have so-called direct development. Which type of development is ancestral is a key question in terms of evolution of nemertean taxa. We studied the hoplonemertean Tetrastemma candidum Mueller, 1774, at the White Sea. The embryo developes inside the egg envelope with specialized larval ectoderm and apical plate. Cells of these structures are distinguished by larger size, large bubble-like nuclei and less intensively stained cytoplasm. These cells are resorbed during subsequent development. If these larval organs can be shown to be homologous with those of the pilidium larva, they present a challenge to the current, implicit view that direct development is primitive for Nemertea.

9712484 [DePriest/Hammer/Vilgalys]

Ellen Farr (1), Paula T. DePriest (1), and Teuvo Ahti (1,2), (1) Department of Botany, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, (2) Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, FI.
Electronic databases of lichen names in the Parmeliaceae and Cladoniaceae available via WWW

Products of systematics research must be made accessible and relevant to an audience beyond the walls of the herbarium. Widespread availability of internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) provides an opportunity for these products to reach to a wider audience of lichenologists, amateurs, biologists, and policy makers. In two recent projects, we have prepared lists of accepted names, synonyms and basionyms for electronic distribution via WWW. In the first project, we updated a database of 4,000 species epithets representing 1,500 accepted species names in 36 parmelioid genera. In a second PEET-supported project, we are preparing a relational database of approximately 500 accepted names and 2,500 synonyms and basionyms in the Cladoniaceae based on T. Ahti’s "Names in current use... ."(Regnum Veg. 128:58-106. 1993). Ultimately, the accepted names will be linked to distribution maps, descriptions, bibliographic citations, and illustrations, all elements of traditional printed monographs.

Paula T. DePriest (1), Michele Piercey-Normore (1), Masomeh Sikaroodi (1), Kati Kärkkäinen (1,2), Ilona Oksanen (1,2), Rebecca Yahr (1,3) and Teuvo Ahti (1,2), (1) Department of Botany, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, (2) Department of Ecology and Systematics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, FIN., (3) Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham NC 27708
Phylogenetic Analyses of Cladonia and Cladina (Lichen-Forming Ascomycota)

Our first step in monographic study of the lichen family Cladoniaceae was to clarify the relationships between and within the genera Cladonia and Cladina. Cladonia P. Browne including British soldier (C. cristatella) and pyxie cup (C. pyxidata) lichens, contains over 400 species in seven sections. Cladina Nyl. with over 30 species of reindeer lichens in three sections, is occasionally included within Cladonia. We examined phylogenetic relationships among these sections and genera using sequences of the nuclear riDNA ITS and the 5.8S, and the mitochondrial rDNA LSU. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of over 70 species identify two divergent clades. However, the genera and their sections must be redelimited and new sections named to produce monophyletic groups. Although we predicted that Cladina would form a monphyletic group within Cladoniain these analyses the reindeer lichens are paraphyletic and we propose to include them in the genus Cladonia.

9712543 [Wharton/Woolley]

M.L. Buffington, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University College Station, TX
The Systematics and Phylogeny of the Gronotoma Group of Genera (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)

Studies on the systematics and classification of the Eucoilinae by the Swedish entomologist Göran Nordlander in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s resulted in the formation of six informal genus-groups based on explicit morphological characters. To achieve a more organized classification, these informal groups could be recognized formally at some taxonomic level. Yet, before any formalization, each of these genus groups should be tested for the monophyly of the member taxa. I have conducted a phylogenetic analysis of one of the genus groups, the Gronotoma group, based on morphological and biological characters, in order to test for the monophyly of this genus group and to better understand the relationships between the member genera.

James B. Woolley(1), and John M. Heraty(2), (1)Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, (2)Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA
Digital imaging methods for taxonomic illustration using compound and stereomicroscopes.

Methods for capturing digital images from both compound and stereomicroscopes will be discussed. Images from analog and digital cameras will be compared in terms of the quality required for monographic publications. Methods for reducing glare and bringing out surface sculpture in highly reflective insect specimens will be described. AutoMontage software for assembling 3D-like, totally in-focus images from a series of digital images will be demonstrated.

9978026 [Dietrich/Deitz]

C.H. Dietrich and R. A. Rakitov, Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL
Phylogeny of the Major Lineages of Membracoidea (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha)

Maximum parsimony analyses of morphological characters and 28S rDNA sequences reveal that the leafhoppers, family Cicadellidae, are paraphyletic with respect to treehoppers (families Aetalionidae and Membracidae). Several currently recognized leafhopper subfamilies are para- or polyphyletic. The phylogenetic results suggest that the derivation of treehoppers approximately coinciced with a loss of jumping ability in the immatures and loss of brochosome production in both immatures and adults.

9978193 [Martin/Jacobs]

J. W. Martin(1), D. K. Jacobs(2), T. A. Haney(1,2), and S. E. Trautwein(1,2), (1)Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, California, (2)University of California Los Angeles
The Los Angeles PEET Project: Monographic Research in the Leptostraca, Brachyura, and Conchostraca

This recently funded (1999) project is a collaboration between the Natural History Museum and UCLA. The project targets three morphologically disparate and distantly related crustacean taxa.
   Project 1 focuses on the Leptostraca, small marine crustaceans that are of tremendous ecological importance and about which very little is known. The trainee is Todd Haney. Collections from all over the world are already in hand, and a large number of undescribed species await our attention. Concentrated collecting has already resulted in new records and new species from Mexico and the U.S.
   Project 2 involves a group of marine coral-dwelling crabs known as "carpiliids." The trainee is Sandra Trautwein. Specimens are now being collected and borrowed from tropical field labs and institutions; field collecting will begin later this year.
   Project 3 targets small, bivalved crustaceans commonly called "clam shrimp." The trainee for this project will come on board in the fall of 2001.

9521526 - Petersen/Hughes (also 9978011)

Hughes, Karen W. (University of Tennessee)
Petersen, Ronald H. (University of Tennessee)

9521631 - Platnick

Ovysharenko, Vladimir I. (America Museum of Natural History)
Platnick, Norman I. (American Museum of Natural History)

9521648 - Johnson

Dotseth, Eric J. (Museum of Biological Diversity, Columbus, OH)
Johnson, Norman F. (The Ohio State University)
Musetti, Luciana (Ohio State University)

9521649 - Brusca/Kensley (also 9896145)

Coelho, Vania R. (Columbia University)

9521687 - Duszynski

Asmundsson, Ingrid M. (University of New Mexico)
Duszynski, Donald W. (University of New Mexico)
Zhao, Xiaomin (The University of New Mexico)

9521744 - O'Connor

Hammond, George S. (University of Michigan)
Kane, Ethan C. (University of Maryland)
Ochoa, Ronald (USDA)
OConnor, Barry M. (University of Michigan)

9521752 - Holsinger

Holsinger, John R. (Old Dominion University)
Koenemann, Stefan (Old Dominion University)
Sawicki, Thomas R. (Old Dominion University)
Wang, Daqing

9521755 - Ashe (9978110)

Ashe, James S. (KU Museum of Natural History)
Gusarov, Vladimir (University of Kansas)
Hanley, Rodney S. (University of Kansas)

9521773 - Mathis/Judd

Baptista, Alessandra R.
Hibbs, Peter J. (University of Maryland)

9521783 - Watling/Kornfield

Gerken, Sarah (Darling Marine Center)
Haye, Pilar A. (University of Maine)
Kornfield, Irv (University of Maine)
Watling, Leslie (Darling Marine Center)

9521811 - Lichtwardt/Ferrington

Cafaro, Matias J. (University of Kansas)
Lichtwardt, Robert W. (University of Kansas)
White, Merlin M. (Univerity of Kansas)

9521819 - Fautin (also 9978106)

Ardelean, Adorian (University of Kansas)
Cappola, Valerie A. (University of Kansas)
Fautin, Daphne G. (Biological Sciences)
McCloskey, Bryan J.
White, Tracy R. (University of Kansas)

9521835 - Sperling

Kruse, James J.
Phillips-Rodriguez, Eugenie E. (Univ. Calif. Berkeley)

9521882 - Stoermer

Bixby, Rebecca J. (University of Michigan)

9521883 - Stotler/Crandall-Stotler (also 9977961)

Cargill, Christine (Southern Illinois University)
Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J. (Southern Illinois University)
Krayesky, David M. (Southern Illinois University)
Stotler, Raymond E. (Southern Illinois University

9521925 - Irwin/Yeates/Weigmann (9977958)

Gaimari, Stephen D. (Smithsonian Institution)
Hauser, Martin
Holston, Kevin C. (University of Illinois at Urbana)
Irwin, Michael E. (University of Illinois)
Kampmeier, Gail E.
Metz, Mark A.
Mullett, Jill Marie
Webb, Donald W. (Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey)
Wiegmann, Brian M. (North Carolina State University)
Winterton, Shaun (North Carolina State University)
Yang, Longlong (North Carolina State University)

9521926 - Huhndorf

Fernandez, Fernando A. (The Field Museum)
Huhndorf, Sabine M. (Field Museum)
Miller, Andrew N. (The Field Museum)

9521930 - Scheltema

Okusu, Akiko (Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst.)
Schander, Christoffer (Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst.)
Scheltema, Amelie H. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst.)

9521943 - Caira/Henry

Caira, Janine N. (University of Connecticut)
Healy, Claire J. (University of Connecticut)
Jensen, Kirsten (University of Connecticut)
Tyler, Gaines A. (University of Connecticut)

9521944 - Pfister/Donoghue

Peterson, Kristin R. (Harvard University Herbaria)
Pfister, Donald H. (Harvard University Herbaria)
Weinstein, Richard N. (Harvard University Herbaria)
Zhong, Zhihong (Farlow Herbarium)

9522034 - Magill/Allen

Magill, Robert E. (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Magombo, Zacharia L. (Missouri Botanical Garden)
Price, Michelle J. (Missouri Botanical Garden)

9712241 - Triemer/Farmer

Brown, Patrick J. P. (University of Georgia)
Hittner, Dana J.
Leander, Brian S. (The University of Georgia)
Linton, Eric W. (Rutgers University)
Triemer, Richard E. (Rutgers University)
Zimmermann, Stacy (Rutgers University)

9712308 - Stewart/Samuels

Chamberlain, Holly L.
Overton, Barrie E.
Põldmaa, Kadri (USDA)
Samuels, Gary J. (USDA)

9712353 - Hormiga/Coddington

Agnarsson, Ingi (George Washington University)
Coddington, Jonathan A. (Smithsonian Institution)
Hormiga, Gustavo (George Washington University)
Kuntner, Matjaz (George Washington University)
Miller, Jeremy A. (Smithsonian Institution

9712355 - Nadler/Baldwin

Bumbarger, Daniel J.
Smythe, Ashleigh B. (University of California)

9712438 - Sierwald/Shear

Bond, Jason E. (The Field Museum)
Shear, William A. (Hampden-Sydney College)
Sierwald, Petra (The Field Museum)
van der Merwe, Marius (The Field Museum)

9712447 - Ratcliffe/Jameson

Jameson, Mary Liz (University of Nebraska)
Ocampo, Federico C. (University of Nebraska)
Paucar, Aura (University of Nebraska)
Ratcliffe, Brett C. (University of Nebraska)
Smith, Andrew B. T. (University of Nebraska)
Villatoro, Karla E (University of Nebraska)

9712463 - Lipscomb/Norenburg

Crandall, Frank B. (Smithsonian Institution)
Envall, Mats V.
Maslakova, Svetlana A. (Smithsonian Institution)
Norenburg, Jon L. (Smithsonian Institution)
Schwartz, Megan L.

9712484 - DePriest/Hammer/Vilgalys

Barron, Megan R.
Darnell, Lorne G.
DePriest, Paula T. (Smithsonian Institution)
Farr, Ellen R. (Smithsonian Institution)
Hammer, Samuel (Boston University)
Herman, Melissa A/
Piercey-Normore, Michele D. (Smithsonian Institution)
Sikaroodi, Masoumeh M.S.
Yahr, Rebecca (Duke University)

9712543 - Wharton/Woolley

Buffington, Matthew L. (TAMU)
Robert, Kula R.
Rodriguez-Velez, Beatriz
Warriner, Laura J
Woolley, James B. (Texas A&M University)
Yoder, Matthew J.

9978026 - Dietrich/Deitz

Albertson, Jesse L. (Illinois Natural History Survey)
Deitz, Lewis L. (North Carolina State University)
Dietrich, Christopher H. (Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey)
Novikov, Dmitri V. (Illinois Natural History Survey)
Rakitov, Roman A. (Illinois Natural History Survey)

9978086 - Cairns/Cunningham

Cairns, Stephen D. (Smithsonian Institution)
Calder, Dale R. (Royal Ontario Museum)
Campbell, Andrew C. (Davidson College)
Cunningham, Clifford W. (Duke University)
Hottenrott, Susan I.

9978094 - Powell/Porter/Longcore

Chambers, James G. (The University of Alabama)
Longcore, Joyce E. (University of Maine)
Mozley, Sharon E.
Powell, Martha J. (The University of Alabama)

9978117 - Delwiche/McCourt

Cimino, Matthew T. (University of Maryland)
Delwiche, Charles F. (University of Maryland)
Karol, Kenneth G. (University of Maryland)
Lewandowski, Jeffrey D.

9978119 - Bieler/Mikkelsen

Bieler, Rudiger (The Field Museum)
Mikkelsen, Paula M. (American Museum Nat. Hist.)

9978150 - Heraty/Pinto

Heraty, John M. (University of California)
Kim, Jungwook (University of California)
Munro, James B.
Pinto, John D. (University of California)

9978155 - Gosliner

Fahey, Shireen J.
Gosliner, Terrence M. (California Academy of Sciences)
Medina, Monica (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole)
Valdes, Angel A. (California Academy of Sciences)

9978193 - Martin/Jacobs

Haney, Todd A. (Natural History Museum LA County)
Martin, Joel W. (Natural History Museum LA County)
Trautwein, Sandra E.

The PEET III Conference was held 25 - 27 March 2000 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. A two-day Student Workshop followed the conference.

The final report on the conference is presented here.

Monographic Process

Dates: Conference: March 25-27, 2000 (opening reception 5 PM, March 24); Student Workshop: March 28-29, 2000. 

Sponsors: Conference: National Science Foundation - Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy (DEB 9712484), George Washington University, University of Maryland-College Park; Student Workshop: National Science Foundation - Research Experiences for Undergraduates (DBI 9820303), Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History, US Department of Agriculture-Beltsville, US Geological Survey-Biological Resource Division.

Participants: 150 PIs and trainees from 40 PEET projects at US universities and institution participated in the conference. Conference funds provided travel  and lodging for three participants -1 PI and 2 trainees - from each of the PEET projects, and conference expenses (registration and meals) for all registered participants. In addition, the conference paid student workshop expenses (registration and meals) and lodging for 75 participants (including postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and undergraduate students). 

Participant Costs: The participant costs were $24 for registration and $126 for all meals at the conference,  and $16 for registration and $84 for all meals at the student workshop (all paid by the conference).  

Conference location: The conference was held at the Smithsonian Institution's Ripley Center (The S. Dillon Ripley Center is located on the third underground level of the Quadrangle Building, and can be entered at 160 Jefferson Drive, S.W., between the Smithsonian Castle and Freer Gallery; see map) 
The student workshop was held in the National Museum of Natural History - see the Museum Guide.

Hotel: The conference hotel was the Hyatt Arlington, easily accessible by metro or taxi from Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (4 miles) or by Supershuttle from Dulles International Airport. Our room rate was single or double $118.00 + tax/night with each additional person $25/night. See the NMNH Botany Department Visitors Page for more information.

Catering: EUREST, NMNH Atrium Café, provided all meals (continental breakfast, boxlunch, and cafeteria-style dinner) and receptions for the 3-day conference and 2-day workshop, except on the arrival day Friday, March 24th. 

Travel Arrangements: Smithsonian Travel Services handled all travel arrangements (airplane, train, and car) for conference-supported participants using government travel rates. Additional participants made their travel arrangements individually. 

Local Organizing Committee
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History - Stephen Cairns, Jonathan Coddington, Paula DePriest, Wayne Mathis, Jon Norenburg
George Washington University - Gustavo Hormiga, Diana Lipscomb 
University of Maryland, College Park - Charles F. Delwiche  
USDA/ARS - Gary Samuels, Christian Thompson 

Representative of Local Organizing Committee - Paula DePriest;
Administrative Assistant - Sue Lutz,

Agnarsson, Ingi
George Washington University
PEET Project: 9712353

Albertson, Jesse L
Illinois Natural History Survey
PEET Project: 9978026

Ardelean, Adorian
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521819

Ashe, James S
KU Museum of Natural History
PEET Project: 9521755

Asmundsson, Ingrid M
University of New Mexico
PEET Project: 9521687

Baptista, Alessandra R
PEET Project: 9521773

Barron, Megan R.
PEET Project: 9712484

Bieler, Rudiger
The Field Museum
PEET Project: 9978119

Bixby, Rebecca J
University of Michigan
PEET Project: 9521882

Bond, Jason E.
The Field Museum
PEET Project: 9712438

Brown, Patrick J. P.
University of Georgia
PEET Project: 9712241

Buffington, Matthew L.
PEET Project: 9712543

Bumbarger, Daniel J
PEET Project: 9712355

Cafaro, Matias J
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521811

Caira, Janine N.
PEET Project: 9521943

Cairns, Stephen D.
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9978086

Calder, Dale R.
PEET Project: 9978086

Campbell, Andrew C
Davidson College
PEET Project: 9978086

Cappola, Valerie A
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521819

Cargill, Christine
Southern Illinois University
PEET Project: 9521883

Chamberlain, Holly L
PEET Project: 9712308

Chambers, James G
The University of Alabama
PEET Project: 9978094

Cimino, Matthew T.
University of Maryland
PEET Project: 9978117

Coddington, Jonathan A.
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712353

Coelho, Vania R
Columbia University
PEET Project: 9521649

Crandall, Frank B.
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712463

Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J
Southern Illinois University
PEET Project: 9521883

Cunningham, Clifford W
Duke Zoology Department
PEET Project: 9978086

Darnell, Lorne G
PEET Project: 9712484

Deitz, Lewis L
North Carolina State University
PEET Project: 9978026

Delwiche, Charles F
U. Maryland
PEET Project: 9978117

DePriest, Paula T.
NMNH, Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712484

Dietrich, Christopher H
Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey
PEET Project: 9978026

Dotseth, Eric J.
Museum of Biological Diversity
Columbus, OH2
PEET Project: 9521648

Duszynski, Donald W.
University of New Mexico
PEET Project: 9521687

Envall, Mats V
PEET Project: 9712463

Fahey, Shireen J
PEET Project: 9978155

Farr, Ellen R.
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712484

Fautin, Daphne G.
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521819

Fernandez, Fernando A
The Field Museum
PEET Project: 9521926

Gaimari, Stephen D.
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9521925

Gerken, Sarah
Darling Marine Center
PEET Project: 9521783

Gosliner, Terrence M.
California Academy of Sciences
PEET Project: 9978155

Gusarov, Vladimir
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521755

Hammer, Samuel
Boston University
PEET Project: 9712484

Hammond, George S
University of Michigan
PEET Project: 9521744

Haney, Todd A
Natural History Museum LA County
PEET Project: 9978193

Hanley, Rodney S
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521755

Hauser, Martin
PEET Project: 9521925

Haye, Pilar A
University of Maine
PEET Project: 9521783

Healy, Claire J
University of Connecticut
PEET Project: 9521943

Heraty, John M
University of California
PEET Project: 9978150

Herman, Melissa A
PEET Project: 9712484

Hewitt, David A
PEET Project: 9978117

Hibbs, Peter J
University of Maryland
PEET Project: 9521773

Hittner, Dana J
PEET Project: 9712241

Holsinger, John R
Old Dominion University
PEET Project: 9521752

Holston, Kevin C.
University of Illinois at Urbana
PEET Project: 9521925

Hormiga, Gustavo
George Washington University
PEET Project: 9712353

Hottenrott, Susan I
PEET Project: 9978086

Hughes, Karen W
University of Tennessee
PEET Project: 9521526

Huhndorf, Sabine M.
Field Museum
PEET Project: 9521926

Irwin, Michael E.
University of Illinois
PEET Project: 9521925

Jameson, Mary Liz
University of Nebraska
PEET Project: 9712447

Jensen, Kirsten
PEET Project: 9521943

Johnson, Norman F.
The Ohio State University
PEET Project: 9521648

Kampmeier, Gail E.
PEET Project: 9521925

Kane, Ethan C.
University of Maryland
PEET Project: 9521744

Karol, Kenneth G.
University of Maryland
PEET Project: 9978117

Kim, jungwook
University of California
PEET Project: 9978150

Koenemann, Stefan
Old Dominion University
PEET Project: 9521752

Kornfield, Irv
University of Maine
PEET Project: 9521783

Krayesky, David M.
Southern Illinois University
PEET Project: 9521883

Kruse, James J.
PEET Project: 9521835

Kuntner, Matjaz
George Washington University
PEET Project: 9712353

Leander, Brian S
The University of Georgia
PEET Project: 9712241

Lewandowski, Jeffrey D.
PEET Project: 9978117

Lichtwardt, Robert W.
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521811

Linton, Eric W
Rutgers University
PEET Project: 9712241

Longcore, Joyce E.
University of Maine
PEET Project: 9978094

Magill, Robert E
Missouri Botanical Garden
PEET Project: 9522034

Magombo, Zacharia L
Missouri Botanical Garden
PEET Project: 9522034

Martin, Joel W
Natural History Museum
of Los Angeles County
PEET Project: 9978193

Maslakova, Svetlana A
National Museum of Natural History
PEET Project: 9712463

McCloskey, Bryan J
PEET Project: 9521819

Medina, Monica
Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole
PEET Project: 9978155

Metz, Mark A
PEET Project: 9521925

Mikkelsen, Paula M.
American Museum Nat. Hist.
PEET Project: 9978119

Miller, Andrew N.
The Field Museum
PEET Project: 9521926

Miller, Jeremy A
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712353

Mozley, Sharon E
PEET Project: 9978094

Mullett, Jill Marie
PEET Project: 9521925

Munro, James B.
PEET Project: 9978150

Musetti, Luciana
Ohio State University
PEET Project: 9521648

Norenburg, Jon L
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712463

Novikov, Dmitri V
Illinois Natural History Survey
PEET Project: 9978026

Ocampo, Federico C
University of Nebraska
PEET Project: 9712447

Ochoa, Ronald
PEET Project: 9521744

OConnor, Barry M.
University of Michigan
PEET Project: 9521744

Okusu, Akiko
PEET Project: 9521930

Overton, Barrie E
PEET Project: 9712308

Ovysharenko, Vladimir I.
America Museum of Natural History
PEET Project: 9521631

Paucar, Aura
University of Nebraska
PEET Project: 9712447

Peterson, Kristin R
Harvard University Herbaria
PEET Project: 9521944

Pfister, Donald H.
Harvard University Herbaria
PEET Project: 9521944

Phillips-Rodriguez, Eugenie E.
PEET Project: 9521835

Piercey-Normore, Michele D.
Smithsonian Institution
PEET Project: 9712484

Pinto, John D.
University of California
PEET Project: 9978150

Platnick, Norman I
American Museum of Natural History
PEET Project: 9521631

Põldmaa, Kadri
PEET Project: 9712308

Powell, Martha J
The University of Alabama
PEET Project: 9978094

Price, Michelle J.
Missouri Botanical Garden
PEET Project: 9522034

Rakitov, Roman A
Illinois Natural History Survey
PEET Project: 9978026

Ratcliffe, Brett C.
University of Nebraska
PEET Project: 9712447

Robert, Kula R.
PEET Project: 9712543

Rodriguez-Velez, Beatriz
PEET Project: 9712543

Samuels, Gary J
PEET Project: 9712308

Sawicki, Thomas R
Old Dominion University
PEET Project: 9521752

Schander, Christoffer
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutio
PEET Project: 9521930

Scheltema, Amelie H.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst.
PEET Project: 9521930

Schwartz, Megan L
PEET Project: 9712463

Shear, William A.
Hampden-Sydney College
PEET Project: 9712438

Sierwald, Petra
The Field Museum
PEET Project: 9712438

Sikaroodi, Masoumeh M.S.
PEET Project: 9712484

Smith, Andrew B. T.
University of Nebraska
PEET Project: 9712447

Smythe, Ashleigh B.
University of California
PEET Project: 9712355

Stotler, Raymond E.
Southern Illinois University
PEET Project: 9521883

Trautwein, Sandra E
PEET Project: 9978193

Triemer, Richard E.
Rutgers University
PEET Project: 9712241

Tyler, Gaines A.
75 N. Eagleville Rd.
PEET Project: 9521943

Valdes, Angel A
California Academy of Sciences
PEET Project: 9978155

van der Merwe, Marius
The Field Museum
PEET Project: 9712438

Villatoro, Karla E
University of Nebraska
PEET Project: 9712447

Wang, Daqing
PEET Project: 9521752

Warriner, Laura J.
PEET Project: 9712543

Watling, Leslie
PEET Project: 9521783

Webb, Donald W.
Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey
PEET Project: 9521925

Weinstein, Richard N
Harvard University Herbaria
PEET Project: 9521944

White, Merlin M
Univerity of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521811

White, Tracy R
University of Kansas
PEET Project: 9521819

Wiegmann, Brian M
North Carolina State University
PEET Project: 9521925

Winterton, Shaun
North Carolina State University
PEET Project: 9521925

Woolley, James B
Texas A&M University
PEET Project: 9712543

Yahr, Rebecca
Duke University
PEET Project: 9712484

Yang, Longlong
North Carolina State University
PEET Project: 9521925

Yoder, Matthew J
PEET Project: 9712543

Zhao, Xiaomin
PEET Project: 9521687

Zhong, Zhihong
Farlow Herbarium,
PEET Project: 9521944

Zimmermann, Stacy
Rutgers University
PEET Project: 9712241

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