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Mount Maringma, Guyana

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Photos taken by David Clarke unless otherwise indicated.

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Main Trip

Georgetown from the air. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Waukauyengtipu (Cerro Venamo) on Venezuela Border W of Paruima Village, from Utshi Savanna above Great Falls of the Kamarang River. Photo by D. Clarke. Little Ayanganna, part of the Wokomung Massif as seen from the air enroute from Orinduik Falls to Georgetown. Photo by D. Clarke. Mount Maringma, from Wayalayeng Village above 400 ft. waterfall on Ataro River, near Brazil border. Photo by D. Clarke. On the edge of Iwokrama Forest Reserve, from the air flying to Annai. Photo by D. Clarke.
Daniel Allicock collecting plants in the Gorge in the Iwokrama Mountains. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Holitipu. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Essequibo River. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Kanuku Mts. looking N from Dadanawa Ranch. Photo by D. Clarke. View from Summit of Iwokrama Mtns. Photo by D. Clarke.
Loading Wai Wai dugouts canoes at Gunn\'s Strip. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Inselbergs from unnamed Inselberg W of Upper Rewa River. Photo by D. Clarke. Hiking at Parabara Savanna. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 1

Coastal sugar cane fields from the air. Photo by D. Clarke. Omai Mine from the air. Photo by D. Clarke. Essequibo River from the air. Photo by D. Clarke. Essequibo River from the air. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Epidendrum orchidiflorum</em> Salzm. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 246. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Passiflora</em> sp. (Passifloraceae). Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Uncaria guianensis</em> (Aubl.) J.F. Gmel. (Rubiaceae), Clarke 274. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Codonanthe calcarata</em> (Miq.) Hanst (Gesneriaceae), Clarke 319. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Codonanthe calcarata</em> (Miq.) Hanst (Gesneriaceae), Clarke 319. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Voyria caerulea</em> Aubl. (Gentianaceae), Clarke 326. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Cattleya violacea</em> (Kunth) Rolfe (Orchidaceae), Clarke 347. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Brassavola martiana</em> Lindl. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 353. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Dimerandra</em> sp. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 354. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Combretum rotundifolium</em> Rich. (Combretaceae), Clarke 357. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Caularthron bilamellatum</em> cf. (Rchb. f.) R.E. Schult. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 384. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Orleanesia amazonica</em> Barb. Rodr. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 385. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Brassavola martiana</em> Lindl. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 386. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Mourera fluviatilis</em> Aubl. (Podostemaceae), Clarke 396. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Essequibo River. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 2

Kurupukari Crossing, Marti\'s Island, and Fairview Village, Essequibo River. Photo by D. Clarke. Macushi from Surama, Bruce Hoffman, and black caiman, Upper Essequibo, Iwokrama. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Passiflora amoena</em> L.K. Escobar (Passifloraceae), Clarke 410. Photo by D. Clarke. Orchidaceae. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Memora schomburgkii</em> (DC.) Miers (Bignoniaceae), Clarke 435. Photo by D. Clarke.
Clive Captain (from Surama) holding a specimen of <em>Heliconia chartacea</em> Lane ex Barreiros (Heliconiaceae), Clarke 474. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Siparuni River. Photo by D. Clarke. Peccari swimming on Essequibo River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Coccocypselum guianense</em> (Aubl.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae), Clarke 493. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Roucheria schomburgkii</em> Planch. (Hugoniaceae) Clarke 528. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Voyria aphylla</em> (Jacq.) Pers. (Gentianaceae), Clarke 530. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Swartzia xanthopetala</em> Sandwith, (Leguminosae-Faboideae), Clarke 540. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Petrea macrostachya</em> Benth. (Verbenaceae), Clarke 549. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Guatteria wachenheimi</em> Benoist (Annonaceae), Clarke 554. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Urospatha sagittifolia</em> (Rudge) Schott var. <em>sagittifolia</em> Araceae, Clarke 555. Photo by D. Clarke.
Iwokrama Gorge. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Psychotria poeppigiana</em> Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae), Clarke 614. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Besleria laxiflora</em> Benth. (Gesneriaceae), Clarke 615. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Markea camponoti</em> Ducke (Solanaceae), Clarke 626. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Palicourea croceoides</em> Desv. ex Ham. (Rubiaceae), Clarke 628. Photo by D. Clarke.
View from near summit of Iwokrama Mtns. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Makarapan Mtn. From near summit of Iwokrama Mtns. Photo by D. Clarke. Daniel Allicock at viewpoint below summit of Iwokrama Mtns. Photo by D. Clarke. Tapir along Karupukari-Annai road. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 3

<em>Centrosema</em> sp. (Leguminosae-Faboideae), Clarke 735. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 5

Hummingbird nest, Holitipu N. of Paruima. Photo by D. Clarke. Orchidaceae, Utshi Savanna, S. of Paruima. Photo by D. Clarke. Orchidaceae, Utshi Savanna, S. of Paruima. Photo by D. Clarke. Fruits of <em>Theobroma cacao</em>, Paruima Village. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Passiflora sclerophylla</em> Harms (Passifloraceae), Clarke 919. Photo by D. Clarke.
View of Kamarang River. Photo by D. Clarke. Gallery Forest on Holitipu. Photo by D. Clarke. Savanna and Gallery Forest on Holitipu. Photo by D. Clarke. Savanna and Gallery Forest on Holitipu. Photo by D. Clarke. Detail of <em>Gongylolepis benthamiana</em> R.H. Schomb. (Compositae),Clarke 979. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Gongylolepis benthamiana</em> R.H. Schomb. (Compositae), Clarke 979. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Mucuna urens</em> (L.) Medik. (Leguminosae-Faboideae), Clarke 1102. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Pachira minor</em> (Sims) Hemsl. (Bombacaceae), Clarke 1115. Photo by D. Clarke. Paruima River. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 6

<em>Pelexia laxa</em> (Poepp. & Endl.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 1222. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Corymborkis</em> sp.(Orchidaceae), Clarke 1221. Photo by D. Clarke. View from summit on trail from Paramakatoi to Youwang and Monkey Mountain. Photo by D. Clarke. Susan Grose and Patamona Villagers from Paramakatoi at summit on trail from Paramakatoi to Youwang and Monkey Mountain. Photo by D. Clarke. Sunset in Kato Village. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 7

<em>Tabernaemontana heterophylla</em> Vahl (Apocynaceae), Clarke 1300. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Geonoma baculifera</em> (Poit.) Kunth (Arecaceae), Clarke 1316. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Cattleya violacea</em> (Kunth) Rolfe (Orchidaceae), Clarke 1365. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Brassavola martiana</em> Lindl. (Orchidaceae),  Clarke 1366. Photo by D. Clarke. Daniel Allicock, bowman, on rapids of Essequibo River near Ladysmith Creek, rocks covered with <em>Mourera fluviatilis</em> Aubl. (Podostemaceae). Photo by D. Clarke.
Giant Amazon River Turtle (<em>Podocnemis expansa</em>). Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Helosis cayennensis</em> (Sw.) Spreng. (Balanophoraceae), Clarke 1516. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Passiflora capparidifolia</em> Killip (Passifloraceae), Clarke 1522. Photo by D. Clarke. Detail of the fruit of <em>Virola surinamensis</em> (Rol. ex Rottb.) Warb. (Myristicaceae), Clarke 1562. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 8

Romeo Williams climbing a large <em>Vitex</em> sp. at Kwitaro Landing on trail from Shea Village. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Cattleya violacea</em> (Kunth) Rolfe (Orchidaceae), Clarke 2069. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Passiflora</em> sp. (Passifloraceae). Photo by D. Clarke. View of Kanuku Mtns. from near Dadanawa Ranch. <em>Melocactus smithii</em> (Alexander) Buining ex G.D. Rowley (Cactaceae), Clarke 1700. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Hymenocallis tubiflora</em> Salisb. (Liliaceae), Clarke 1870. Photo by D. Clarke. Claudius Perry climbing at Maparri Falls. Photo by D. Clarke. Maparri River Falls. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 9

Stinkhorn fungus. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Habenaria</em> sp. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 2137. Photo by D. Clarke. Lepidoptera larva. Photo by D. Clarke. Amphisbaenid. Photo by D. Clarke. Bullock from Aishalton. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 10

<em>Helosis cayennensis</em> (Sw.) Spreng. (Balanophoraceae), Clarke 2588. Photo by D. Clarke. Orchidaceae. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Essequibo River from Summit of Turtle Mountain. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Essequibo River from Summit of Turtle Mountain. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Brassavola</em> sp. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 2760. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 11

Gunn\'s Strip, Wai Wai Village, Upper Essequibo. Photo by D. Clarke. Loading prodigious Wai Wai dugouts canoes at Gunn\'s Strip, Upper Essequibo River for expedition to Chodikar River with ROM mammalogists (Burton Lim, center, without shirt, facing away from camera). Photo by D. Clarke. Marifa Waruwanaru (left) and Wachana Yaymochi (right) making paddles at Chodikar river camp needed to get back to Gunn\'s with broken outboard engine. Photo by D. Clarke. Bushmaster (<em>Lachesis muta</em>) in forest below Chodikar Mtn, Acarai Mtns. Photo by D. Clarke. Loading Wai Wai dugouts canoes at Gunn\'s Strip. Photo by D. Clarke.
Claudius Perry and Wai Wai Man from Gunn\'s Strip provisoning the expedition with sugar cane. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Memora schomburgkii</em> (DC.) Miers (Bignoniaceae), Clarke 2812. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Chodikar Mountain. Photo by D. Clarke. Onoro Mts., view from Summit of Unnamed Peak, near Zibingatzako Mtn. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 12

Miles (Wapisiana) and Romeo Williams (Arawak), negotiating rapids below Great Falls of the Rewa River in the finest (and only) craft on the river. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Mollia glabrescens</em> Benth.  (Tiliaceae), Clarke 3572, second collection after type by Schomburgk, near confluence of Kwitaro and Rewa River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Hymenocallis tubiflora</em> Salisb. (Liliaceae), Clarke 3475. Photo by D. Clarke. Corona Rapids below Great Falls of the Rewa River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Maxillaria crassifolia</em> (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 3487. Photo by D. Clarke.
Great Falls of the Rewa River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Norantea guianensis</em> Aubl. (Marcgraviaceae), Clarke 3508. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Vitex orinocensis</em> Kunth var. <em>multiflora</em> (Miq.) Huber  (Verbenaceae), Clarke 3509. Photo by D. Clarke. Great Falls of the Rewa River. Photo by D. Clarke. Petroglyphs at the Great Falls of the Rewa River. Photo by D. Clarke.
Orchidaceae. Photo by D. Clarke. Rewa River Below Great Falls. Photo by D. Clarke. Marcgraviaceae. Clarke 3894. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Passiflora</em> sp. (Passifloraceae), Clarke 4049. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Cattleya violacea</em> (Kunth) Rolfe, (Orchidaceae), Clarke 3996. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Aspasia variegate</em> Lindl. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 4044. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 13

<em>Cryptarrhena kegelii</em> Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 4175. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Bollea violacea</em> (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 4310. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 14

Bullock cart loaded for departure to Kuyuwini and Kassikaityu Rivers, Karaudarnau Village, S. Rupununi River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Mauritia flexuosa</em> palms in the Parabara Savanna, N of Kuyuwini River. Photo by D. Clarke. Bird-eating spider \'borrowing\' corona clippers beneath hammock in camp, between Kuyuwini and Kassikaityu Rivers. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Encyclia cochleata</em> (L.) Lemee (Orchidaceae), redolent of cinnamon, Kassikaityu River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Apodanthes caseariae</em> (Rafflesiaceae), Kassikaityu River. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Ryania</em> sp. (Flacourtiaceae), source of natural insecticide, Kassikaityu River. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Habenaria</em> sp. (Orchidaceae), Clarke 4352a. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Heliconia lourteigiae</em> Emygdio & E. Santos (Heliconiaceae), Clarke 4375. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Nautilocalyx punctatus</em> Wiehler (Gesneriaceae), Clarke 4392. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Fusaea longifolia</em> (Aubl.) Saff. (Annonaceae),  Clarke 4396. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Psittacanthus</em> sp. (Loranthaceae), Clarke 4400. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Odontadenia geminata</em> (Hoffmanns. ex Roem. & Schult.) Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Clarke 4411. Photo by D. Clarke. Rafflesiaceae,  Clarke 4511. Photo by D. Clarke. Goliath Bird-Eating Spider (<em>Theraphosa blondi</em>) beneath hammock at Anteater Head Creek Camp. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Rudolfiella aurantiaca</em> (Lindl.) Hoehne (Orchidaceae), Clarke 4814. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Parkianitida</em> Miq. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae), Clarke 4905. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Palicourea longiflora</em> DC. (Rubiaceae), Clarke 4919. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Selenipedium palmifolium</em> (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae) Clarke 4938. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Ionopsis utricularioides</em> (Sw.) Lindl.(Orchidaceae), Clarke 5000. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Encyclia fragrans</em> (Sw.) Lemée (Orchidaceae), Clarke 4967. Photo by D. Clarke.
<em>Annona hypoglauca</em> Mart. (Annonaceae), Clarke 5031. Photo by D. Clarke. View of Kassikaityu River from Camp. Photo by D. Clarke. View of S Rupununi Savanna and Kanuku Mtns. from Tautowan Mt. Photo by D. Clarke. Slopes of Tautowan Mtn. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 15

Approach to Waukauyengtipu.  Photo taken from crown of tree at terminus of trail from Paruima in Ararata scrub area. Photo by D. Clarke. Summit escarpment of Waukauyengtipu from summit. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Heliamphora nutans</em> Benth. (Sarraceniaceae), summit of Waukauyengtipu. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Heliamphora nutans</em> Benth. (Sarraceniaceae), summit of Waukauyengtipu, flowers. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Utricularia</em> sp. (Lentibulariaceae), summit of Waukauyengtipu. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 17

Umana Yana (meeting house), Gunn\'s Strip. Photo by D. Clarke. Maruwanaru at his farm S of abandoned village of Konashen, near confluence with Sipu River. Photo by D. Clarke. Romeo Williams, clearing downed tree in Sipu River, Claudius Perry (Wapisiana-red hat) and James Sose (Wai Wai) holding the bow of the dugout, James Braun (SI) observing. Photo by D. Clarke. Inselberg, highest point of the Acarai mtns, S of Sipu River. Photo by D. Clarke. David Clarke, James Sose (Wai Wai), Claudius Perry (Wapisiana), and Mike Braun (SI) on summit of inselberg S of Sipu River-highest point of Acarai Mtns. Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 20

As seen from the summit of Wokomung.  Stephen Stern, Josh Kelly, Claudius Perry, Diana Gittens, Erin Tripp, and David Clarke, having cut trail and collected on three summits of the massif. Photo by D. Clarke. Little Ayanganna as seen from Wokomung. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Epidendrum</em> cf. <em>macrocarpum</em> (Orchidaceae). Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Nautilocalyx coccineus</em> Feuillet & L.E. Skog (Gesneriaceae), Clarke 10295. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Galipea</em> sp (Rutaceae). Photo by D. Clarke.

Trip 22

Tepui scrub on Summit of Mount Maringma. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Ledothamnus sessiliflorus</em> (Ericaceae), second collection after type by Schomburgk on Roraima (in Venezuela), summit of Mt. Maringma. Photo by D. Clarke. <em>Magnolia</em> cf. <em>ptaritepuiana</em>, first collection in Guyana, summit escarpment of Mt. Maringma. Photo by D. Clarke. Upper Arabaru River, below summit escarpment, Mt. Maringma. Photo by D. Clarke.

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