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Araceae (Aroid Family) - herb (terrestrial or hemiepiphytic climber); large succulent leaves, simple or dissected; flowers on a fleshy cylindrical spadix subtended by a single spathe; fruit of individual berries on a spadix (spike).
(reviewed by D. Nicolson)

Anthurium cowanii Croat
Anthurium crassinervium (Jacquin) Schott
Anthurium digitatum (Jacquin) G. Don = A. pentaphyllum var. digitatum
Anthurium expansum Gleason
Anthurium hookeri Kunth
Anthurium jenmanii Engler = A. huegelii-hookeri complex
Anthurium kunthii Poeppig & Endlicher
Anthurium pentaphyllum (Aublet) G. Don var. digitatum (Jacquin) Madison *
Anthurium trinerve Miquel
Philodendron callosum Krause *
Philodendron demerarae = P. fragrantissimum
Philodendron fragrantissimum (Hooker) Kunth *
Philodendron insigne Schott
Philodendron linnaei Kunth
Philodendron nobile = P. linnaei
Philodendron ornatum Schott
Philodendron pedatum (Hooker) Kunth
Rhodospatha spruceana = Stenospermation spruceanum
Spathiphyllum cuspidatum Schott
Stenospermation maguirei Jonker & Jonker
Stenospermation spruceanum Schott *
Urospatha sagittifolia (Rudge) Schott *

Arecaceae (Palm Family) - tree, shrub, or liana; leaves large, palmately or pinnately compound; flowers 3-petaled, small, green, yellow, white, or brown; fruit a drupe or nut- like.

Bactris balanophora Spruce
Bactris campestris Poeppig ex Martius *
Bactris corossilla Karsten
Bactris hirta Martius -- complex
Bactris hirta Martius var. pluchra (Trail) Henderson
Bactris oligoclada Burret
Bactris pectinata Martius
Bactris ptariana Steyermark
Bactris simplicifrons Martius
Desmoncus kaieteurensis = D. macroacanthos
Desmoncus macroacanthos Martius
Desmoncus phoenicocarpus B. Rodrigues
Dictyocaryum ptarianum (Steyermark) H.E. Moore & Steyermark
Geonoma sp.
Jessenia oenocarpus -- complex
Mauritiella aculeata (Kunth) Burret
Oenocarpus sp.

Bromeliaceae (Pineapple Family) - terrestrial or epiphytic herb; rosette of upper leaves sometimes forming a water-containing tank; inflorescences vary from short and densely packed flowers in a tank, to a raceme or panicle rising out of the tank; fruit an individual capsule, or aggregate fruit.

Aechmea aquilega (Salisbury) Grisebach
Aechmea brassicoides Baker [cabbage head bromeliad]
Aechmea bromeliifolia (Rudge) Baker *
Aechmea mertensii (Meyer) Schultes f.
Aechmea nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach
Aechmea tillandsioides (Martius ex Schultes f.) Baker *
Aechmea tocantina Baker
Ananas ananassoides (Baker) L.B. Smith [cult., naturalized]
Ananas comosus Merrill
Billbergia sp.
Brocchinia micrantha (Baker) Mez *
Brocchinia pipolyi L.B. Smith ined.
Brocchinia reducta Baker
Catopsis berteroniana (Schultes f.) Mez *
Guzmania altsonii L.B. Smith
Guzmania lingulata (Linnaeus) Mez var. lingulata
Guzmania lingulata (Linnaeus) Mez var. minor (Mez) L.B. Smith & Pittendrigh
Guzmania minor Mez var. minor (Mez) Smith & Pittendrigh
Guzmania pleiosticha (Grisebach) Mez
Guzmania squarrosa (Mez & Sodiro) L.B. Smith & Pittendrigh
Lindmania guianensis (Beer) Mez
Navia angustifolia (Baker) Mez
Navia sandwithii L.B. Smith
Pitcairnia caricifolia Martius *
Pitcairnia maidifolia (C. Morren) Decaisne *
Pitcairnia nuda Baker
Racinaea spiculosa var. micrantha = Tillandsia spiculosa var. micrantha
Tillandsia adpressiflora Mez
Tillandsia anceps Loddiges
Tillandsia bulbosa Hooker
Tillandsia jenmanii Baker
Tillandsia fendleri Grisebach
Tillandsia spiculosa Grisebach var. spiculosa
Tillandsia spiculosa Grisebach var. micrantha (Baker) L.B. Smith
Vriesea gladioliflora (Wendland) Antoine
Vriesea pleiosticha (Grisebach) Gouda
Vriesea soderstromii L. B. Smith
Vriesea splendens (Brongniart) Lemaire *
Vriesea viridiflora (Regel) Wittmack ex Mez

Burmanniaceae - saprophytic herb (mostly achlorophyllous); leaves normal or reduced and scale-like; flowers white to cream-colored, sometimes purple (Burmannia bicolor).

Apteria aphylla (Nuttall) Barnhart ex Small *
Burmannia bicolor Martius *
Burmannia capitata (Walter ex J.F. Gmelin) Martius
Burmannia tenella Bentham *
Campylosiphon purpurascens Bentham *
Gymnosiphon breviflorus Gleason
Gymnosiphon guianensis Gleason *
Gymnosiphon recurvatus Snelders & Maas [endemic to Guyana]

Commelinaceae (Spiderwort Family) - trailing or climbing herbs; leaves simple, unlobed, with a closed sheathing base; flowers small, 3 sepals and 3 free petals, blue or bluish to white or pink; fruit a 3-valved loculicidal capsule.
(reviewed by R. Faden)

Commelina diffusa Burman f. *
Dichorisandra hexandra (Aublet) Standley *
Tripogandra serrulata (Vahl) Handlos *

Cyclanthaceae (Panama Hat Family) - hemi-epiphytic or terrestrial herb with fleshy stem; leaves bifurcate; spadix green or white; spathe green.
(compiled by J.K. Boggan)

Asplundia gleasonii Harling
Asplundia maguirei Harling *
Carludovica stylaris = Stelestylis stylaris
Cyclanthus bipartitus Poiteau [widespread, to be expected] *
Dicranopygium pygmaeum (Gleason) Harling [to be expected]
Dicranopygium angustissimum (Sandwith) Harling
Evodianthus funifer (Poiteau) Lindman
Stelestylis stylaris (Gleason) Harling *
Thoracocarpus bissectus (Velloso) Harling [to be expected] *

Cyperaceae (Sedge Family) - herb, sometimes climbing; leaves grass-like; flowers reduced; fruit a nutlet.
(reviewed by M.T. Strong, 1998)

Becquerelia cymosa Brongniart subsp. merkeliana (Nees) T. Koyama
Bisboeckelera longifolia (Rudge) O. Kuntze
Bulbostylis junciformis (Kunth) C.B. Clarke *
Calyptrocarya glomerulata ( Brongniart) Urban
Calyptrocarya poeppigiana Kunth
Cephalocarpus rigidus Gilly ex Gleason & Killip
Cyperus diffusus = C. laxus
Cyperus guianensis (C.B. Clarke) Kükenthal
Cyperus laxus Lamaire s.l.
Cyperus ligularis Linnaeus *
Cyperus sphacelatus Rottboell
Didymiandrum stellatum (Boeckeler) Gilly *
Diplacrum guianense (Nees) T. Koyama *
Diplasia karataefolia L.C. Richard *
Eleocharis debilis Kunth
Eleocharis geniculata (Linnaeus) Roemer & Schultes *
Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl) Roemer & Schultes
Fimbristylis aspera (Schrader) Boeckeler
Hypolytrum jenmanii C.B. Clarke subsp. serratifolium (Uittien) T. Koyama
Hypolytrum longifolium (L.C. Richard) Nees subsp. sylvaticum (Poeppig & Kunth) T. Koyama
Hypolytrum pulchrum (Rudge) H. Pfeiffer *
Lagenocarpus rigidus (Kunth) Nees subsp. tremulus (Nees) T. Koyama & Maguire
Lagenocarpus tremulus = L. rigidus subsp. tremulus
Mapania imeriensis (R. Gross) T. Koyama
Rhynchospora arenicola Uittien
Rhynchospora barbata (Vahl) Kunth
Rhynchospora cephalotes (Linnaeus) Vahl *
Rhynchospora curvula Grisebach
Rhynchospora cyperoides = R. holoschoenoides
Rhynchospora emaciata (Nees) Boeckeler
Rhynchospora graminea = R. spruceana
Rhynchospora holoschoenoides (L.C. Richard) Herter *
Rhynchospora riparia (Nees) Boeckeler
Rhynchospora spruceana C.B. Clarke
Rhynchospora tenella (Nees) Boeckeler
Rhynchospora tenuis subsp. riparia = R. riparia
Scleria cyperina Willdenow ex Kunth *
Scleria macrogyne C.B. Clarke
Scleria melaleuca Reichenbach ex Chamisso & Schlechtendal
Scleria microcarpa Nees
Scleria nardifolia (Kunth) Boeckeler
Scleria pubera (Vahl) Boeckeler subsp. pubera
Scleria pterota = S. melaleuca

Dioscoreaceae (Yam Family) - vine, climbing by twining; leaves alternate; flowers small; fruit a 3-angled capsule.
(compiled by J.K. Boggan)

Dioscorea guianensis Kunth
Dioscorea potarensis Kunth
Dioscorea trichanthera Gleason *

Eriocaulaceae - herb; tufts of long and narrow leaves; dense heads of small whitish flowers borne on end of long naked stalks.

Orectanthe sp.
Paepalanthus capillaceus = Rondonanthus capillaceus
Paepalanthus dichotomus Klotzsch ex Körnicke
Paepalanthus fascicuelatus (Rottbþll) Körnicke
Paepalanthus griseus = P. oyapockensis
Paepalanthus leucocyaneus Tutin
Paepalanthus oyapockensis Herzog
Paepalanthus pauper Moldenke
Paepalanthus polytrichoides Kunth
Rondonanthus capillaceus (Klotzsch ex Körnicke) Hensold & Giulietti
Syngonanthus gracilis (Körnicke) Ruhl
Syngonanthus guianensis = Paepalanthus polytrichoides
Syngonanthus jenmanii (Gleason) Giulietti & Hensold
Syngonanthus savannarum = Paepalanthus dichotomus
Syngonanthus tricostatus = S. xeranthemoides
Syngonanthus umbellatus (Lamarck) Ruhland
Syngonanthus xeranthemoides (Bongard) Ruhland
Tonina fluviatilis Aublet *

Heliconiaceae (Heliconia Family) - herb; inflorences with large, conspicuous, brightly colored bracts subtending flowers; fruit berry-like.

Heliconia acuminata L.C. Richard subsp. acuminata
Heliconia bihai (Linnaeus) Linnaeus *

Liliaceae (including Amaryllidaceae) - herb; leaves strap-like; flowers white, fragrant and showy; fruit a capsule.
(reviewed by J.K. Boggan)

Hymenocallis tubiflora Salisbury

Marantaceae (Prayer Plant Family) - herb to subwoody vines; leaves large; inflorescences usually conspicuously bracteate, with irregular white flowers.

Calathea cyclophora Baker
Ischnosiphon foliosus Gleason
Ischnosiphon gracilis (Rudge) Körnicke
Ischnosiphon obliquus (Rudge) Körnicke *
Ischnosiphon petiolatus (Rudge) L. Andersson
Ischnosiphon puberulus Loesener var. scaber (Petersen) L. Andersson
Monotagma parkeri = M. spicatum
Monotagma spicatum (Aublet) Macbride

Mayacaceae - aquatic herb; leaves linear and spirally arranged; flowers white; fruit a capsule.

Mayaca longipes Martius ex Seubert *

Orchidaceae (Orchid Family) - epiphytic or terrestrial herb, sometimes a hemiepiphytic climber (Vanilla); flowers variable in size, shape, and color; fruit more or less cylindrical, dehiscing into 3 parts, releasing huge numbers of very tiny seeds.
(compiled by E.A. Christenson and C.L. Kelloff)

Aspidogyne foliosa (Poeppig & Endlicher) Garay
Aspidogyne multifoliata (Schweinfurth) Garay
Batemannia colleyi Lindley *
Bollea violacea (Lindley) Reichenbach f. *
Brassia bidens Lindley *
Brassia wageneri Reichenbach f. *
Catasetum discolor (Lindley) Lindley
Cleistes rosea Lindley *
Cryptocentron sp.
Dichaea graminifolia Lindley
Dichaea hookeri Garay & Sweet
Dichaea splitgerberi Reichenbach f.
Dichaea trulla Reichenbach f. *
Dichaea sp. #1 *
Dichaea sp. #2
Elleanthus caravata (Aublet) Reichenbach f. *
Elleanthus graminifolius (B. Rodrigues) Loijtnant
Encyclia chloroleuca (W.J. Hooker) Neumann
Encyclia latipetala (C. Schweinfurth) Pabst
Encyclia vespa (Vellozo) Dressler
Epidendrum carpophorum B. Rodrigues
Epidendrum compressum Grisebach *
Epidendrum ecostatum Pabst
Epidendrum huebneri Schlechter *
Epidendrum imitans Schlechter
Epidendrum longicolle Lindley
Epidendrum miserrimum Reichenbach f.
Epidendrum nocturnum Jacquin *
Epidendrum orchidiflorum Salzmann ex Lindley
Epidendrum purpurascens Focke *
Epidendrum ramosum Jacquin *
Epidendrum schomburgkii Lindley
Epidendrum smaragdinum Lindley
Epidendrum strobiliferum Reichenbach f.
Epidendrum tridens Poeppig & Endlicher (E. nocturnum var. tumac-humacense Veyret)
Epistephium amplexicaule Poeppig & Endlicher
Epistephium ellipticum L.O. Williams & Summerhayes *
Epistephium parviflorum Lindley *
Epistephium subrepens Hoehne
Eulophia alta (Linnaeus) Fawcett & Rendle *
Gongora sp.
Habenaria longicauda W.J. Hooker
Habenaria platydactyla Kraenzlin
Ionopsis utricularioides (Swartz) Lindley *
Jacquiniella globosa (Jacquin) Schlechter *
Koellensteinia eburnea (B. Rodrigues) Schlechter*
Koellensteinia tricolor (Lindley) Reichenbach f.
Ligeiphila sp.
Maxillaria bolivarensis C. Schweinfurth
Maxillaria brachybulbon Schltechter
Maxillaria brunnea Linden & Reichenbach f. *
Maxillaria caespitifica Reichenbach f.
Maxillaria camaridii Reichenbach f. *
Maxillaria mapiriense (Kraenzlin) Garay *
Maxillaria melina Lindley *
Maxillaria parviflora (Poeppig & Endlicher) Garay
Maxillaria cf. pendula W.J. Hooker
Maxillaria trinitatis Ames *
Maxillaria uncata Lindley
Maxillaria violaceopunctata Reichenbach f. *
Myoxanthus simplicicaulis (C. Schweinfurth) Luer
Myoxanthus trachychlamys (Schlechter) Luer
Octomeria erosilabia C. Schweinfurth *
Octomeria exigua C. Schweinfurth var. elata C. Schweinfurth
Octomeria sp. # 1
Octomeria sp. # 2
Octomeria sp. # 3
Octomeria sp. # 4
Octomeria sp. # 5
Octomeria sp. # 6
Octomeria sp. # 7
Oncidium pusillum (Linnaeus) Reichenbach f. *
Ornithocephalus sp.
Palmorchis sp.
Phragmipedium lindleyanum (Schomburgk) Rolfe *
Pleurothallis grobyi Bateman ex Lindley *
Pleurothallis picta Lindley
Pleurothallis sclerophylla Lindley *
Pleurothallis stenocardium Schlechter *
Pleurothallis suspensa Luer
Polycycnis surinamensis C. Schweinfurth *
Polystachya stenophylla Schlechter
Psygmorchis pusilla (Linnaeus) Dodson & Dressler
Reichenbachanthus reflexus (Lindley) Brade *
Rodriguezia lanceolata Ruiz & Pavón
Sarcoglottis acaulis (J.E. Smith) Schlechter
Sarcoglottis metallica (Rolfe) Schlechter
Scaphyglottis amethystina = S. stellata
Scaphyglottis fusiformis (Grisebach) Schultes *
Scaphyglottis graminifolia (Ru¡z & Pavón) Poeppig & Endlicher
Scaphyglottis grandiflora Ames & C. Schweinfurth *
Scaphyglottis modesta (Reichenbach f.) Schlechter
Scaphyglottis prolifera Cogniaux
Scaphyglottis sickii Pabst
Scaphyglottis stellata Lindley
Scaphyglottis violacea Lindley *
Sievekingia jenmannii Reichenbach
Sobralia liliastrum Lindley *
Sobralia oliva-estevae Carnevali & Ramirez
Sobralia valida Rolfe
Stelis argentata Lindley *
Stelis intermedia Poeppig & Endlicher *
Stelis sp. #1
Stelis sp. #2
Trichosalpinx blaisdellii = T. egleri
Trichosalpinx egleri (Pabst) Luer
Trichosalpinx orbicularis (Lindley) Luer
Trigonidium acuminatum Batemann *
Trigonidium obtusum Lindley *
Triphora sp. = Epistephium ellipticum
Vanilla bicolor Lindley
Vanilla grandiflora Lindley *
Vanilla pompona = V. grandiflora
Vanilla wrightii = V. bicolor
Wullschlaegelia calcarata Bentham

Poaceae (Grass Family) - herb; leaves long, often linear; flowers highly reduced; fruit an achene.

Andropogon bicornis Linnaeus *
Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth
Andropogon selloanus (Hackel) Hackel
Arthrostylidium scandens McClure *
Axonopus capillaris (Lamarck) Chase
Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlmann
Axonopus flabelliformis Swallen *
Axonopus kaietukensis = A. flabelliformis
Axonopus longispicus (Doell) Kuhlmann
Digitaria horizontalis Willdenow
Digitaria violascens Link [cult., naturalized]
Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner [naturalized] *
Eragrostis unioloides (Retzius) Nees [naturalized] *
Gynerium sagittatum (Aublet) P. Beauvois *
Homolepis isocalycia (C. Meyer) Chase *
Ichnanthus calvescens (Nees) Doell
Ichnanthus dasycoleus Tutin
Ichnanthus nemoralis (Schrader) Hitchcock & Chase *
Ichnanthus pallens (Swartz) Munro ex Bentham*
Ichnanthus riedelii = I. nemoralis
Ichnanthus tenuis (J.S. Presl) Hitchcock & Chase
Ischaemum guianense Kunth ex Hackel *
Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury [naturalized]
Lasiacis ligulata Hitchcock & Chase
Lasiacis procerrima (Hackel) Hitchcock
Mesosetum loliiforme (Steudel) Chase *
Olyra longifolia Kunth
Olyra micrantha Kunth *
Panicum albociliatum = P. pycnoclados
Panicum angulosum = P. rivale
Panicum chnoodes Trinius
Panicum coenosum Dowell ex Martius vel aff.
Panicum cornosum Doell
Panicum cyanescens Nees
Panicum granuliferum Kunth
Panicum kaietukense = P. parvifolium
Panicum laxum Swartz *
Panicum micranthum Kunth
Panicum obovatum Doell (vel aff.)
Panicum parvifolium Lamarck *
Panicum pilosum Swartz
Panicum polycomum Trinius
Panicum pycnoclados Tutin
Panicum rivale Swallen
Panicum rudgei Roemer & Schultes *
Panicum savannarum Soderstrom
Panicum sciurotoides Zuloaga & Morrone
Panicum spissifolium = P. granuliferum
Panicum stoloniferum Poiret *
Panicum tatei = P. chnoodes
Pariana debilis = P. radiciflora
Pariana gleasonii Hitchcock
Pariana radiciflora Sagot ex Doell
Parodiolyra lateralis (Presl) Soderstrom & Zuloaga *
Paspalum altsonii Chase
Paspalum arenarium Schrader
Paspalum bifidifolium Soderstrom
Paspalum conjugatum Berg
Paspalum melanospermum Desvaux ex Poiret
Paspalum petilum Chase *
Paspalum scandens = Thrasya scandens
Raddiella esenbeckii (Steudel) Calderon & Soderstrom *
Raddiella kaieteurana Soderstrom *
Raddiella nana = R. esenbeckii
Raddiella potaroensis Soderstrom
Raddiella truncata = Parodiolyra lateralis
Sporobolus jacquemontii Kunth
Thrasya achlysophila Soderstrom *
Thrasya scandens (Tutin) Soderstrom ex A.G. Burman

Pontederiaceae (Water Hyacinth Family) - aquatic herb; leaves opposite or whorled; flowers blue, white, or lilac; fruit a loculicidal capsule.

Eichhornia diversifolia (Vahl) Urban

Rapateaceae - aquatic or terrestial herb; leaves long and strap-like; flowers yellow, in dense head on long peduncles usually subtended by bracts ; fruit a capsule.

Potarophytum riparium Sandwith
Rapatea paludosa Aublet var. paludosa *
Rapatea xiphoides Sandwith
Saxofridericia regalis Rob. Schomburgk
Stegolepis angustata Gleason
Stegolepis ferruginea Baker
Windsorina guianensis Gleason

Smilacaceae (Sarsaparilla Family)- herbaceous twiner or woody vine; leaves usually alternate, simple; flowers small; fruits round, green to black.

Smilax syphilitica Willdenow

Strelitziaceae (Wild banana) - large banana-like herb, up to 9 feet tall; flowers white, subtended by large green bracts; fruit a many-seeded pod.

Phenakospermum guyannense (L.C. Richard) Endlicher ex Miquel *

Thurniaceae - aquatic herb; leaves long, strap-like; flowers white, in dense head on long peduncle; fruits small, green.
(reviewed by M.T. Strong)

Thurnia jenmanii J.D. Hooker
Thurnia sphaerocephala (Rudge) J.D. Hooker

Xyridaceae (Yellow-eyed Grass Family) - herb; leaves grass-like; flowers yellow, sometimes blue or pink (?); fruit a capsule.
(reviewed by R. Kral, 1998)

Abolboda acaulis Maguire var. acaulis *
Abolboda americana (Aublet) Lanjouw var. americana *
Abolboda grandis Grisebach var. grandis *
Abolboda grandis Grisebach var. rigida Malme *
Xyris cyperoides Gleason *
Xyris dolichosperma = X. fallax
Xyris fallax Malme *
Xyris glabrata = X. malmeana
Xyris guianensis Steudel *
Xyris involucrata Nees *
Xyris jupicai L.C. Richard *
Xyris malmeana L.B. Smith *
Xyris setigera F. Oliver *
Xyris subuniflora Malme *
Xyris surinamensis Sprengel *
Xyris uleana Malme var. angustifolia Lanjouw
Xyris uleana Malme var. uleana *

Zingiberaceae (Ginger Family) - large herb; leaves narrowly elliptic to oblong, large; flowers conspicuous, brightly colored; fruit a capsule or berrylike.

Renealmia floribunda K. Schumann *
Renealmia orinocensis Rusby
Zingiber zerumbet (Linnaeus) Smith


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