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Drawing of Xanthoparmelia isidiascens Hale

Searchable List of Names
in the Parmelioid Genera (Lichens)

Mason E. Hale (1928-1990), Lichen Curator at the U.S. National Herbarium of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, devoted most of his career to the study of parmelioid lichens. The parmelioid lichens of the genus Parmelia and its over 35 generic segregates are recognizable by their leaf-like (foliose) growth form, root-like rhizines on their lower surface and, when sexually reproducing, cup-like structures (apothecia) on their upper surfaces. Parmelioid species are especially numerous; approximately one out of ten lichen species, 1,300-1,500 out of 13,000, are parmelioid.

As part of a modern trend in lichen systematics, Hale personally named twenty new genera of parmelioid lichens in an attempt to create smaller natural groups out of the confusing Parmelia s. lat. The large number of new genera and species that he and his colleagues recognized over fifteen years (1974-1989) were even confusing for specialists, so Hale produced an electronic database that allowed him to quickly look-up the accepted genus for a given epithet.

On 10 June 1989, Hale distributed a printed "List of Epithets in the Parmelioid Genera" produced from that database, with an accompanying letter, to many of his lichenological colleagues. Recently, we published an edited and revised version of that list (Bryologist 102: 462-544. 1999) and a review of Hale's contributions to Parmeliaceae taxonomy and classification (Bryologist 102: 442-461. 1999). Earlier, D. H. Nicolson published a list of Hale's scientific publications and books (Bryologist 94: 94-99. 1991). We are also providing here an electronic version of the list of epithets that can be searched by genus name or species epithet, or that can be used to generate synonymy lists. We will continue to update this electronic database with your help. Please contact the Department of Botany's Webmaster with comments and updates.


Suggested Citation for the Web Site: Farr, Ellen R., Beatrice Wilde Hale and Paula T. DePriest (1999). Parmeliaceae: Searchable List of Names in the Parmelioid Genera (Lichens). <http://botany.si.edu/lichens/parmeliaceae/> (30 September 1999).

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