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1. IUCN Conservation (Red Data Book) Categories
        Conservation categories are given in the text for some threatened species where this information was readily available. The IUCN categories are given a capital letter to distinguish them from general usage of the terms.
A. Threatened Categories
Extinct (Ex)
        Taxa which are no longer known to exist in the wild after repeated searches of their type localities and other known or likely places.
Endangered (E)
        Taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating. Included are taxa whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction.
Vulnerable (V)
        Taxa believed likely to move into the Endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue operating. Included are taxa of which most or all the populations are decreasing because of over-exploitation, extensive habitat or other environmental disturbance; taxa with populations that have been seriously depleted and whose ultimate security is not yet assured; and taxa with populations that are still abundant but are under threat from serious adverse factors throughout their range.
Rare (R)
        Taxa with small world populations that are not at present Endangered or Vulnerable, but are at risk. These taxa are usually localized within restricted geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range.
Indeterminate (I)
        Taxa known to be Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Rare but there is not enough information to say which of the four categories is appropriate.

B. Unknown Categories
Status Unknown (?)
No information is available with which to assign a conservation category. [Note that this category was not used in CPD, but is included here for completeness.]
Insufficiently Known (K)
        Taxa that are suspected but not definitely known to belong to any of the above categories, following assessment, because of lack of information.

C. Not Threatened Category
Safe (nt)
        Neither rare nor threatened.

2. Categories and Management Objectives of Protected Areas

        IUCN Management Categories for protected areas are given in the text where this information was readily available. In some cases, nationally designated areas (such as some National Parks) do not meet the criteria required to be assigned an IUCN Management Category. However, the omission of an IUCN category in the CPD text does not imply that the area concerned has not been assigned a management category.

Category I: Scientific Reserve/Strict Nature Reserve
        To protect nature and maintain natural processes in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of the natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state.

Category II: National Park
        To protect natural and scenic areas of national or international significance
for scientific, educational and recreational use.

Category III: Natural Monument/Natural Landmark
        To protect and preserve nationally significant natural features because of their special interest or unique characteristics.

Category IV: Managed Nature Reserve/Wildlife Sanctuary
        To assure the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities, or physical features of the environment where these require specific human manipulation for their perpetuation.

Category V: Protected Landscape or Seascape
        To maintain nationally significant natural landscapes which are characteristic of the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within normal life style and economic activity of these areas.

Category VI: Resource Reserve
        To protect resources of the area for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based upon appropriate knowledge and planning.

Category VII: Natural Biotic Area/Anthropological Reserve
        To allow the way of life of societies living in harmony with the environment to continue undisturbed by modern technology.

Category VIII: Multiple-Use Management Area/Managed Resource Area
        To provide for the sustained production of water, timber, wildlife, pasture, and outdoor recreation, with the conservation of nature primarily oriented to the support of economic activities (although specific zones may also be designed within these areas to achieve specific conservation objectives).

Category IX: Biosphere Reserve
        These are part of an international scientific programme, the Unesco Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme, which is aimed at developing a reserve network representative of the world's ecosystems to fulfil a range of objectives, including research, monitoring, training and demonstration, as well as conservation roles. In most cases the human component is vital to the functioning of the Biosphere Reserve.

Category X: World Heritage Site
        The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (which was adopted in Paris in 1972 and came into force in December 1975) provides for the designation of areas of "outstanding universal value" as World Heritage Sites, with the principal aim of fostering international cooperation in safeguarding these important sites. Sites, which must be nominated by the signatory nation responsible, are evaluated for their world heritage quality before being declared by the World Heritage Committee. Article 2 of the Convention considers as natural heritage: natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view; geological or physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute habitat of threatened species of animals or plants of outstanding universal value; and natural sites or precisely delineated areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty. Criteria for inclusion in the list are published by Unesco.

The definitions above are abridged from:

IUCN (1990). 1990 United Nations list of national parks and protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 284 pp.

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