Note: This website is no longer being updated and is being maintained for archive purposes by the Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Please see About the Project for further details.

Link to North America map of regional study sites
North America map

Link to Middle America map
Middle America map

Link to South America
South America map

Link to Centres of Plant Diversity home page


Botany


Link to Middle America Regional Overviews
MIDDLE AMERICA

REFERENCES FOR MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA OVERVIEWS

Allen, P.H (1956). The rain forests of Golfo Dulce. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 417 pp.

Ames, O. and Correll, D.S. (1952-1953). Orchids of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 26: 1-727.

Argueta, A. (1992). El banco de plantas medicinales del Instituto Nacional Indigenista de México. Presented at the Congreso Etnobotánica 92, Córdoba, Spain.

Balick, M.J. (in prep.). Checklist of the plants of Belize, with annotations on common names and uses. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

Barzetti, V. (ed.) (1993). Parques y progreso: áreas protegidas y desarrollo económico en América Latina y el Caribe. IUCN, Washington, D.C. 258 pp.

Booth, W. (1993). U.S. drug firm signs up to farm tropical forests. In Place, S.E. (ed.), Tropical rainforests: Latin American nature and society in transition. Scholarly Resources, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A. Pp. 211-213.

Breedlove, D.E. (1981). Introduction to the Flora of Chiapas. In Breedlove, D.E. (ed.), Flora of Chiapas. Part 1. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 35 pp.

Burger, W.C. (ed.) (1971). Flora Costaricensis. Fieldiana, Bot. 35, 40, and Fieldiana, Bot. New Series 4, 13, 18, 35.

Butterfield, R.P. (1994). Forestry in Costa Rica: status, research priorities, and the role of La Selva Biological Station. In McDade, L.A., Bawa, K.S., Hespenheide, H.A. and Hartshorn, G.S. (eds), La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rainforest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Pp. 317-328.

Bye, R. (1993). The role of humans in the diversification of plants in Mexico. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 707-731.

Calderón, S. and Standley, P.C. (1944). Lista preliminar de plantas de El Salvador, 2nd edition. San Salvador. 450 pp.

Campbell, D.G. and Hammond, H.D. (eds) (1989). Floristic inventory of tropical countries: the status of plant systematics, collections, and vegetation, plus recommendations for the future. Central America. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Pp. 281-312.

Catling, P. and Catling, V. (1988). An annotated checklist of the orchids of Belize. Orquídea (Méx.) 11: 85-102.

Collins, M. (ed.) (1990). The last rain forests: a world conservation atlas. Oxford University Press, New York. 200 pp.

Contreras, F. (1985). Las lagunas costeras mexicanas. Centro de Ecodesarrollo, Secretaría de Pesca, Mexico, D.F. 81 pp.

Correll, D.S. (1965). Supplement to the orchids of Guatemala and British Honduras. Fieldiana, Bot. 31(7): 177-221.

Croat, T.B. (1978). Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 943 pp.

D'Arcy, W.G. (1977). Endangered landscapes in Panama and Central America: the threat to plant species. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (eds), Extinction is forever: the status of threatened and endangered plants of the Americas. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Pp. 89-102.

D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama: checklist and index. Monogr. Syst. Bot., Missouri Bot. Gard. 17 and 18: 1-1000.

Davidse, G., Sousa-S., M. and Chater, A.O. (eds) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana. Vol. 6, Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City. 543 pp.

Dávila, P., Medina, R., Ramírez, A., Salinas, A. and Tenorio, P. (1991). Análisis de la flora del Valle de Tehuacán: endemismo y diversidad. In Resúmenes del Simposio Sobre Plantas en Peligro de Extinción. UNAM and SEDUE, Mexico, D.F. Pg. 26.

de Souza, A.R. (ed.) (1992). The coexistence of indigenous peoples and the natural environment in Central America. Research and Exploration (Washington, D.C.) 8(2): map supplement.

Dirzo, R. (1991). Rescate y restauración ecológica de la selva de Los Tuxtlas. Ciencia y Desarrollo 17: 33-45.

Dirzo, R. and Gómez, G. (1996). Ritmos temporales de la investigación taxonómica de plantas vasculares en México y una estimación del número de especies conocidas. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83(3): 396-403.

Duke, J.A. (1985). Neotropical anticancer plants. In D'Arcy, W.G. and Correa-A., M.D. (eds), The botany and natural history of Panama. Monogr. Syst. Bot. 10, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. Pp. 299-304.

Dwyer, J.D. and Spellman, D.L. (1981). A list of the Dicotyledoneae of Belize. Rhodora 83: 161-236.

FAO (1993). Agrostat-PC. FAO, Rome. Computer diskette.

FAO (1993). Forest resources assessment 1990: tropical countries. FAO Forestry Paper No. 112, FAO, Rome. 112 pp.

Ferrusquía-Villafranca, I. (1993). Geology of Mexico: a synopsis. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 3-107.

Flores-Villela, O.A. (1993). Herpetofauna of Mexico: distribution and endemism. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 253-280.

Flores-Villela, O.A. and Geréz, P. (1988). Conservación en México: síntesis sobre vertebrados terrestres, vegetación y uso del suelo. INIREB and Conservation International, Mexico, D.F. 302 pp.

Fryxell, P.A. (1988). Malvaceae of Mexico. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 25. 522 pp.

García, E. (1973). Modificaciones al sistema de clasificación climática de Köppen (para adaptarlo a las condiciones de la república mexicana), 2nd edition. Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. 246 pp.

García, E. (1989). Diversidad climática vegetal en México. Presented at the Simposio Sobre la Diversidad Biológica de México, Oaxtepec, Morelos. 27 pp.

Gentry, A.H. (1978). Floristic knowledge and needs in Pacific tropical America. Brittonia 30: 134-153.

Gentry, A.H. (1982). Neotropical floristic diversity: phytogeographical connections between Central and South America, Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, or an accident of the Andean orogeny? Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69: 557-593.

Gentry, H.S. (1942). Río Mayo plants: a study of the flora and vegetation of the valley of Río Mayo, Sonora. Carnegie Institution of Washington Public. No. 527. 328 pp.

Gómez-P., L.D. (1985). Biotic units of neotropical region. The Nature Conservancy, International Program, Science Division. Washington, D.C. 55 pp. + 3 maps. Unpublished.

Gómez-P., L.D. (1986). Vegetación de Costa Rica: apuntes para una biogeografía costarricense. Editorial Universidad Estatal a Distancia, San José. 327 pp.

Gómez-Pompa, A. and Dirzo, R. with Kaus, A., Noguerón-Chang, C.R. and Ordoñez, M. de J. (1994). Las áreas naturales protegidas de México de la Secretaría de Desarrollo Social. SEDESOL, Mexico, D.F. 331 pp. Unpublished.

Hamer, F. (1988). Orchids of Central America: an illustrated field guide. A-L. Selbyana 10 (Supplement): 1-422.

Hamer, F. (1990). Orchids of Central America: an illustrated field guide. M-Z. Selbyana 10 (Supplement): 423-860.

Heckadon, S.P. (1992). Central America: tropical land of mountains and volcanoes. In Barzetti, V. and Rovinski, Y. (eds), Toward a green Central America: integrating conservation and development. Kumarian Press, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A. Pp. 5-20.

Hernández-Xolocotzi, E. (1993). Aspects of plant domestication in Mexico: a personal view. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 733-753.

Herrera, W. and Gómez-P., L.D. (1992). Mapa de unidades bióticas de Costa Rica. Incafo, Madrid.

Hodel, D. (1992). Chamaedorea palms. The species and their cultivation. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A. 338 pp.

Hoffman, M. (ed.) (1993). The world almanac and book of facts 1993. Pharos Books, New York. 960 pp.

Holdridge, L.R. and Poveda, L.J. (1975). Arboles de Costa Rica, Vol. 1. Centro Científico Tropical, San José. 546 pp.

IRENA (1993). Plan de acción ambiental de Nicaragua PAANIC: sumario ejecutivo y matrices de planificación. Ministerio de Economía y Desarollo, Instituto Nicaraguense de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente (IRENA), Managua. 19 pp.

Janzen, D.H. (1986). Guanacaste National Park: tropical ecology and cultural restoration. Editorial Universidad Estatal a Distancia, San José. 103 pp.

Jiménez, Q. and Poveda, L.J. (1991). Arboles maderables nativos de Costa Rica. Contr. Depto. Hist. Nat. 5, Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José. 32 pp.

Jones, D.L. (1993). Cycads of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 312 pp.

Kappelle, M. (1995). Ecology of mature and recovering Talamancan montane Quercus forests, Costa Rica. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam. 273 pp.

Lamb, F.B. (1953). The forests of Darién. Caribbean Forest. 14: 128-135.

Lankford, R.R. (1977). Coastal lagoons of Mexico: their origin and classification. In Wiley, M.L. (ed.), Estuarine processes. Academic Press, San Diego, California. Pp. 182-215.

Leonard, H.J. (1987). Natural resources and economic development in Central America: a regional environmental profile. International Institute for Environment and Development, Washington, D.C. Transaction Books, New Brunswick, New Jersey, U.S.A. and Oxford, U.K. 269 pp.

Lot-H., A., Novelo, A. and Ramírez-García, P. (1993). Diversity of Mexican aquatic vascular plant flora. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 577-591.

Luna-Vega, I., Almeida, L. and Llorente, J. (1989). Florística y fitogeografía del bosque mesófilo de montaña de las cañadas de Ocuilán, Morelos. Ann. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México, Ser. Bot. 59: 63-87.

MacKerron, C.B. (1993). Business in the rain forests: corporations, deforestation and sustainability (Cogan, D.G., ed.). Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington, D.C. 239 pp.

Masera, O., Ordóñez, M. de J. and Dirzo, R. (1992). Emisiones de carbono a partir de la deforestación en México. Ciencia 43 (número especial): 151-153.

Masera, O., Ordóñez, M. de J. and Dirzo, R. (1995). Carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico: current situation and long-term scenarios. Global Environmental Change: in press.

McDonald, J.A. (1993). Phytogeography and history of the alpine-subalpine flora of northeastern Mexico. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 681-703.

Meyers, C.W. (1969). The ecological geography of cloud forests in Panama. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2396: 1-52.

Mittermeier, R.A. (1988). Primate diversity and the tropical forest: case studies from Brazil and Madagascar and the importance of the megadiversity countries. In Wilson, E.O. and Peter, F.M. (eds), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Pp. 145-154.

Molina, A. (1975). Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1-118.

Morton, J.F. (1981). Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. Charles Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A. 1420 pp.

Nations, J.D. (1987). Mesoamerica's tropical rainforests: conflicts and conservation. Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 26: 59-76.

Nations, J.D. and Komer, D.I. (1984). Chewing up the jungle. Int. Wildlife 14(5): 14-16.

Nations, J.D. and Leonard, H.J. (1986). Grounds of conflict in Central America. In Maguire, A. and Brown, J.W. (eds), Bordering on trouble: resources and politics in Latin America. Adler and Adler, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A. Pp. 55-98.

Nelson, C. (1986). Plantas comunes de Honduras, Vols. I and II. Editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa. 922 pp.

Pacheco, M. and Martínez, A. (1949). Population of El Salvador and its natural resources. Proceedings of the Inter-American Conference on Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources, Denver, Colorado, September 7-20, 1948. U.S. Dept. of State Public. 3382: 125-133.

Puig, H., Bracho, R. and Sosa, V.J. (1983). Composición florística y estructura del bosque mesófilo de Gómez-Farías, Tamaulipas. Biótica 8: 339-359.

Ramamoorthy, T.P. (1984). Notes on the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Mexico with three new species. J. Arnold Arbor. 65: 135-143.

Ramamoorthy, T.P. and Elliott, M. (1993). Mexican Lamiaceae: diversity, distribution, endemism and evolution. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 513-539.

Ramamoorthy, T.P. and Lorence, D.H. (1987). Species vicariance in Mexican flora and a new species of Salvia from Mexico. Adansonia 2: 167-175.

Ramírez, M. (1909, 1911). Flora nicaraguense. Compañía Tipográfica Internacional, Managua.

Rauh, W. (1992). Are tillandsias endangered plants? Selbyana 13: 138-139.

Reid, W.V., Laird, S.A., Meyer, C.A., Gámez, R., Sittenfeld, A., Janzen, D.H., Gollin, M.A. and Juma, C. (1993). Biodiversity prospecting: using genetic resources for sustainable development. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. 341 pp.

Rzedowski, J. (1973). Geographical relationships of the flora of Mexican dry regions. In Graham, A. (ed.), Vegetation and vegetational history of northern Latin America. Elsevier, New York. Pp. 61-72.

Rzedowski, J. (1978). Vegetación de México. Editorial Limusa, Mexico, D.F. 432 pp.

Rzedowski, J. (1991). El endemismo en la flora fanerogámica mexicana: una apreciación analítica preliminar. Acta Bot. Mex. 15: 47-64.

Rzedowski, J. (1993). Diversity and origins of the phanerogamic flora of Mexico. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 129-144.

Scott, D. and Carbonell, M. (eds) (1986). A directory of neotropical wetlands. IUCN, Cambridge, U.K. 684 pp.

Seymour, F.C. (1980). A checklist of the vascular plants of Nicaragua. Phytologia Memoirs 1: 1-314.

Soto-Arenas, M.A. (1988). Updated list of the orchids of Mexico. Orquídea (Méx.) 11: 273-276.

Spellman, D.L., Dwyer, J.D. and Davidse, G. (1975). A list of the Monocotyledoneae of Belize including a historical introduction to plant collection in Belize. Rhodora 77: 105-140.

Standley, P.C. (1928). Flora of the Panama Canal Zone. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 27: 1-416.

Standley, P.C. (1930). Flora of Yucatan. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 3(3): 157-492.

Standley, P.C. (1931). Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 10: 1-418.

Standley, P.C. (1937-1938). Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 18: 1-1616.

Standley, P.C. and Record, S.J. (1936). The forests and flora of British Honduras. Fieldiana, Bot. 12: 1-432.

Standley, P.C., Steyermark, J.A. and Williams, L.O. (1946-1977). Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(1-13).

Stebbins, G.L. (1975). The role of polyploid complexes in the evolution of North American grasslands. Taxon 24: 91-106.

Stolze, R.S. (1976). Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part I. Fieldiana, Bot. 39: 1-130.

Stolze, R.S. (1981). Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part II. Fieldiana, Bot. New Series 6: 1-522.

Stolze, R.S. (1983). Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part III. Fieldiana, Bot. New Series 12: 1-91.

Tenenbaum, D. (1994). The Guanacaste idea. Amer. Forests 100 (11/12): 2831, 58-59.

Toledo, V.M. (1985). A critical evaluation of the floristic knowledge in Latin America and the Caribbean. A report presented to The Nature Conservancy International Program. Washington, D.C. 108 pp.

Toledo, V.M. (1992). Bio-economic costs. In Downing, T.E., Hecht, S.B., Pearson, H.A. and García-Downing, C. (eds), Development or destruction: the conversion of tropical forest to pasture in Latin America. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Pp. 67-93.

Toledo, V.M. (1995a). Los habitats naturales de México: una visión sintética. In Ceballos, G. and Navarro, D. (eds), Fauna mexicana en peligro de extinción. UNAM, Mexico, D.F. In press.

Toledo, V.M. (1995b). New paradigms for a new ethnobotany: reflections of the Mexican case. In Schultes, R.E. and von Reis, S. (eds), Ethnobotany today. Dioscorides Press. Pp. 125-134.

Toledo, V.M. (1995c). La riqueza florística de México: un análisis para conservacionistas. In Guevara, S. and Moreno, P. (eds), La botánica mexicana hacia el fin del milenio. Instituto de Ecología. In press.

Toledo, V.M. and Ordóñez, M. de J. (1993). The biodiversity scenarios of Mexico: an analysis of terrestrial habitats. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 757-777.

Toledo, V.M. and Sosa, V. (1993). Floristics in Latin America and the Caribbean: an evaluation of plant collections and botanists. Taxon 42: 355-364.

Toledo, V.M., Batis, A., Becerra, R., Martínez, E. and Ramos, C.H. (1992). Products from the tropical rain forests of Mexico: an ethnoecological approach. In Plotkin, M. and Famolare, L. (eds), Sustainable harvest and marketing of rain forest products. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Pp. 99-109.

Toledo, V.M., Carabias, J., Toledo, C. and González-Pacheco, C. (1989). La producción rural en México: alternativas ecológicas. Fundación Universo Veintiuno, Mexico, D.F. 365 pp.

Turner, B.L. and Nesom, G.L. (1993). Biogeography, diversity, and endangered or threatened status of Mexican Asteraceae. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 559-575.

Ugalde, A. and Godoy, J.C. (1993). La situación de las áreas protegidas en Centroamérica. Informe al IV Congreso Mundial de Parques, Caracas, Venezuela, Febrero de 1992. IUCN, San José, Costa Rica and Guatemala City, Guatemala. 80 pp.

Utting, P. (1991). The social origins and impact of deforestation in Central America. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Geneva, Switzerland. 43 pp.

Valdés-Reyna, J. and Cabral-Cordero, I. (1993). Chorology of Mexican grasses. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 439-446.

Vargas, F. (1984). Los parques nacionales de México. Instituto de Investigaciones Ecónomicas, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. 145 pp.

Villa-Lobos, J. (in prep.). Threatened plants of Middle America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

WCMC (1992). Protected areas of the world. A review of national systems. Vol. 4. Nearctic and Neotropical. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 459 pp.

West, R.C. (1964). The natural regions of Middle America. In Wauchope, R. (ed.), Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 1. West, R.C. (ed.), Natural environment and early cultures. University of Texas Press, Austin. Pp. 363-383.

Williams, L.O. (1956). An enumeration of the Orchidaceae of Central America, British Honduras, and Panama. Ceiba 5: 1-256.

Williams, L.O. (1981). Useful plants of Central America. Ceiba 24: 1-381.

Woodson, R.E., Schery, R.W. et al. (1943-1980). Flora of Panama. In Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. Vols. 30-67.

World Resources Institute (1992). World resources 199293. A guide to the global environment. Oxford University Press, New York. 385 pp.

WRI (World Resources Institute), UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (1994). World resources 1994-95. A guide to the global environment. Oxford University Press, New York. 403 pp.

Ypsilantis, J. (1992). Fragile isthmus under pressure. People and Planet 1(3): 19-22.

Yuncker, T.G. (1938). A contribution to the Flora of Honduras. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 17(4): 287-407.

Authors

The overview for Mexico was written by Dr Víctor M. Toledo [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Centro de Ecología, Apdo. Postal 70-275, 04510 Mexico, D.F., Mexico], Dr Jerzy Rzedowski (Instituto de Ecología, Centro Regional del Bajío, Apdo. Postal 386, 61600 Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Mexico) and Jane Villa-Lobos (Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, NHB-166, Washington, DC 20560, U.S.A.).

The overview for Central America was written by Luis Diego Gómez (Las Cruces Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 73, San Vito, Coto Brus, Costa Rica), Juan Carlos Godoy (IUCN Protected Areas and Biodiversity, Apdo. 112-I Zona 7, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Olga Herrera-MacBryde and Jane Villa-Lobos (Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, NHB-166, Washington, DC 20560, U.S.A.).

Go to:

Top of this Page

Middle America and Caribbean Islands Menu

Mexico Regional Overview

Central America Regional Overview

Caribbean Islands Regional Overview

Caribbean Islands Centres for Plant Diversity and Endemism

References for Caribbean Islands Overview


North | Middle | South

CPD Home  

Botany Home Page | Smithsonian Home Page