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Mexico: CPD Site MA9

GOMEZ FARIAS REGION
AND EL CIELO BIOSPHERE RESERVE

Mexico

Location: North-east Mexico in south-western Tamaulipas State, between latitudes 22°55'-23°30'N and longitudes 99°02'-99°30'W.
Area:
c. 2400 km².
Altitude:
200-2200 m.
Vegetation:
Tropical dry forest; tropical semi-deciduous forest; cloud forest; oak, pine and mixed oak and pine forests; desert scrubs or brushlands; riparian vegetation.
Flora:
Over 1000 vascular plant species; transition zone with tropical and temperate, lowland to highland, and humid to arid elements; threatened species.
Useful plants:
Temperate and tropical timbers; medicinal, ornamental, edible, fodder and fibre species.
Other values:
Watershed protection for large region; refuge for wild fauna; extensive biological research base; archaeological sites; scenery and ecotourism.
Threats:
Fire, cattle and goats, agriculture, irregular settlements, road construction, potential logging, over-collection of some species (for ornamentals and fuelwood).
Conservation:
60% of region in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve (1445 km²).

Map 20: CPD Site MA9

References

Geography 

The Gómez Farías region is in Mexico's north-eastern State of Tamaulipas (Map 20) on the eastern slope of the Sierra Madre Oriental, known locally as the Sierra de Guatemala, and includes portions of the municipalities Jaumave, Llera de Canales, Gómez Farías and Ocampo (Sosa 1987). This region is part of the eastern sector of the Sierra Madre Oriental morphotectonic province, in the subprovince of Closely Spaced Ridges (Ferrusquía-Villafranca 1993). The region is formed by several mountain ranges trending north-south, of which the most prominent are the Sierra Cucharas, Sierra Chiquita and Sierra Los Nogales.

The mountains rise abruptly from 200 m in the east to 2200 m westward, and form two hilly plateaux - at 900-1200 m, and beginning above 1900 m. About 98% of the region is slopes steeper than 20%, c. 0.5% has slopes of 5-10% and c. 1% consists of alluvial plains with slopes of 1-2% (Castro-Meza, Plácido de la Cruz and Almaguer 1989). Geologically the general region is characterized by secondary limestone masses of sedimentary origin from the Early Cretaceous (Puig 1976), which have formed a karstic topography, with many rocky outcrops, sinkholes and caves.

The dominant soils are lithosols and rendzinas less than 40 cm deep. In the bottom of valleys and ravines and on gentle slopes have developed luvisols, acrisols, vertisols, phaeozems, regosols and cambisols. On these soils slash-and-burn agriculture and grasslands are sometimes found. Aridisols have developed in the driest inland portion of the region (Bracho and Sosa 1987; Contreras 1991).

There are several climatic zones. The highlands are cooler than the lowlands and generally more humid. The Sierra Madre Oriental is a barrier against the humid winds from the Gulf of Mexico, causing considerable regular precipitation on the eastern slopes. This rain and mist feed numerous streams that flow into the south-eastern Sabinas and Frío rivers - tributaries for the Guayalejo River, which bounds the region in the north-east. Leeward slopes of the Gómez Farías region, which are inland over the mountain crests, and the uppermost elevations, are drier than lower and mid-elevation windward slopes due to the loss of moisture with altitude and then rain-shadow effects. The area including El Cielo Biosphere Reserve is subjected to frequent cyclones from the Caribbean Sea (145 km distant), and as well to incursions of polar air masses ("nortes") that may cause freezing conditions - usually only in the highlands - or bring some rainfall, from November to January (Puig and Bracho 1987).

The tropical deciduous and tropical semi-deciduous forests have a semi-warm humid climate with rains from May to October; the mean annual temperature is 22.8°C and total annual rainfall reaches 1852 mm. The mid-elevation cloud forest has a temperate humid climate with a mean annual temperature of 13.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2527 mm - mist is always present, the relative humidity is over 90%, and the wettest months are May to October. Highlands variously covered with oak, pine and mixed pine and oak forests or chaparral, have a generally temperate subhumid climate, with a cool summer - the annual temperature averages 16°C, the annual rainfall 889 mm. In the north-western portion of the region, the desert scrublands have a semi-warm dry climate, with summer rains; the mean annual temperature is 21.7°C and mean annual rainfall 505 mm (Puig and Bracho 1987; Contreras 1991).

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Vegetation 

The mosaic of vegetation types in the Gómez Farías region is diverse (Wood 1975a; cf. Rzedowski 1978), and includes the northernmost tropical forests on the Atlantic slope. Cloud forest, a formation with a much reduced distribution - in Mexico on less than 1% of the area - is exuberant in this region. The region's principal vegetation types are:

1. Tropical dry forest (dry deciduous forest), which originally included broad flat areas below 300 m at the base of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Most of those areas have been transformed into croplands. Characteristic forest species are Croton cortesianus, Beaucarnea inermis, Acacia coulteri, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cassia emarginata, Ficus cotinifolia, Pseudobombax ellipticum, Bursera simaruba and Neobuxbaumia euphorbioides (Martin 1958; Valiente-Banuet 1984).

2. Tropical semi-deciduous forest (moist semi-deciduous forest) occurs at 300-800 m on portions of Sierra Chiquita, and the eastern slope of Sierra Cucharas east and south of the Gómez Farías region. The continuous canopy is c. 20 m high, and at least half of the species shed their leaves during the dry season (December to April). The dominant trees are Brosimum alicastrum, Bursera simaruba, Croton niveus, Drypetes lateriflora, Guazuma ulmifolia, Aphananthe monoica (Mirandaceltis monoica) and two Lysiloma species. The most common species in the dense shrub layer are Acalypha schiedeana, Psychotria erythrocarpa, Randia laetevirens and Savia sessiflora. Lianas and epiphytes are scarce (Valiente-Banuet 1984; Sosa 1987).

3. Cloud forest occurs at 800-1400 m. It has three tree storeys, the highest in climax stands reaching 25-30 m. Epiphytes and lianas are abundant. The dominant trees are Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus sartorii, Q. germana, Clethra pringlei, Magnolia schiedeana, Podocarpus reichei, Cercis canadensis and Acer skutchii (Puig, Bracho and Sosa 1983). El Cielo Biosphere Reserve was established to protect this area, which is one of the most important sites along the Sierra Madre Oriental.

4. Pure and mixed oak forests cover the largest area of the region between 1500-2200 m. Humid oak forests thrive in ravines and other depressions of the eastern slope, and dry oak forests thrive on the north-facing hills. The common species are Quercus sartorii, Q. affinis, Q. germana, Q. laeta and Q. glabrescens. There are many lianas of Antigonon, Dioscorea, Serjania and Smilax.

5. Pine forest has a discontinuous distribution on summits above 1800 m. The canopy reaches 25 m. The dominant species are Pinus patula, P. pseudostrobus, P. teocote and P. oocarpa. The shrub layer is dominated by Eupatorium, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, Myrica and Staphylea.

6. Mixed pine-oak forest and oak-pine forest are the most extensive vegetation types in the region, occurring at 1500-1900 m in an inland south-west to north-west band. Characteristic are Quercus glabrescens, Q. affinis, Q. mexicana, Q. polymorpha and Q. castanea.

7. In the driest areas of the region between 900-1600 m, two types of desert scrub are present. Shrubs 2-3 m in height dominate, with some arborescent emergents 4-5 m tall and a stratum of low shrubs and herbs less than 1 m in height. About 50% of the plants bear thorns or spines. Some conspicuous species are Acacia anisophylla, A. berlandieri, Cordia boissieri, Dasylirion acrotriche, Helietta parvifolia, Neopringlea integrifolia, Yucca treculeana, Bursera fagaroides, Cassia greggii, Forestiera angustifolia and Randia laetevirens. Agave lechuguilla and Hechtia glomerata are localized. Some species of oak and cactus also occur (Chimal et al. 1989).

8. In addition to these principal vegetation types, there are smaller plant communities, e.g. enclaves of chaparral within the eastern dry oak-pine forest, a marshy pond and a shallow lake at Joya de Salas and lowland riparian vegetation along the major rivers (with species such as Ficus, Taxodium, Platanus, Salix).

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Flora and fungi

The flora of the Gómez Farías region is one of the best known in Mexico, having been studied since 1950 directly or indirectly. Over 1000 species have been recorded, including 95 pteridophytes (cf. Lof 1980) and 21 gymnosperms; the flowering plants are represented by 968 species in 547 genera of 132 families (Johnston et al. 1989). The macroscopic species of fungi are represented by 149 basidiomycetes, 19 ascomycetes and 5 myxomycetes (Heredia 1989; Valenzuela and Chacón-Jiménez 1991).

In the region, particularly in the cloud forest, plants of diverse phytogeographic affinities coexist. Cloud forest habitat harbours one of the richest floras in Mexico. This region's cloud forest is notably unique because taxa (families, genera, species) from so many varied geographic distributions and origins come together (Hernández-Xolocotzi et al. 1951). Of the vascular plant families represented, 56% are tropical, 20% temperate, 19% cosmopolitan and 5% with other distributions. Representative examples among species include: broadly neotropical Bursera simaruba, Callicarpa acuminata, Cedrela odorata, Celtis iguanea and Nectandra sanguinea; Mesoamerican neotropical Aphananthe monoica (Mirandaceltis monoica), Bomarea acutifolia, Cupania glabra and Rapanea myricoides; Mexican neotropical Gymnanthes longipes and Oyedaea ovalifolia and montane neotropical Beilschmiedia mexicana, Clethra pringlei, Magnolia schiedeana and Meliosma oaxacana; and holarctic Acer skutchii, Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Cercis canadensis and Taxus globosa (Puig, Bracho and Sosa 1987).

Generic phytogeographic affinities or lineages considered in a broad perspective add to the northern North American and/or South American genera some representatives from Asia - e.g. Rhus, Dendropanax, Berberis, Cedrela, Bocconia, Meliosma, Ternstroemia and Aphananthe; and as well from Africa - e.g. Bursera, Dioscorea and Trichilia (cf. Puig, Bracho and Sosa 1987; Rzedowski 1993).

There are also broad to narrow endemics in the region. Quercus germana, Q. xalapensis and Ternstroemia sylvatica are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental, whereas Wimmeria concolor, Bernardia interrupta and Decatropis bicolor are endemic to north-eastern Mexico (Puig, Bracho and Sosa 1987). The following are endemic to the Sierra de Guatemala: Louteridium tamaulipense, Eupatorium richardsonii, Senecio richardsonii, Verbesina richardsonii, Omphalodes richardsonii, Comarostaphylis sharpii, Acalypha tamaulipensis, Phyllanthus barbarae and Abutilon procerum (Johnston et al. 1989).

Various species are considered threatened overall or in the region, such as the cacti Ariocarpus retusus, A. trigonus, Ferocactus hamatacanthus, Obregonia denegrii and Pelecyphora aselliformis; the cycads Ceratozamia kusteriana and Dioon edule; the orchids Laelia speciosa and Lycaste deppei; and Abies vejari, Acalypha tamaulipensis, Diospyros riojae, Magnolia schiedeana, Taxus globosa and Tillandsia ionantha (Lucas and Synge 1978; Vovides 1981; Chimal et al. 1989; SEDUE 1991).

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Useful plants 

From a report on useful plants of Tamaulipas (Hernández-Sandoval, González and González-Medrano 1991), the many species and uses that follow were derived for the Gómez Farías region: 167 medicinals, 98 edible, 11 fodder, 5 energy sources, 84 timbers, 16 industrial usage and 69 ornamentals. Several native species are grown in family gardens to provide spices or medicinals. In the past, cloud forest and oak and pine forests were exploited for their timber, and they are now recovering; these forests harbour at least 14 oak and four pine species.

In the tropical forests are several species with commercial value, such as Bursera simaruba ("gumbo limbo") - wood, resin, incense; Enterolobium cyclocarpum ("guanacaste") - timber, fodder; Cedrela odorata ("cedro") - cabinet wood; Tabebuia pentaphylla ("cinco hojas") - timber; Brosimum alicastrum ("ojite" or "ramón") - wood, food (edible seeds, potable latex); and Lysiloma divaricata ("rajador") - timber.

The desert scrublands have various species of local importance, such as Helietta parvifolia - timber; Acacia berlandieri, Gochnatia hypoleuca, Opuntia spp. - fodder; Dasylirion spp. - edible, alcohol fermentation, ornamental; Brahea berlandieri - house-building; Agave spp. (e.g. A. lechuguilla), Yucca carnerosana - fibre; Quercus spp., Rhus microphylla, R. virens, Krameria ramosissima - tannin; and Turnera diffusa, Chrysactinia mexicana, Hesperozygis marifolia, Jatropha dioica, Larrea tridentata - medicinal (Chimal et al. 1989).

Leaves of the small Chamaedorea palms ("camedor") (e.g. C. radicalis, "palmilla") are collected in the area's tropical and cloud forests and exported to the U.S.A. for floral arrangements - a frequent activity in the Gómez Farías region, providing income for the local inhabitants (cf. Marshall 1989). On a much smaller scale, Magnolia schiedeana flowers and Ternstroemia sylvatica ("trompillo") fruits are occasionally collected.

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Social and environmental values 

The Gómez Farías region provides water for villages and the sugar industry in the lowlands, and is the source for irrigation of a vast agricultural zone. The mountain vegetation prevents soil erosion downstream by moderating large volumes of water (from rainfall and mist condensation) that steadily flow into the Guayalejo river system. The Guayalejo River is a tributary of the Pánuco River, which has one of the five most important river basins in the country in surface and draining volume (Contreras 1991).

Because of its environmental heterogeneity and transitional location between the Neotropical and Nearctic biogeographical regions, the Gómez Farías fauna is diverse and unique for Mexico. The terrestrial vertebrate species consist of 24 amphibians, 65 reptiles, 182 resident and seasonal birds and more than 80 mammals (Wood 1975b; Hernández-M. 1989). Two endemic rodents live in the area (Peromyscus ochraventer, Neotoma angustapalata) (Hooper 1953). There are populations of taxa threatened overall or in the region - such as black bear, jaguar, margay, ocelot, jaguarundi, great curassow, military macaw, white-crowned parrot and boa constrictor.

The Gómez Farías region is included in two Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs); it is the extreme southern portion of the Highland Sierra Madre Oriental EBA (A06) and on the western edge of the Lowland Gulf Slope EBA (A07). The region is particularly important for parrots. There are historical records for the maroon-fronted parrot (Rhynchopsitta terrisi), which is a threatened species of mixed conifer forests between 1800-3500 m in a narrow (300 × 60 km) section of the Sierra Madre Oriental. In the lowlands occur the restricted-range green-cheeked or red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) and threatened yellow-headed parrot (A. oratrix). Other restricted-range species in the lower elevations of Gómez Farías are the crimson-collared grosbeak (Rhodothraupis celaeno) and Tamaulipas crow (Corvus imparatus). El Cielo Biosphere Reserve protects cultural concerns as well as the biological diversity. At the time of Spanish conquest, nomadic peoples inhabited the region's lowlands (Pisones, Janambres, Pames, Siquillones). Maps from the 16th and 17th centuries note the names of Huasteco settlements in the Guayalejo-Tamesi Basin. Artefacts and sites from Amerindian cultures have been found through the Sierra Chiquita cloud forest and lowlands. Archaeological studies in southern Tamaulipas caves reveal that early cultures practised agriculture with squash, beans and chili peppers (MacNeish 1964).

In more recent times, with the expansion of timber companies into the region, settlers from western Mexico's Michoacán State moved into the mountains to work the forests. El Cielo BR has a research station, and is an excellent base for conducting cultural or social as well as biological research, and for environmental education.

Bird watching has been a long-standing activity in the region. Throughout the general area, spectacular landscapes and caves can be enjoyed. With appropriate management, the Gómez Farías region could sustain small-scale ecotourism (cf. Wood 1975a, 1975b).

Economic assessment 

About 3500 people live in the Gómez Farías region (1990 census), in one village and 26 small rural settlements. The region is peripheral to the economic activities of Tampico, Ciudad Mante and the state capital Ciudad Victoria. During colonial times the forests of the Sierra Madre Oriental supplied raw materials to towns and mines. On the flat terrain of the adjacent Gulf Coast Plain developed especially the sugarcane industry and cattle-ranching. In the 19th century railroads helped integrate the area with broader markets. During the 1930s, with government investment and private capital, settlements proliferated and agricultural production diversified. Many important crops are now produced in the region such as maize, sorghum, soybeans, rye, tomatoes, other vegetables and cotton (Pepin-Lehalleur 1986).

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Threats 

In lowlands throughout the region, the remaining environmental diversity and biological richness are threatened by modern agricultural and industrial development, such as the highly technological systems of less diversification and mass production. Changes in the landscape are caused by hydrological works and the conversion to vast croplands. Clearing is almost total in the Sierra Madre Occidental valleys and on gentle slopes, and in the adjacent plains.

In some areas, environmental degradation is associated with the typical expansion of settlements; various problems are proportional to the settlement size, such as land clearing, improper soil use, landscape modification, water and air pollution and solid-waste disposal. The pollution of water is mainly from by-products of sugarcane industrialization.

The construction of a road between the villages Gómez Farías and El Azteca is expected, which will separate the tropical semi-deciduous forest from the montane vegetation types with unknown ecological consequences. The tropical semi-deciduous forest is already under the most pressure, because it is closer to the major populated areas - it urgently needs conservation action.

In the highlands, deforestation is a possible threat as a result of shifting agriculture as well as logging. The subsistence economy of the mountain residents is based on cultivating a plot of 3-5 ha for food, gathering fuelwood, logging for home construction and selectively harvesting forest products for income. Intensive timber extraction in the region took place from 1952 to 1973, but logging has diminished and become local. Timber companies persistently seek permits to log the buffer zone of El Cielo Biosphere Reserve.

Livestock impact vegetation and soil, such as the free-roaming cattle in the forests. Browsing by goats is changing the vegetation structure and floristic composition of desert scrubs.

Despite federal and state laws regulating conservation of wild fauna and flora, over-exploitation of plants and animals occurs in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve. Particular regulations for the use of species in El Cielo BR need to be enacted and enforced. There are problems for example with collection of orchids and cacti, extraction of palm leaves and gathering of fuelwood.

Of basic concern is the scarce attention from government agencies and managers for the reserve. Budgets for maintenance have been reduced, the protection of identified threatened species has diminished, and support is lacking for environmental education and research programmes.

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Conservation 

Rancho del Cielo began as the remote homestead of the Canadian J.W.F. Harrison (1901-1966), a self-taught botanist and horticulturist (growing tuberous begonias and amaryllises) who deeded his land to a non-profit Mexican corporation with the stipulation that the cloud forest be preserved. Beginning in 1964, the area has served as a biological research station (at 1140 m) for Texas Southmost College, of Brownsville in U.S.A. Some of its funding has come from visiting bird-watching enthusiasts (Wood 1975b).

In 1985 the State of Tamaulipas declared 1445.3 km² as El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, which helps to protect c. 60% of the Gómez Farías region. In 1987 the reserve was officially recognized within the UNESCO-MAB reserve network. The reserve has two core zones: the larger area (287 km²) includes a broad portion of cloud forest and a strip through the region's altitudinal gradient; the smaller area (78 km²) includes especially tropical forests. The region's brushlands are least represented within the reserve.

Because of the rugged terrain, the northern, western and southern areas of the Gómez Farías region are less accessible and less threatened by development. The region remained nearly undisturbed until the 1950s, when the major logging began. Cycads, cacti and orchids are regulated by CITES, with the genera Ceratozamia, Ariocarpus, Obregonia and Pelecyphora in Appendix I. The difficult access and low human population within the reserve have kept this area relatively pristine, despite limited enforcement.

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Map 20. Gómez Farías Region and El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, Mexico (CPD Site MA9)

References

Bracho, R. and Sosa, V.J. (1987). Edafología. In Puig, H. and Bracho, R. (eds), El bosque mesófilo de montaña de Tamaulipas. Instituto de Ecología, Public. 21, Mexico, D.F. Pp. 29-37.

Castro-Meza, B.I., Plácido de la Cruz, J.M. and Almaguer, S.P. (1989). Fisiografía y riesgo de erosión en la Reserva de la Biósfera "El Cielo". Biotam, Univ. Autón. Tamaulipas, Méx. 1(1): 28-37.

Chimal, A., González-Medrano, F., Díaz, I., Hernández, A., Noriega, R., Bravo, E., Pérez, J. and Vázquez, J. (1989). Investigación sobre flora y fauna silvestres de la Reserva de la Biósfera "El Cielo", Tamaulipas. Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecología (SEDUE) and Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico, D.F. 106 pp. Unpublished technical report.

Contreras, A. (1991). Conservación, producción y desarrollo rural: el caso de la Reserva de la Biósfera "El Cielo", Tamaulipas, México. Thesis, División de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico, D.F. 133 pp.

Ferrusquía-Villafranca, I. (1993). Geology of Mexico: a synopsis. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 3-107.

Heredia, G. (1989). Estudio de los hongos de la Reserva de la Biósfera El Cielo, Tamaulipas. Consideraciones sobre la distribución y ecología de algunas especies. Acta Bot. Mex. 7: 1-18.

Hernández-M., A. (1989). Importancia de la reserva "El Cielo" para los mamíferos de Tamaulipas. Biotam, Univ. Autón. Tamaulipas, Méx. 1: 13- 20.

Hernández-Sandoval, L., González, C. and González-Medrano, F. (1991). Plantas útiles de Tamaulipas. Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. México, Ser. Bot. 62: 1-38.

Hernández-Xolocotzi, E., Crum, H.A., Fox Jr., W.B. and Sharp, A.J. (1951). A unique vegetation area in Tamaulipas. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78: 458-463.

Hooper, E.T. (1953). Notes on mammals of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 544: 1-12.

Johnston, M.C., Nixon, K., Nesom, G.L. and Martínez, M. (1989). Listado de plantas vasculares conocidas de la Sierra de Guatemala, Gómez Farías, Tamaulipas, México. Biotam, Univ. Autón. Tamaulipas, Méx. 1(2): 21-33.

Lof, L.V. (1980). The ferns of the Rancho del Cielo region. M.S. thesis, Pan American University, Edinburg, Texas.

Lucas, G. and Synge, H. (1978). The IUCN plant red data book. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland. 540 pp.

MacNeish, R.S. (1964). Food-gathering and incipient agriculture stage in prehistoric Middle America. In Wauchope, R. (ed.), Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 1. West, R.C. (ed.), Natural environment and early cultures. University Texas Press, Austin. Pp. 413-426.

Marshall, N.T. (1989). Parlor palms. Increasing popularity threatens Central American species. TRAFFIC USA 9(3): 1-3.

Martin, P.S. (1958). A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gómez Farías region, Tamaulipas, México. Misc. Public. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 101: 1-102.

Pepin-Lehalleur, M. (1986). Formación y dinámica de un sistema agrario regional: la región del Mante, Tamaulipas. El Colegio de México, Mexico, D.F. 24 pp. Unpublished report.

Puig, H. (1976). Végétation de la Huasteca, Mexique. Etudes mésoaméricaines Vol. V. Mission Archeologique et Ethnologique Française au Mexique. Mexico, D.F. 531 pp.

Puig, H. and Bracho, R. (1987). Climatología. In Puig, H. and Bracho, R. (eds), El bosque mesófilo de montaña de Tamaulipas. Instituto de Ecología, Public. 21, Mexico, D.F. Pp. 39-54.

Puig, H., Bracho, R. and Sosa, V.J. (1983). Composición florística y estructura del bosque mesófilo en Gómez Farías, Tamaulipas, México. Biótica 8: 339-359.

Puig, H., Bracho, R. and Sosa, V.J. (1987). Affinités phytogéographiques de la fôret tropicale humide de montagne de la réserve MAB "El Cielo" de Gómez-Farías, Tamaulipas, Mexique. Compt. Rend. Séances Soc. Biogéogr. 63: 115-140.

Rzedowski, J. (1978). Vegetación de México. Editorial Limusa, Mexico, D.F. 432 pp.

Rzedowski, J. (1993). Diversity and origins of the phanerogamic flora of Mexico. In Ramamoorthy, T.P., Bye, R., Lot, A. and Fa, J.E. (eds), Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 129-144.

SEDUE (1991). Listado de especies raras, amenazadas, en peligro de extinción, o sujetas a protección especial, y sus endemismos en la República Mexicana. Flora terrestre y acuática. Diario Oficial 17/05/91: 9- 24.

Sosa, V.J. (1987). Generalidades de la región de Gómez Farías. In Puig, H. and Bracho, R. (eds), El bosque mesófilo de montaña de Tamaulipas. Instituto de Ecología, Public. 21, Mexico, D.F. Pp. 15-28.

Valenzuela, R. and Chacón-Jiménez, S. (1991). Los poliporáceos de México. III. Algunas especies de la Reserva de la Biósfera El Cielo, Tamaulipas. Rev. Mex. Mic. 7: 39-70.

Valiente-Banuet, A. (1984). Análisis de la vegetación de la región de Gómez Farías, Tamaulipas. Tesis de Licenciatura, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, D.F. 92 pp.

Vovides, A.P. (1981). Lista preliminar de plantas mexicanas raras o en peligro de extinción. Biótica 6: 219-228.

Wood, P. (1975a). A glorious botanical confusion. In Jackson, D.D., Wood, P. and the editors of Time-Life Books, The Sierra Madre. Time-Life Books, New York. Pp. 104-117.

Wood, P. (1975b). Where the birds are. In Jackson, D.D., Wood, P. and the editors of Time-Life Books, The Sierra Madre. Time-Life Books, New York. Pp. 84-103.

Authors

This Data Sheet was written by Vinicio J. Sosa, Arturo Hernández and Armando Contreras (Instituto de Ecología, Apdo. Postal 63, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico).

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