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TABLE 9. AVERAGE ANNUAL VALUE OF TERRESTRIAL WILD PLANT RESOURCES FOR NORTH AMERICA
Biome Average annual value (US$ million) (1976-1980)
   
Biome
Sub-
totals
Biome
total
1. Boreal forest and taiga
    a. timber from Canada
    b. food and industrial products
        blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
        wild rice (Zizania aquatica) 0.9

1402.1

2.1
0.9
1405.1
2. Temperate mixed forest
    a. timber from U.S.A.
    b. timber from Canada
    c. medicine: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
    d. food and industrial products:
        sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
        blueberry
        wild rice
        cedar leaf oil from Thuja occidentalis (white cedar)

470.0
1688.9
      0.4

21.4
10.6
2.3
0.3
2193.9
3. Temperate broadleaved forest
    a. timber from U.S.A.
    b. timber from Canada
    c. medicine: American ginseng
    d. food and industrial: sugar maple products
    e. highbush blueberry (other half of US$44.8 million)

1353.4
15.0
7.7
1.5
1377.6
4. Temperate maritime forest
    a. timber from U.S.A.
    b. timber from Canada

6638.3
1715.4
8353.7
5. Subtropical forest
    a. timber from U.S.A.
    b. food and industrial products: pecan (Carya illinoensis)

6167.5
9.2
6176.7
6. Mediterranean type
    a. timber from U.S.A.

502.3
502.3
7. Prairie
    a. timber from U.S.A.
    b. medicine: American ginseng
    c. food and industrial products: pecan
    d. new domesticates:
        wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.; part of total
        US$1.9 million with 2 other biomes)

51.9
0.4
12.7
65.0
8. Steppe
    a. food and industrial products:
        oregano (Origanum spp.) and Lippia spp.
        wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.; part of total
        US$1.9 million with 2 other biomes)

   
0.3
   0.3
9. Desert
    a. food and industrial products:
       tampico, made from Agave lechequilla and
       Yucca carnerosa
       and candelilla wax, from several species of
       Euphorbia and Pedilanthus/source primarily Mexico
       oregano

  
  
2.4
  
0.6
0.3
3.3
10. Mountains
      a. timber from U.S.A.
      b. timber from Canada
      c. food and industrial products:
          tampico
          candelilla wax
      d. new domesticates:
          wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.; part of total
          US$1.9 million with 2 other biomes)

1230.5
1485.5

2.4
0.7

2719.4
Total   22,797.3
Source: Prescott-Allen and Prescott-Allen (1986)