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(Tropical) Andes: CPD Site SA28

REGION OF LOS NEVADOS
NATURAL NATIONAL PARK

Colombia

Location:  West of Bogotá in central Andean Colombia (4°10'-5°12'N), a transect including both slopes of Central Cordillera between Magdalena and Cauca rivers, between latitudes 4°42'-4°47'N and longitudes 74°49'-75°54'W.
Area: 
Region c. 12,200 km²; National Park 583 km², three other parks total c. 115 km².
Altitude: 
.
Transect on eastern slope 300-4600 m, on western slope 4600-1000 m.
Vegetation: 
In highlands, bunchgrass fields and "frailejones"; in mid-altitude zone, oak forests of Quercus humboldtii and forests with Weinmannia rollottii; in medium-low zone, forests of Lauraceae and Hedyosmum racemosum; in lower zone, dry forests with Ochroma, Cecropia and Leguminosae.
Flora: 
Species of vascular plants recorded c. 1250, lichens 300, bryophytes 200, macroscopic fungi 180; highlands with high endemism.
Useful plants: 
Species used for medicinals, food, crafts, construction, timber, replanting of degraded areas.
Other values: 
Threatened animal species; permanent snow and icecaps for mountain sports; thermal springs of Santa Rosa and Nevado del Ruiz; páramo lakes important reservoirs for water and sport fishing.
Threats: 
Volcanic eruptions, burning of páramo, cattle-grazing, logging for charcoal production and fuelwood, erosion, park in-holdings.
Conservation: 
Los Nevados Natural National Park; Ucumarí Regional Park; Cañón del Quindío and another protected area (in Línea sector) administered by Corporación Regional de Quindío.

Map 64: CPD Site SA28
References

Geography

The Ruiz-Tolima massif has formed from the Pliocene to Holocene over an undulating high plateau slightly inclined toward the east and dipping more to the west, which was derived from a surface of polygenic flattening of the pre-Cretaceous Mesozoic and Oligocene.

There are eight principal volcanoes aligned approximately south-north along 350 km between latitudes 4°30'-5°15'N and longitudes 75°20'-75°30'W: Cerro Machín, Nevado del Tolima, Nevado del Quindío, Páramo de Santa Rosa, Nevado de Santa Isabel, Nevado del Cisne, Nevado del Ruiz and Cerro Bravo. Los Nevados Natural National Park (extending altitudinally from 2600-5400 m) is within latitudes 4°50'-5°00'N and longitudes 75°15'-75°45'W; it includes part of the municipality Villamaría in the Department Caldas, Santa Rosa de Cabal and Pereira in Department Risaralda, Salento in Department Quindío, and Ibagué, Líbano, Villahermosa and Casabianca in Department Tolima (Map 64) (INDERENA 1984).

The heritage of the glaciers affects the mountains above 3000 m. Glaciers presently cover a total of 35-40 km² on the summits of El Ruiz (5400 m), Santa Isabel (5100 m) and El Tolima (5200 m). Characteristics such as U-shaped valleys and moraines are remnants of the glacial activity in the Pleistocene covering 860 km², down to 2700 m on the eastern slope and 3200 m on the western slope.

The geomorphology of the transect of Los Nevados NNP basically includes relief, sculpture and lithology. The western slope is steeper and shorter than the eastern slope, especially above 2200 m. In the higher elevations above 3800-3500 m on the slopes of the volcanoes, the sculpturing is produced from lava flats covered by ashes which dried out from surface drainage. Between 3800-2300 m, the sculpture occurs as steps and sierra with strong dissection especially along the western slope. From 2300-1200 m there are hills more or less strongly dissected; along the western slope is a series of small north-south ranges separated by wide valleys. Below 1300 m are recent alluvial formations (Pérez-P. and van der Hammen 1983).

On the higher parts of the massif, above 3500 m on the eastern slope and 2200 m on the western slope, volcanic extrusive rocks are dominant, basically andesitic lava. The remainder of the eastern slope is formed by plutonic intrusive rocks of the Bosque, Santa Isabel and Ibagué batholiths, interrupted by outcrops of metamorphic rocks (amphibolites, schist, gneissic quartz-feldspar). The Magdalena River Valley is filled by Tertiary continental formations, covered in large part by cones and recent alluvial formations. The western slope has metamorphic rocks (schist, graphitic quartz-mica, amphibolite, amphibolitic schist) and metasedimentary rocks. The volcanism that developed from the mid-Miocene in the region is characterized by thick deposits of andesitic lava over c. 1500 km²; a continuous coating of volcanic ash sometimes 10 m thick is found in some sectors (Thouret 1989). The soil has developed from volcanic ashes.

Along the altitudinal transect in this mountain system are eight main soil units having nineteen main groups of soils, and significant variations of temperature and rainfall (Thouret 1983; Thouret and Faivre 1989). Below 700 m, the soils are eutrophic (eutropept, eutrustox, haplustalf), alluvial (fluvaquent, ustifluvent), andosolic (andic eutropept) or hydromorphic (tropaquent, tropaquept, fluvaquent); the average annual temperature varies between 24°-28°C and the minimum annual precipitation is 1000-1500 mm. From 1100-2300 m, the soils are humitropept, dystropept, haplustalf, eutropept or ustropept; the average temperature and precipitation vary between 14°-20°C and 2000-2300 mm. From 2300-3800 m, the soils are cryandept, dystrandept, andaquept, humitropept or aquic dystropept; the temperature and precipitation vary between 6°-14°C and 2000-3000 mm. From 3800-4500 m, the soils are andosoles (andepts) - andosolic (vitrandept) or vitric andosoles (cryandept); the temperature and precipitation vary between 0°-6°C and 1500-2000 mm. On the western slope the thermal gradient of the air changes 0.54°C with every 100 m rise, on the eastern slope by 0.51°C.

The relation between soil and air temperature along the gradient allows for the establishment of four zones, with "thermal ruptures" at 1280 m, 1980 m and 3700 m. Areas with thermal homogeneity have higher precipitation; in the two zones with less precipitation, there are strong temperature contrasts: below 1000 m and above 3500 m (Thouret 1983). The most rain falls in April-May and October-November, and the driest periods are in January-February and July-August. Because of humid winds from the Pacific Ocean, the western slope receives more moisture than the eastern slope.

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Vegetation

Pioneer communities are established on pebbly soil in open spaces of the superpáramo, dominated by Draba spp. (Brassicaceae) and Pentacalia gelida, Senecio canescens and Erigeron chionophyllus (Asteraceae). In the páramo region are bunchgrass fields (Calamagrostis effusa, C. recta), bunchgrass-frailejones and frailejones-shrubland characterized by the "frailejón" Espeletia hartwegiana subsp. centroandina.

In the high fringe of the Andean montane region are dwarf forests (3-8 m high) of Hesperomeles lanuginosa. From this forest border downward to the base of the gradient, different compositions and areas of distribution of vegetation types occur, with well-developed mesic forests of two (to three) storeys - the canopy 20-35 m high, the lower arboreal stratum 10-15 m high. Eastern-slope forests are dominated by Quercus humboldtii, which is replaced at the lower boundary by forests of Lauraceae (Ocotea, Nectandra). On the western slope, the forests of Hesperomeles are replaced by forests of Weinmannia rollottii, and in the mid-zone, by forests of Hedyosmum racemosum. In the lower zone, sparse dry forests occur dominated by species of Cecropia (Cecropiaceae), Mauria (Anacardiaceae) and Casearia (Flacourtiaceae) (Rangel-Ch. 1991).

The syntaxonomic arrangement for the transect vegetation of Los Nevados NNP is as follows (Sturm and Rangel-Ch. 1985; Cleef, Rangel-Ch. and Salamanca-V. 1983, 1996; Salamanca-V., Cleef and Rangel-Ch. 1996):

Mostly eastern and western slopes

1. General páramo region (4700 m to 3800-3750 m)

1.1. High fringe or superpáramo (4700-4100 m)
Three Associations: Senecio canescentis-Cerastietum floccosi. Lupino alopecuroidis-Agrostietum araucanae. Diplostephio eriophori-Loricarietum colombianae.

1.2. Middle area or páramo proper (4100-3750 m)
Five Associations: Calandrinio acaulis-Calamagrostietum rectae. Calamagrostietum effusae-rectae. Espeletio hartwegianae-Calamagrostietum effusae. Festuco dolichophyllae-Calamagrostietum effusae. Only on western slope: an association of Aciachne pulvinata and Escallonia myrtilloides.

Eastern slope, Santa Isabel Volcano to Venadillo in Tolima

2. Andean region (3700-2500 m)

2.1. High-Andean fringe (3700-3300 m)
Alliance 1: Diplostephio floribundi-bicoloris-Hesperomelion lanuginosae. Two Associations: Gynoxyo baccharoidis-Diplostephietum floribundi (3700-3600 m). Chusqueo scandentis-Hedyosmetum bonplandiani (3500-3300 m).

2.2. Mid-belt or typical Andean zone (3200-2500 m)
Alliance 2: Monotropo uniflorae-Quercion humboldtii. Two Associations: Weinmannio magnifoliae-Quercetum humboldtii (3110-2940 m). Clusio minoris-Quercetum humboldtii (2700-2500 m).

3. Sub-Andean region (2300-1200 m)

3.1. Mid-belt or typical sub-Andean zone (2300-1500 m)
Alliance 3: Hedyosmo racemosi-Nectandrion caucanae. Two Associations: Nectandretum acutifoliae-caucanae (2300-1900 m). Chrysochlamydo dependentis-Nectandretum globosae (1700-1500 m).

3.2. High tropical fringe
Association Protio macrophyllae-Rheedietum madruñae (1300-1200 m).

4. Tropical or equatorial region (900-300 m)
Order Erythroxylo citrifolii-Coccolobietalia obovatae. Alliance 4: Carludovico palmatae-Acalyphion villosae. Association with two Subassociations: Ardisio foetidae-Cupanietum latifoliae-Ochrometosum (840 m), Ardisio foetidae-Cupanietum latifoliae-Maurietosum (710 m). Also the Association Mayno suaveolentis-Casearietum corymbosae (500-300 m).

Western slope, Santa Rosa Volcano to Puerto Caldas in Risaralda

2. Andean region (3700-2900 m)

2.1. High-Andean fringe (3700-3500 m)
Alliance 5: Neurolepido aristatae-Oreopanacion nitidi. Three Associations, the first (3700-3650 m) with two Subassociations: Gynoxyo baccharoidis-Hesperomeletum lanuginosae-Pentacalietosum (3700 m), Gynoxyo baccharoidis-Hesperomeletum lanuginosae-Myrsinetosum perreticulatae (3650 m). Monochaeto lindeniani-Weinmannietum mariquitae (3500 m). Gordonio speciosae-Weinmannietum pubescentis (3300 m).

2.2. Typical Andean zone (3100-2900 m)
Alliance 6: Chusqueo scandentis-Weinmannion rollottii. Two Associations: Chusqueo scandentis-Brunellietum goudotii (3100 m). Tovomito guianensis-Clusietum multiflorae (2900 m).

3. Sub-Andean region (2700-1300 m)
Alliance 7: Palicoureo angustifoliae-Hedyosmion racemosi. Two Associations: Brunellio occidentalis-Moretum insignis (2700-2000 m). Ocoteo discoloris-Huertetum glandulosae (2000-1300 m), Subassociation Ocoteo discoloris-Huertetum glandulosae-Ladenbergietosum.

4. Tropical or equatorial region (1000 m)
Association Amyro pinnatae-Crotonetum glabelli.

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Flora

In the transect and nearby páramo localities, the inventory recorded 1250 species of vascular plants, 200 of bryophytes, 300 of lichens and 180 of macroscopic fungi (Rangel-Ch. et al. 1996; Wolf 1989; Boekhout and Pulido-L. 1989). In the high terrain, diversity and concentration of species is greater than in the middle and lower zones. Roughly grouping families with similar herbaceous-shrubby growth characteristics (such as Polypodiaceae s.l., Araceae, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Orchidaceae), and families with arborescent (woody) growth characteristics (such as Rubiaceae, Leguminosae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae), the groups are balanced in number of species. Table 61 gives the characteristic dominant features at the family and generic levels (Rangel-Ch. 1996).

Species with endemic distribution include: In the superpáramo, Draba pachythyrsa, D. pennell-hazenii (Brassicaceae); and Senecio isabelis, Pentacalia gelida, Diplostephium eriophorum (Asteraceae). In the páramo and the high-Andean areas, Berberis diazii (Berberidaceae); Oreopanax ruizianus (Araliaceae); Siphocampylus tolimanus (Campanulaceae); Peperomia pennellii (Piperaceae); Aphelandra trianae (Acanthaceae); Gunnera magnifica (Gunneraceae); Lupinus ruizensis (Leguminosae); Tibouchina andreana (Melastomataceae); Acaena ovalifolia (Rosaceae); Bartsia cf. pedicularioides, Pedicularis incurva (Scrophulariaceae); Gentianella dasyantha, Halenia tolimae (Gentianaceae); Diplostephium rupestre, D. violaceum; Guzmania vamvolxemii (Bromeliaceae); and Altensteinia rostrata, Platystele schmidthchenii (Orchidaceae). In the Andean region, Passiflora quindiensis (Passifloraceae); Myrrhidendron glaucescens (Apiaceae); Aegiphila pennellii (Verbenaceae); and Valeriana quindiensis (Valerianaceae) (Rangel-Ch., Cleef and Salamanca-V. 1996).

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Useful plants

  • In folk medicine: Aspidosperma polyneuron, Mandevilla trianae (Apocynaceae); Ilex sp. (Aquifoliaceae); Oreopanax capitatus, O. floribundus, O. ruizianus (Araliaceae); Achyrocline satureioides, Espeletia hartwegiana, Gnaphalium americanum, G. elegans, G. graveolens, G. pellitum, Hypochoeris sessiliflora, Senecio formosus (Asteraceae); Berberis glauca (Berberidaceae); Cordia alliodora, C. bogotensis, C. cylindrostachya, C. riparia, C. spinescens, Tournefortia fuliginosa, T. scabrida (Boraginaceae); Draba pennell-hazenii (Brassicaceae); Siphocampylus giganteus (Campanulaceae); Viburnum pichinchense, V. triphyllum (Caprifoliaceae); Cecropia arachnoidea (Cecropiaceae); Hedyosmum bonplandianum (Chloranthaceae); Hirtella americana (Chrysobalanaceae); Clusia alata, C. columnaris, C. multiflora, Rheedia madruño (Clusiaceae); Pernettya prostrata (Ericaceae); Croton glabellus, C. leptostachyus (Euphorbiaceae); Mayna suaveolens (Flacourtiaceae); Besleria sp. (Gesneriaceae); Oryctanthus botryostachys, Phoradendron piperoides (Loranthaceae); Lycopodium clavatum (Lycopodiaceae); Miconia ligustrina (Melastomataceae); Chlorophora tinctoria, Ficus glabrata, F. radula, Olmedia aspera (Moraceae); Ardisia sapida (Myrsinaceae); Peperomia glabella (Piperaceae); Monnina phytolaccaefolia (Polygalaceae); Asplenium occidentale, A. monanthes, Blechnum occidentale, Polypodium glaucophyllum, P. lanceolatum, P. percussum (Polypodiaceae s.l.); Ranunculus geranioides (Ranunculaceae); Lachemilla pectinata, L. fulvescens, Rubus bogotensis, R. glabratus (Rosaceae); Cinchona pubescens (Rubiaceae); Amyris pinnata (Rutaceae); and Viola stipularis (Violaceae).
  • Food: Passiflora vitifolia; and Annona sp. (Annonaceae).
  • For home construction: Aspidosperma polyneuron.
  • Dyes: Viola stipularis; and Senecio formosus.
  • Forest species: Cordia alliodora; Tovomita guianensis (Clusiaceae); Hyeronima colombiana (Euphorbiaceae); Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae); Ficus glabrata, F. velutina; Podocarpus oleifolius (Podocarpaceae); Cinchona pubescens, Rondeletia pubescens (Rubiaceae); Pouteria caimito (Sapotaceae); and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae).

The references consulted were García-B. (1974-1975); Correa-Q. and Bernal (1989-1991); Murillo-P. (1983); and Mozo-M. (1968).

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Social and environmental values

At present there is no knowledge of indigenous settlements. The eastern slope of the Central Cordillera was inhabited by the Panches, the western slope by the Quimbayas (INDERENA 1984).

In the area of the transect there are diverse environments and landscapes that merit conservation for their sociocultural values. In the high páramo, glaciers and snow cover the mountain crests; numerous lakes constitute an important reservoir for water that supports the agriculture of major parts of the region. Lake Otún and surrounding marshes are the source of the Otún River, whose waters are utilized by the Pereira aqueduct and surrounding municipalities.

Threatened fauna in the region include mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) and spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Among the endemic animals are rufous-fronted parakeet (Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons) and a bearded helmetcrest (Oxypogon guerinii strubelii) and the frog Osornophryne percrassa.

The Central Andean páramo Endemic Bird Area (EBA B60) and Subtropical inter-Andean Colombia EBA (B12) embrace the entire Central Andean cordillera from the páramo zone down to the subtropical (mid-Andean) forest. Twenty-seven restricted-range bird species occur in these two EBAs, 14 of which are entirely confined to the region. Due to increasing disturbance of the specialized vegetation, 15 bird species are considered threatened. In the drier low-lying zones of the adjacent Cauca and Magdalena valleys, this area overlaps with the Dry inter-Andean valleys EBA (B13), where four restricted-range birds occur.

Economic assessment

Generally, the only zone free of direct use of the soil is the superpáramo, between 4200-4800 m. In the páramo (3500-4200 m), extensive cattle-raising is the principal activity. In the Andean montane region (2500-3500 m), most of the land is utilized for potato crops. Between 1800-2500 m, cattle-raising and agriculture (especially maize) are the main production; between 1100-1800 m, the most extensive cultivation in the sub-Andean zone takes place mostly - coffee trees. Between 500-1100 m, sugarcane is cultivated; below 500 m, mechanized methods are applied in cultivation of rice, cotton and sorghum (Pérez-P. 1983).

Near the glaciers there are tourist shelters and winter sports are encouraged. The lake zone, especially Lake Otún, is used for sport fishing of introduced rainbow trout (Salmo gardneri). In the mid-part of the western slope, in Santa Rosa de Cabal and near Nevado del Ruiz, natural thermal spas are used commercially.

Two resources could be exploited: sulphur deposits in the Santa Rosa Volcano zone, provided appropriate technologies are applied that do not destroy the landscape, and the generation of electric energy from thermal water sources. But preferentially, tourism is to be encouraged, principally in the zones where geomorphology offers a wide variety of environments in relatively short distances. The highest ice and snow of El Ruiz are readily accessible and well known to Colombians (INDERENA 1984).

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Threats

In high terrain, the principal threat is volcanic eruptions. The palaeoecological history of the zone shows several strong eruptions, and three of the eight volcanoes are still active (Salamanca-V. 1991; Salomons 1986; Melief 1985). Burning of grass to provide more palatable grazing for cattle diminishes the diversity of the vegetation, making it uniform and indirectly producing soil erosion (Verweij and Budde 1992). The eroded sediments reach the lakes, causing siltation. Trampling by cattle on fragile natural systems, such as the peat bogs and marshes of the páramo, produces profound changes in the physical medium and the biotic composition. Currently the livestock is cattle - introduction of sheep and goats must be discouraged. Pressures exerted by gathering fuelwood, grazing cattle and growing potatoes in the zone between the Andean montane region and the páramo have produced rapid transformation of the landscape and altered the hydrologic cycle (cf. Verweij and Beukema 1992).

Changes in precipitation can be associated with the accelerated transformation of natural ecologic systems, especially in the high terrain. In the Andean and sub-Andean zones, the exhaustion of forest resources has diminished the flow in rivers and ravines that provide water to municipal aqueducts.

In the mid-zone the felling of trees has reached alarming proportions. On the eastern slope, the oak groves (Quercus humboldtii) are very depleted, whereas on the western slopes, where soils have better hydromorphic conditions, conservation of the forest is acceptable, but in the last 50 years this zone has suffered from logging and charcoal production. The middle and lower zones (the coffee-growing belt) need the greatest attention, since there are very few places with original flora and fauna. In the lowest region, conditions are similar to the coffee-growing belt. In these areas there are larger human settlements and the pressure on the natural resources is almost unbearable; the use of fuelwood for domestic and in some cases semi-industrial applications (bakery ovens, artisan kilns) threatens the very existence of the small forest remnants.

In Los Nevados Natural National Park (which was established in 1973, with some protection from 1959), ownership of the land is not always clear, and there is private property within the park that creates obstacles to any programme of recovery.

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Conservation

In the transect region and surroundings, there are the following protected areas: Los Nevados Natural National Park, Ucumarí Regional Park (42.4 km²) under administration of Corporación Autónoma Regional de Risaralda (CARDER) and two areas under protection of Corporación Regional de Quindío (CRQ): Cañón del Quindío (c. 38 km²) contiguous to the NNP, and in Línea sector, 35 km². The areas surrounding Lake Otún, with peat bogs and páramo marshes, have been incorporated into the system of supervision and control of CARDER, so preservation is guaranteed. In Marsella (Risaralda), a botanical garden has generated local interest to replant critical areas in order to manage water for human use.

The creation and impulse generated by ecological groups, especially in Pereira, Manizales and Santa Rosa de Cabal, have favourably influenced environmental education and conscience-raising within the communities. It is an urgent necessity to delimit Forest Reserves (buy land) in the sub-Andean region between 1200-2500 m; although this zone has greater human presence, it presents the largest diversity in the vegetation.

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Map 64. Region of Los Nevados Natural National Park, Colombia (CPD Site SA28), showing transect

References

Boekhout, T. and Pulido-L., M.M. (1989). The occurrence of macrofungi and their habitats in vegetations along the Parque Los Nevados transect. In van der Hammen, T., Díaz-P., S. and Alvarez, V.J. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (segunda parte). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems/Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropandinos Vol. 3. J. Cramer, Berlin. Pp. 507-515.

Cleef, A.M., Rangel-Ch., J.O. and Salamanca-V., S. (1983). Reconocimiento de la vegetación de la parte alta del transecto Parque Los Nevados. In van der Hammen, T., Pérez-P., A. and Pinto-E., P. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (introducción y datos iniciales). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems/Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropandinos Vol. 1. J. Cramer, Vaduz. Pp. 150-173.

Cleef, A.M., Rangel-Ch., J.O. and Salamanca-V., S. (1998). The Andean forests of the Parque Los Nevados transect, Cordillera Central, Colombia. In van der Hammen, T. and dos Santos, A. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems/Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropandinos Vol. 4/5. J. Cramer, Berlin. In press.

Correa-Q., J.E. and Bernal, H.Y. (1989-1991). Especies vegetales promisorias de los países del Convenio Andrés Bello. Vols. I, V and VI. Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena (JUNAC). Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Spain and Secretaría Ejecutiva del Convenio Andrés Bello (SECAB), Bogotá. 541 pp., 569 pp., 507 pp.

García-B., H. (1974-1975). Flora medicinal de Colombia, Vols. 1-3. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. 561 pp., 538 pp., 495 pp.

INDERENA (1984). Colombia parques nacionales. Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Medio Ambiente (INDERENA), Bogotá. 263 pp.

Melief, A.B.M. (1985). Late Quaternary paleoecology of the Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados (Cordillera Central) and Sumapaz (Cordillera Oriental) areas, Colombia. Thesis. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam. 162 pp.

Mozo-M., T. (1968). Catálogos de especies forestales colombianas. Nombres vernáculos y científicos, 2nd edition. Mimeographed.

Murillo-P., M.T. (1983). Usos de los helechos en Suramérica con especial referencia a Colombia. Biblioteca J.J. Triana No. 5. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. 156 pp.

Pérez-P., A. (1983). Algunos aspectos del clima. In van der Hammen, T., Pérez-P., A. and Pinto-E., P. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (introducción y datos iniciales). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 1. J. Cramer, Vaduz. Pp. 38-47.

Pérez-P., A. and van der Hammen, T. (1983). Unidades eco-geográficas y ecosistemas en el Parque Natural Los Nevados: una síntesis inicial. In van der Hammen, T., Pérez-P., A. and Pinto-E., P. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (introducción y datos iniciales). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 1. J. Cramer, Vaduz. Pp. 277-300.

Rangel-Ch., J.O. (1991). Vegetación y ambiente en tres gradientes montañosos de Colombia. Ph.D. thesis. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam. 349 pp.

Rangel-Ch., J.O. (1998). Diversidad, frecuencia de las familias, géneros y especies de plantas superiores en el transecto del Parque Los Nevados. In van der Hammen, T. and dos Santos, A. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 5. J. Cramer, Berlin. In press.

Rangel-Ch., J.O., Idrobo, J., Cleef, A.M. and van der Hammen, T. (1998). Lista del material herborizado en el transecto Parque Los Nevados. In van der Hammen, T. and dos Santos, A. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 5. J. Cramer, Berlin. In press.

Rangel-Ch., J.O., Cleef, A.M. and Salamanca-V., S. (1998). The equatorial interandean and subandean forests of the Parque Los Nevados transect, Cordillera Central, Colombia. In van der Hammen, T. and dos Santos, A. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 5. J. Cramer, Berlin. In press.

Salamanca-V., S. (1991). The vegetation of the páramo and its dynamics in the volcanic massif Ruiz-Tolima (Cordillera Central, Colombia). Ph.D. thesis. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam. 122 pp.

Salamanca-V., S., Cleef, A.M. and Rangel-Ch., J.O. (1998). The páramo vegetation of the Parque Nacional Los Nevados, Cordillera Central, Colombia. In van der Hammen, T. and dos Santos, A. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol.. 5. J. Cramer, Berlin. In press.

Salomons, J.B. (1986). Paleoecology of volcanic soils in the Colombian Central Cordillera (Parque Nacional Natural de Los Nevados). Dissert. Bot. 95. 212 pp.

Sturm, H. and Rangel-Ch., J.O. (1985). Ecología de los páramos andinos: una visión preliminar integrada. Biblioteca J.J. Triana No. 9. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. 292 pp.

Thouret, J.-C. (1983). La temperatura de los suelos: temperatura estabilizada en profundidad y correlaciones térmicas y pluviométricas. In van der Hammen, T., Pérez-P., A. and Pinto-E., P. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (introducción y datos iniciales). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 1. J. Cramer, Vaduz. Pp. 142-149.

Thouret, J.-C. (1989). Geomorfología y crono- estratigrafía del macizo volcánico Ruiz-Tolima (Cordillera Central Colombiana). In van der Hammen, T., Díaz-P., S. and Alvarez, V.J. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (segunda parte). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 3. J. Cramer, Berlin. Pp. 257-277.

Thouret, J.-C. and Faivre, P. (1989). Suelos de la Cordillera Central, transecto Parque Los Nevados. In van der Hammen, T., Díaz-P., S. and Alvarez, V.J. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (segunda parte). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 3. J. Cramer, Berlin. Pp. 293-441.

Verweij, P.A. and Beukema, H. (1992). Aspects of human influence on upper-Andean forest line vegetation. In Balslev, H. and Luteyn, J.L. (eds), Páramo: an Andean ecosystem under human influence. Academic Press, London. Pp. 171-175.

Verweij, P.A. and Budde, P.E. (1992). Burning and grazing gradients in páramo vegetation: initial ordination analyses. In Balslev, H. and Luteyn, J.L. (eds), Páramo: an Andean ecosystem under human influence. Academic Press, London. Pp. 179-195.

Wolf, J.H.D. (1989). Comunidades epífitas en un transecto altitudinal en la Cordillera Central, Colombia: datos iniciales sobre la cantidad de especies de briófitos y líquenes. In van der Hammen, T., Díaz-P., S. and Alvarez, V.J. (eds), La Cordillera Central Colombiana: transecto Parque Los Nevados (segunda parte). Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems Vol. 3. J. Cramer, Berlin. Pp. 455- 459.

Authors

This Data Sheet was written by Dr J. Orlando Rangel-Ch. and Aída Garzón-C., Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Apartado Aéreo 7495, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia).

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