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CERROS DE AMOTAPE NATIONAL PARK REGION
Cerros de Amotape National Park is south of the Gulf of Guayaquil in extreme north-western Peru (3°46'-4°20'S, 80°50'-80°20'W), in the Grau region of Tumbes Department (Tumbes and Contralmirante Villar provinces) and Piura Department (Sullana Province). The NP is the core of Noroeste Peruano (Peruvian North-west) Biosphere Reserve, which also includes the bracketing Tumbes National Forest and El Angolo Game Preserve (WWF-FPCN 1989) (Map 76). The BR is between latitudes 3°28'-4°27'S and longitudes 80°58'-80°08'W, encompassing the largest conserved remnant of dry equatorial forest (cf. Kessler 1992) which mainly extends over a physiographic region composed of an extensive span of desert coast, and the lower slopes of the western flank of the Cordillera de los Andes. Here a transverse tectonic mega-shear, the Amotape Cross, separates the Northern Andes and the Central Andes.
The Pacific coast has a flat or lightly undulated topography and inland contains three predominant Cenozoic marine terraces ("tablazos") now elevated 30-300 m and much dissected - Máncora, Talara and Lobitos, which successively formed steep slopes at the sea. There is a narrow littoral fringe between the Chira River and southern portion of Tumbes Department. All across the region from Máncora to Matapalo, large expanses are covered by rolling hills. North of Zorritos along the coast is an extremely arid alluvial plain that extends north-eastward to the border with Ecuador (WWF-FPCN 1989; Clapperton 1993).
The Andean Cordillera has its western limit where the topography changes from undulated to flat along spurs of the cordillera (e.g. Cordillera Larga) and the Cerros de Amotape (Best 1992). The Amotapes, extending from northern Piura Department into eastern Tumbes Department, form a low cordillera parallel to the coast. The topography is rugged, with deep canyons, gullies and rough uneven terrain, which reaches 1534 m in the park at Cerro La Concha (cf. WWF-FPCN 1989).
The south-eastern portion of the NP is above 1400 m, especially the small massif shared with El Angolo Game Preserve, with the cerros El Viento, Los Antiguos, El Padre and Carrizal (1618 m), Machete, El Perro, El Barco and Cocinas. The NP's eastern flank is below 800 m, where the Cuzco and Cazaderos gorges ("quebradas") are located. The northern portion of the NP descends to 200-100 m and the bordering Tumbes River, which originates eastward (as the Puyango River) in the Ecuadorian Andes (Best 1992).
The Tumbes River is the only permanent water source; in the Quebrada Cuzco water lasts almost year-round, and the extensive system of seasonal creeks includes Bocapán, Casitas, Seca and Fernández. The soils, which formed from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments, drain poorly. There is a strong correlation between topography and soil type and formation. In low flat areas, the soils are deep and of medium texture; often they contain high salt concentrations. On terraces and rolling terrain, the soils are shallower and less saline. The soils belong to the vertisol and yermosol groups; mainly vertisols sustain the forest biomass.
The climate is transitional between the desert climate of more southern coastal Peru (cf. CPD Site SA42) and the subhumid tropical climate of Ecuador (cf. CPD Site SA40). Given the NP's proximity to the Equator, a warm and humid climate might be expected, with high precipitation. However the climate is modified by several factors - the cold marine Humboldt Current and the Andean Cordillera impose an environment that is predominantly subarid, with clouds and fine precipitation (Best 1992). Fossils found in La Brea tar-sands (seeps) imply there was a more moist Quaternary climate (Lemon and Churcher 1961).
Seasonal rains occur during December-March; the average annual precipitation within the NP is 900 mm. In some years there is little precipitation, whereas in years influenced by El Niño events it is heavy. Great breccia fans of outwash gravel from the Amotape Cordillera, and the badlands topography of tablazos and Tertiary strata, suggest that in the past infrequent very heavy rainstorms have been significant (Clapperton 1993). The average annual temperature is 24°C and relative humidity 80% (ONERN 1992); during the rainy season the temperature can reach 35°C.
Depending upon the season, the physiognomy of the vegetation varies. During the rainy (summer) season, the woody vegetation is covered with leaves, giving the appearance of evergreen forest. In undulated terrain Loxopterygium huasango is a typical tree species. Flatlands and areas of rough terrain are covered with trees such as Prosopis pallida and Capparis scabrida. The low herbaceous stratum, which has the most floristic diversity, consists of annual species primarily of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae and Cucurbitaceae. During the long dry season, the shrub-like and arboreal vegetation lose their leaves and the grassy stratum becomes dry. Then the region assumes the appearance of a very poor floristic landscape.
Cerros de Amotape National Park includes five Holdridge life zones: transitional premontane-tropical to tropical desert matorral (18 km², 2% of the NP); premontane tropical thorn forest (35 km², 4%); tropical thorn forest (188 km², 21%); premontane tropical dry forest (397 km², 43%); and tropical very dry forest (275 km², 30%) (CDC-UNALM 1992a; WWF-FPCN 1989; ONERN 1976; cf. Kessler 1992).
Transitional premontane-tropical to tropical desert matorral (150-200 m), which occurs in a small area in the park's north-west, is characterized by shrubs and spiny (semi) deciduous trees and columnar cacti; the lower stratum is primarily grasses. Some of the principal species are Capparis avicenniifolia (syn. C. ovalifolia), C. scabrida (syn. C. angulata), Prosopis juliflora, Acacia macracantha, Loxopterygium huasango and Cordia lutea, as well as Cercidium praecox subsp. praecox, Parkinsonia aculeata, Piptadenia flava and the columnar cacti Armatocereus cartwrightianus and Neoraimondia arequipensis (syn. Cereus macrostibas). Due to deforestation and possibly the nature of the soil, large areas have become covered by a shrubby stratum dominated by the weedy Ipomoea carnea .
Tropical thorn forest occurs between 200-1000 m mainly in the western lowlands. The vegetation is sparse to open with shrubs, cacti, and trees averaging 8 m tall (with emergents to 10-12 m). The predominant trees include Prosopis pallida, P. juliflora, Caesalpinia paipai, Bursera graveolens and Capparis mollis; in more moist areas predominate Eriotheca discolor (= Bombax discolor), E. ruizii, Tabebuia chrysantha, Ziziphus piurensis and Opuntia pubescens (syn. O. pestifer). Also notable are Cochlospermum vitifolium, Pithecellobium excelsum, Terminalia valverdeae and Armatocereus cartwrightianus. The vegetation is degraded by human exploitation such as ranching.
Tropical very dry forest (300-800 m) is in a rather low band embracing the northern half of the Amotape range and a section along the Tumbes River near the northern limit of the NP - more of this life zone occurs in the adjacent Tumbes National Forest (Guerra 1957; Saavedra and Green 1987). The vegetation includes many shrubs (e.g. Encelia canescens, Grabowskia boerhaaviaefolia) and cacti, with deciduous trees such as Eriotheca discolor, E. ruizii, Tabebuia chrysantha and Bursera graveolens as well as Alseis peruviana, Centrolobium ochroxylum, Cochlospermum vitifolium, Myroxylon peruiferum and Triplaris cumingiana (syn. T. guayaquilensis) and many epiphytes, including Tillandsia usneoides.
Premontane tropical dry forest (400-1534 m) is the most widespread life zone in the NP. Common trees up to 20 m tall and 0.4-1 m dbh include Alseis peruviana, Centrolobium ochroxylum, Eriotheca ruizii and E. discolor; Tillandsia usneoides is conspicuous.
Premontane tropical thorn forest (600-1000 m) is in a limited band in the southern section of the NP and more prevalent in the adjacent El Angolo Game Preserve. Trees to 79 m tall include Loxopterygium huasango, Bursera graveolens, Caesalpinia paipai, Acacia macracantha, Eriotheca discolor and Cochlospermum vitifolium as well as Eriotheca ruizii and Prosopis pallida, along with several Tillandsia spp. (including T. usneoides).
The entire Biosphere Reserve is in the biogeographic province of dry equatorial forest, which covers 23,342 km² in far north-western Peru (1.8% of the national territory) (WWF-FPCN 1989). Quantitative data on the floristic diversity of the north-western Peruvian dry forests were obtained by reviewing published and unpublished lists and inventories, including compilations of Macbride (1936-1961), Weberbauer (1945) and Ferreyra (1983). Valuable information was obtained from botanical collections of D. Simpson (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago) and R. Lao (La Molina Herbarium, Lima) and field evaluations of the Centro de Datos para la Conservación Perú (CDC), Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM).
Cerros de Amotape NP was found to harbour 75 families, 273 genera, 404 species; Tumbes National Forest had 90 families, 349 genera, 510 species; and El Angolo Game Preserve 60 families, 151 genera, 179 species. The dominant families in the NP, according to decreasing diversity of genera and/or species, are Leguminosae (41 genera, 82 spp.); Poaceae (29 genera, 52 spp.); Asteraceae (25 genera, 27 spp.); Solanaceae (13 genera, 33 spp.); Malvaceae (10 genera, 26 spp.); Cactaceae (c. 11 genera, 13 spp.); and other families such as Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Nyctaginaceae and Scrophulariaceae (CDC-UNALM 1992a, 1992b).
Other than the data for El Angolo Game Preserve, which were based on rather recent research (Ríos 1989), the compilations may be inaccurate due to a lack of recent floristic studies. Effort under the Flora of Peru Project is being carried out in the region, with collaboration of institutions such as Missouri Botanical Garden, Field Museum and the herbaria of San Marcos, La Molina and Trujillo. Analysis of the Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru (Brako and Zarucchi 1993) may provide further data. There is considered to be high diversity and endemism in the region's herbaceous stratum.
Flora in critical danger are Loxopterygium huasango, Tabebuia billbergii subsp. ampla, T. chrysantha and Ziziphus piurensis. Populations of these dry-forest species have been reduced by selective logging, even though they occur in protected areas and legal mechanisms can regulate their utilization. Other threatened forest species include Prosopis pallida, Capparis scabrida, Bursera graveolens, Eriotheca ruizii, Alseis peruviana and Centrolobium ochroxylum. Species of restricted distribution include Tecoma weberbaueriana and Macranthisiphon longiflorus (CDC-UNALM 1991, 1992a; cf. Ferreyra 1977).
Cerros de Amotape is rich in potential germplasm resources. A comprehensive list of useful plants of the dry forest of north-western Peru was compiled by CDC-UNALM (1992a). Eighty forest species have been recorded in the NP, many of which are exploited. Those of greatest commercial value are Tabebuia spp. ("guayacán" or "madero negro"), Loxopterygium huasango ("hualtaco"), Bursera graveolens ("palo santo"), Ziziphus piurensis ("ébano"), Geoffroea striata ("almendro"), Eriotheca ruizii ("pasallo") and Prosopis pallida ("algarrobo"). These species are almost continuously extracted, for multiple uses - including young trees which appeared by natural regeneration after the strong 1982-1983 El Niño event (Aguilar 1990).
Species used for parquet flooring are Ziziphus piurensis, Loxopterygium huasango, Ocotea piurensis, Alseis peruviana ("palo de vaca" or "oreja de león") and Tabebuia spp.; for crafts: Centrolobium ochroxylum, Leucaena trichodes, Sapindus saponaria ("checo negro"), Cordia lutea and Capparis scabrida.
Species for charcoal include Pithecellobium multiflorum ("angolo"), Myroxylon peruiferum, Prosopis spp., Bursera graveolens, Eriotheca ruizii and Cochlospermum vitifolium.
There are many forage species, including Prosopis pallida, Capparis scabrida, C. avicenniifolia, Cercidium praecox, Leucaena trichodes, Acacia macracantha and Cordia lutea.
Plants used as medicinals include Acacia macracantha, Bursera graveolens, Capparis mollis, C. avicenniifolia, Celtis sp., Cordia lutea, Ficus jacobii ("mata palo"), Ficus sp., Gallesia integrifolia and Loxopterygium huasango. Ornamentals include Tabebuia chrysantha, Cochlospermum vitifolium and Pithecellobium excelsum.
Social and environmental values
Cerros de Amotape National Park protects a large remnant of Pacific dry forest (Gentry 1995), including its valuable fauna - with some species reaching their range limit in the vicinity. The park hosts a unique fauna, including species found in tropical forests, arid lands and the Andes. The NP protects c. 100 vertebrate species, such as the endangered mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) and southern river otter [Lontra longicaudis (syn. Lutra annectens)]. Some of the vulnerable species are northern anteater (Tamandua mexicana), jaguar (Panthera onca), gato montés (Oncifelis colocolo) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Well-known vulnerable birds include Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) and king vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) (CDC-UNALM 1992a; WWF-FPCN 1989).
The fauna of Tumbes National Forest and El Angolo Game Preserve are similarly important, sharing with the NP various threatened species. The BR might be habitat for the white-winged guan (Penelope albipennis), which had been thought extinct and is critically endangered (Macedo 1979; Best 1992; Collar et al. 1992). Recent inventories for the NF record c. 230 vertebrate species: 36 mammal spp.; 175 bird spp. - with 11 more or less threatened species such as the endangered grey-backed hawk (Leucopternis occidentalis) and the henna-hooded foliage-gleaner (Hylocryptus erythrocephalus), which has a stronghold here; six reptile spp.; and four amphibian spp. Inventories for the game preserve so far have recorded 24 species of mammals, 125 of birds, 12 of reptiles and seven of amphibians (CDC-UNALM 1992a, 1994; Collar et al. 1992).
Potential use of wild fauna in some sections of the region is fairly high, because of sport hunting as a tourist attraction. The Cordillera de los Amotapes and Tumbes NF have special relevance in potential management and use of some wild fauna in this fashion (e.g. collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu and white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus). These activities offer the possibility of integrating as economically productive the marginal areas being used for agriculture and extensive cattle-ranching, which are developing with scarce or non-existent management. Areas adjacent to the Cerros de Amotape NP and forests that are open for public use are primarily used as pasturage for raising cattle and goats for both meat and milk.
The NP is important for archaeological remains, which have been discovered in Cazaderos, Guineal, Platanal and Modroño valleys. Oral tradition indicates that ruins of undetermined (perhaps Tumpis) origin exist on Cerro El Barco, which is also particularly rich in biodiversity. There are no indigenous people keeping ancestral life-styles. About thirty mestizos inhabited the park in 1987 near Teniente Astete village. Some settlements (Rica Playa, San Marcos, Carrizalillo, Cazaderos) are located on borders of the NP, which are critical locations at risk of encroachment because the people raise cattle and practise agriculture (WWF-FPCN 1989).
Local and regional fairs, some involving the Peru-Ecuador border area, are held every year to promote commerce, culture, tourism and recreation. South of Tumbes on the Salina Plains is where the Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro made their landing in 1532. The NP can provide for recreation, education, ecotourism and scientific research; its zone of regional influence covers c. 11,670 km² (WWF-FPCN 1989).
The dry forest is subject to many threats, especially seasonal overgrazing, soil erosion and timber extraction. The predominant vegetation types such as thorn forest and very dry forest are destroyed due to overgrazing (by cattle and goats) and heavy exploitation of forest resources for domestic and industrial uses. The southern part of the park is increasingly deforested by wood extraction for use as fuelwood and construction materials. Legal mechanisms exist to regulate forest resources in the general region (Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque), and the logging of commercial timber reached its peak in the past, but illegal extraction of timber for commercial use remains significant (Castillo 1973; DGFF 1981; Gonzáles et al. 1981; Jara and Otivo 1989; WWF-FPCN 1989; CDC-UNALM 1992a).
Near the Tumbes River in the park's northern area of Ucumares, there is a government plan under study to construct a dam (WWF-FPCN 1988, 1989). The NP is also at risk of some desertification. The southern border, where there is primarily thorny vegetation, is threatened by the encroaching 12,000 km² Sechura Desert.
As a result of deforestation in the dry forests of the north-western region of Peru, scrub vegetation has grown considerably in various areas during the past few years and now totals over c. 86 km². The shrub-like weed Ipomoea carnea ("borrachera") has invaded Cazaderos (in the NP's eastern area) and other areas adjacent to the NP such as Papayal, Ciénego Norte, San Marcos and Rica Playa. This weed is poisonous to cattle and goats, which graze in the areas.
Poaching of the rich fauna, including species endemic or restricted in Peru and Ecuador, is a problem that has contributed to several species being officially listed as at risk. They include mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), southern river otter (Lontra longicaudis), American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) and even the white-winged guan (Penelope albipennis) (Pulido 1991). Groups such as birds (especially parakeets) and increasingly reptiles, which supply the growing export market, need to have measures such as CITES implemented to manage their utilization.
The legal status of the BR locally is not well defined. There is a lack of coordination among the region's public and private entities that might affect the NP, and there is no master plan for the park. The NP's 1989-1990 operative plan (WWF and FPCN 1989) identified four critical areas needing attention: the park's upper portion with the Tumbes River habitat - for several endangered species; Teniente Astete and Cazaderos - subject to agriculture and cattle-grazing; El Huásimo, Cazaderos and the southern part - subject to invasion of Ipomoea carnea; and the southern region (El Chaylo) subject to timber extraction.
Cerros de Amotape National Park was established (by Supreme Decree No. 0800-75-AG, 22 July 1975) to protect one of the last remnants of Pacific dry forest, and species of flora and fauna threatened with extinction at national or regional levels (Brack-E., Ríos and Reyes 1975). The NP protects 3.91% of the biogeographic province of dry equatorial forest of Peru. Most similar formations in neighbouring western Ecuador have been converted to agriculture and ranching (see CPD South America Overview, and Best 1992; Collar et al. 1992; Kessler 1992). The NP is part of Peru's Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservación (SINUC) and strictly protected legally, which prohibits harmful land-use activities. The NP constitutes the core of the Noroeste Peruano (Peruvian North-west) Biosphere Reserve, which includes two adjoining areas: Tumbes National Forest (751 km²), established 8 July 1957; and El Angolo Game Preserve (650 km²), established 1 July 1975. The three conservation units (2314 km²) are in Peru's Sistema Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado (SINANPE). Within the NF, the eastern area El Caucho Campo Verde (c. 126 km²) on Cordillera Larga is recommended for increased protection (CDC-UNALM 1992a; cf. Wiedenfeld, Schulenberg and Robbins 1985; Collar et al. 1992), and an area of 27.5 km² between the borders of the NP and Ecuador is recommended for acquisition (WWF and FPCN 1989).
The Noroeste Peruano BR, which was recognized by UNESCO on 1 March 1977, has been given high conservation priority by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF-U.S.), which has been the principal funding source for the BR's conservation activities. With the Fundación Peruana para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (FPCN) and administrative and technical support of Peru's Dirección General Forestal y de Fauna (DGFF), WWF developed an operational plan for Cerros de Amotape NP (WWF and FPCN 1989). During the past several years the support has resulted in collaboration of local communities with park personnel to guard the NP; construction of control posts; trials on methods to eradicate borrachera (Ipomoea carnea); preliminary attempts at goat management; implementation of "carob" (algarrobo) forest management; and establishment of apiaries and tree and medicinal plant nurseries.
Currently, the NP has three technical administrators and nine park guards. According to the proposed directive plan for SINUC (CDC-UNALM 1991), the NP should receive the highest conservation priority - due to its high biological diversity, medium degree of threat, and reasonable management of the region.
Map 76. Cerros de Amotape National Park Region, Peru (CPD Site SA41)
Aguilar, P. (1990). Sinópsis sobre los eventos del fenómeno "El Niño" en el Perú. Boletín de Lima 70: 69-84.
Best, B.J. (ed.) (1992). The threatened forests of south-west Ecuador: the final report of the Ecuadorian Dry Forest Project 1991. Biosphere Publications, Leeds, U.K. 240 pp.
Brack-E., A., Ríos, M.A. and Reyes, F. (1975). Evaluación y bases para el establecimiento de un coto de caza y un parque nacional en la Cordillera de los Amotapes (Piura Tumbes). Dirección General Forestal y de Caza (DGFC), Lima. 52 pp.
Brako, L. and Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru/Catálogo de las angiospermas y gimnospermas del Perú. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1286 pp.
Castillo, M. (1973). Diagnóstico forestal de los departamentos de Tumbes y Piura. Ministerio de Agricultura, DGFC, Dirección de Recursos Forestales, Lima. 38 pp.
CDC-UNALM (1991). Plan director del Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservación (SINUC), una aproximación desde la diversidad biológica (Propuesta del CDC-UNALM). Centro de Datos para la Conservación (CDC) - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), La Molina, Lima, Peru. 153 pp.
CDC-UNALM (1992a). Estado de conservación de la diversidad natural de la región noroeste del Perú. CDC-UNALM, La Molina. 211 pp.
CDC-UNALM (1992b). Lista de la flora en areas manejadas del Bosque Seco del Noroeste. In Estado de conservación de la diversidad natural de la región noroeste del Perú. CDC-UNALM, La Molina. Pp. 181-198.
CDC-UNALM (1994). Manual de las especies de fauna silvestre del Coto de Caza El Angolo (Sullana-Piura). CDC-UNALM, La Molina. In press.
Clapperton, C.M. (1993). Quaternary geology and geomorphology of South America. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 779 pp.
Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N., Madroño Nieto, A., Naranjo, L.G., Parker III, T.A. and Wege, D.C. (1992). Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICPB/IUCN Red Data Book, 3rd Edition, Part 2. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. and International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), Cambridge, U.K. 1150 pp.
DGFF (1981). Inventario forestal del Bosque Seco del Norte: Tumbes - Piura - Lambayeque. Ministerio de Agricultura, Dirección General Forestal y de Fauna (DGFF), Lima. 71 pp.
Ferreyra, R. (1977). Endangered species and plant communities in Andean and coastal Peru. In Prance, G.T. and Elias, T.S. (eds), Extinction is forever: threatened and endangered species of plants in the Americas and their significance in ecosystems today and in the future. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Pp. 150-157.
Ferreyra, R. (1983). Los tipos de vegetación de la costa peruana. Anales Jardín Botánico Madrid 40: 241-256.
Gentry, A.H. (1995). Diversity and floristic composition of neotropical dry forests. In Bullock, S.H., Medina, E. and Mooney, H.A. (eds), Tropical deciduous forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. Pp. 146-194.
Gonzáles, M., Ríos, M.A., Ponce, C., Chung, A., Sabogal, C. and Vásquez-R., P. (1981). Plan maestro de manejo forestal para el noroeste del Perú. DGFF and UNALM, Lima. 218 pp.
Guerra, W. (1957). Estudio forestal del Bosque Nacional de Tumbes. Servicio Forestal y de Caza, Lima. 188 pp.
Jara, F. and Otivo, J. (1989). Potencial forestal de la región Grau. Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado (CIPCA), DGFF, Programa Nacional de Acción Forestal de Piura. 113 pp.
Kessler, M. (1992). The vegetation of south-west Ecuador. In Best, B.J. (ed.), The threatened forests of south-west Ecuador. Biosphere Publications, Leeds, U.K. Pp. 79-100.
Lemon, R.R. and Churcher, C.S. (1961). Pleistocene geology and paleontology of the Talara region, northwest Peru. Amer. J. Sci. 259: 410-429.
Macbride, J.F. (1936-1961). Flora of Peru. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13.
Macedo, H. de (1979). Redescubrimiento de la pava aliblanca (Penelope albipennis Taczanowski 1877). Boletín de Lima 1: 5-11.
ONERN (1976). Mapa ecológico del Perú. Guía explicativa. Oficina Nacional de Evaluación de Recursos Naturales (ONERN), Lima. 147 pp.
ONERN (1992). Evaluación de los recursos naturales del Departamento de Tumbes. ONERN, Lima. Unpublished.
Pulido, V. (1991). El Libro Rojo de la fauna silvestre del Perú. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria y Agroindustrial (INIAA), Lima. 219 pp.
Ríos, J. (1989). Análisis del habitat del Coto de Caza El Angolo. M.S. thesis in Forest Management. Escuela de Post-Grado, UNALM, Lima. 266 pp.
Saavedra, C. and Green, K. (1987). El Bosque Nacional de Tumbes - Perú. Aplicación de imágenes satélite en la evaluación de habitat para primates. Boletín de Lima 51: 81-87.
Simpson, D.R. (1990). Donald Simpson's Peruvian collections. Departamento de Tumbes (Perú). Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 8 pp.
Weberbauer, A. (1945). El mundo vegetal de los Andes peruanos. Ministerio de Agricultura, Dirección de Agricultura, Estación Experimental Agrícola de La Molina, Lima. 776 pp.
Wiedenfeld, D.A., Schulenberg, T.S. and Robbins, M.B. (1985). Birds of a tropical deciduous forest in extreme northwestern Peru. In Buckley, P.A., Foster, M.S., Morton, E.S., Ridgely, R.S. and Buckley, F.G. (eds), Neotropical ornithology. Ornith. Monogr. No. 36. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. Pp. 305-315.
World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Fundación Peruana para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (FPCN) (1988). Tropical Andes program: protecting a global center of biological diversity. World Wildlife Fund-US, Washington, D.C. Pg. 11.
WWF and FPCN (1989). Plan operativo del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape 1989-1990. WWF, FPCN and DGFF, Lima. 154 pp.
This Data Sheet was written by Centro de Datos para la Conservación - Perú
(CDC-Perú) (Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Departamento de Manejo Forestal,
Apartado 456, La Molina, Lima, Peru), Fundación Peruana para la Conservación de la
Naturaleza (FPCN) (Apartado 18-1393, Lima, Peru) and Olga Herrera-MacBryde (Smithsonian
Institution, SI/MAB Program, S. Dillon Ripley Center, Suite 3123, Washington, DC
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