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Department ofBotany

No. 98
June 1991

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Ecotrust, Conservation International's first U.S.-based regional affiliate, has opened its doors in Portland, Oregon. The new organization will focus initially on conservation and restoration of the coastal temperate rain forests of northwestern North America. Directed by Spencer B. Beebe, Founding President of Conservation International and its Senior Vice President for North America and Mexico, Ecotrust's immediate goal is to conserve representative examples of North American temperate rain forest ecosystems. Both Conservation International and Ecotrust plan to work closely on initial projects in coastal temperate rain forests in southwest Washington state, British Columbia and Alaska and to share staff and technical resources to conserve the rain forests of North America. For more information, write Ecotrust at 10 SW Ash Street, Portland, Oregon 97204.


Three major North Carolina research universities, Duke University, North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, have launched a new center, the Center for World Environment and Sustainable Development, to work on solutions to environmental deterioration and destruction worldwide. The work of the center will have three broad thrusts: promoting tropical conservation and development; attacking environmental problems in industrialized nations, especially those of eastern Europe where pollution is extremely severe; and confronting climatic changes. Among the three universities over 150 faculty members are deeply involved in research in tropical conservation and development. While the center's concern is with developing countries, most environmental problems transcend national boundaries to involve the middle income and industrialized countries as well. Already development is under way for several large projects in eastern Europe, Latin America and elsewhere. Current projects in conservation and sustainable development, along with participation in research networks, provide the center with direct ties to virtually all tropical regions of the world. The three universities have developed major strengths in four areas that are basic to conserving natural resources and supporting sustainable development: agricultural and forestry technology, environmental management, community health and planning, and economic and environmental policies.

The three member universities have made equal financial contributions to the center totaling $138,000 to cover the first year's administrative expenses. Ultimately, the center is expected to be self-sustaining, attracting funding from government agencies in the United States and abroad as well as from private foundations and organizations.

A six-member board of trustees, comprising two academic deans appointed by each of the three member universities, provides general oversight of the center's operations. A faculty steering committee, also composed of representatives from each university, plays a central role in defining research priorities and designing and monitoring programs. The directorship of the center will rotate among the three universities, and administrative operations will be housed in existing facilities. Currently, North Carolina State University is providing administrative facilities for the director and his staff. For more information, write: Center for World Environment and Sustainable Development, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7619, Raleigh, NC 27695-7619.


The ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest are the last relatively intact "old-growth" ecosystems in the United States. Found principally in northern California, western Oregon and Washington, and southeast Alaska, these forests contain the world's most diverse collection of giant evergreen trees: cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock and Sitka spruce. Some of the oldest trees were seedlings at the time the Magna Carta was signed seven hundred years ago; one of the most spectacular, the Douglas fir, can live as long as 1,2000 years. But today, less than five percent of the original forest is protected. The rest is being logged at the rate of nearly 70,000 acres per year, threatening not only the remaining trees but a wide variety of rare animal species as well. Among these are the northern spotted owl, which was recently listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, and the marbled murrelet, an unusual seabird that depends on old growth forests to nest and reproduce.

The Wilderness Society has launched a national public education campaign intended to protect spectacular stands of trees that have been the focus of intense local and national controversy, including the publication of a book, Saving Our Ancient Forests . In an easy-to-read style, it outlines a blueprint for protecting these national treasures, such as recommending using recycled paper products instead of throwaways, and emphasizes alternative construction methods that reduce reliance on wood. Saving Our Ancient Forests also provides colorful descriptions of the animals that populate ancient forests, and highlights several endangered plant species that directly benefit human health, including the cascara tree, whose bark is used as a laxative, and the Pacific yew, whose bark contains a powerful cancer-fighting chemical called taxol. A companion coloring book, Color the Ancient Forest , introduces youngsters to the unusual animals and plants that give ancient forests their unique character. Saving Our Ancient Forest can be purchased directly from The Wilderness Society for $5.95, plus $3.00 for shipping and handling, by writing to: The Wilderness Society, P. O. Box 296, Federalsburg, MD 21632- 0296. The companion coloring book is available for $4.95 from The Wilderness Society, 900 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006-2596.

By Jan Schlamp

The Canadian Museum of Nature recently released the first issue of its new quarterly bulletin, Canadian Biodiversity. The stated goals of the bulletin are to publish articles on biodiversity, bridge the gaps between professional disciplines and the public, circulate news on Canadian and world biodiversity, express views on the needs and value of biodiversity research, discuss methods, principles, and ethics of biodiversity conservation, and review books and major articles on biodiversity, and indeed the first issue goes far towards meeting all of these goals. The issue opens with three essays on definitions, rationales for conservation, and ethics. These are followed by several brief articles ranging from a review of the U.S. Biodiversity Act placed before the U.S. Congress in January, 1991, to a scientific report of a pilot GIS study of tree diversity in Canada. Short scientific papers, legislative and NGO updates, philosophical essays, and even a page of environmentally oriented quotes make for interesting reading, the only drawback being that there is no apparent organization to their occurrence within the bulletin. There are two separate sections, entitled Biodiversity News Notes (short communications and notices of upcoming meetings and conferences) and Book & Periodical Niche (where various books, journals and journal papers are reviewed and followed by complete ordering information). As far as the last section is concerned, the reviews and descriptions of the books and journals should prove very useful, but it is unclear how the articles are chosen for review (only two on fishes in the first issue) or whether such reviews would be a good use of space.

On the whole, I found this to be a refreshing new publication with articles and news not repeated in other popular journals. Additionally, the issue is aesthetically pleasing. It is printed on sturdy, non-glossy, cream-colored recycled paper (using vegetable oil ink) and contains nice graphics in the margins and in various open areas. I thought the page of quotes was an especially nice touch.

Canadian Biodiversity is available in either an English or French edition, and may be ordered from the Canadian Centre for Biodiversity, Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6P4, Canada. Individual subscriptions: Canada--Can $15; Developed countries--US $15; Developing countries--Can $5. Library subscriptions are twice these amounts.


The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative (SBI): An Ecological Research Agenda is a document released by the Ecological Society of America in response to the need for improving understanding and management of environmental problems on local scales. The report delineates the research priorities necessary for sustaining the Earth's resources and improving the human condition. Unique to the report is its whole-earth/whole- system approach to solving environmental problems through interdisciplinary research. In addition to the research component of the SBI, the report emphasizes the need to communicate ecological complexities to citizens, and to incorporate ecological research findings into policy and management. Copies of the report are available from the Public Affairs Office of the Ecological Society of America, 9650 Rockville Pike, Suite 2503, Bethesda, MD 20814.


Anderson, D. and Grove, R.H. (Eds.) 1989. Conservation in Africa: Peoples, Policies and Practice. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, NY. 355 pp.

Anderson, I. 1991. Gold rush threatens Australia's green dreams. New Scientist 130(1766): 23-24. (Proposed mine in Kakadu National Park threatens environment and aborigines)

Anderson, R.S. and Carpenter, S.L. 1991. Vegetation change in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California, during the Protohistoric Period. Madrono 38(1): 1-13. (Implications for management of assumed natural vegetation types)

Armstrong, S. 1991. Okavango survives near-fatal fright. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 209. (Botswana's river delta saved from draining)

Ashford, J. 1991. Japan chips away at Chile's forests. New Scientist 130(1764): 11.

Baines, G. (Preparer) 1990. South Pacific Conservation Programme. World Wide Fund for Nature, Gland, Switzerland. 50 pp.

Baldock, D. 1989. Agriculture and Habitat Loss in Europe . WWF International, Gland, Switzerland. 60 pp.

Baltz, D.M. 1991. Introduced fishes in marine systems and inland seas. Biol. Conservation 56(2): 151-177.

Beggs, J.R. and Wilson, P.R. 1991. The Kaka Nestor meridionalis , a New Zealand parrot endangered by introduced wasps and mammals. Biol. Conservation 56(1): 23-38.

Bennett, E.L. 1991. Introducing the fabulous, the amazing, the ever-popular colobines. Wildlife Conservation 94(3): 42-51. (Endangered Asian monkeys)

Bolgiano, C. 1991. Of panther & prejudice. Buzzworm 3(3): 46-51. (Controversy over conservation of the Florida panther)

Botkin, D.B., Woodby, D.A. and Nisbet, R.A. 1991. Kirtland's warbler habitats: a possible early indicator of climatic warming. Biol. Conservation 56(1): 63-78.

Brazil, M. 1991. Where eastern eagles dare. New Scientist 130(1767): 32-35. (Steller's sea eagles, Japan)

Brown, C.J. 1991. Declining martial Polemaetus bellicosus and tawny Aquila rapax eagle populations and causes of mortality on farmlands in central Namibia. Biol. Conservation 56(1): 49-62.

Brown, P.J., Manders, P.T., Bands, D.P., Kruger, F.J. and Andrag, R.H. 1991. Prescribed burning as a conservation management practice: a case history from the Cederberg Mountains, Cape Province, South Africa. Biol. Conservation 56(2): 133-150.

California Coastal Commission. 1990. Coastal and Marine Educational Resources Directory: San Francisco Bay Area. California Coastal Commission, San Francisco, CA. 70 pp.

Carr, J.L. 1991. RAP team surveys Ecuador's Cordillera de la Costa. Tropicus 5(1): 9. (Conservation International's Rapid Assessment Program)

Chadwick, D.H. 1991. Elephants - out of time, out of space. National Geographic 179(5): 2-49.

Cheater, M. 1991. Death of the ivory market. World Watch 4(3): 34-35. (Why Zimbabwe opposes the ivory ban)

Clark, J.R. 1991. Management of coastal barrier biosphere reserves. BioScience 41(5): 331-336.

Dahlberg, K.A. 1991. Sustainable agriculture - fad or harbinger? BioScience 41(5): 337-340.

Dipper, F. 1991. Oil and water. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 191-193. (Effects of Persian Gulf oil slick)

Drake, J.A., et al. 1989. Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 525 pp.

Dyer, M.I. and Holland, M.M. 1991. The biosphere-reserve concept: needs for a network design. BioScience 41(5): 319-325.

Fay, F.H., Kelly, B.P. and Fay, B.A. (Eds.) 1990. The Ecology and Management of Walrus Populations - Report of an International Workshop, 26-30 March 1990. U.S. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC. 198 pp.

Feekes, F. 1991. The black-bellied whistling duck in Mexico - from traditional use to sustainable management? Biol. Conservation 56(2): 123-131.

Fishler, K.D. 1991. Portrait of the Texas Hill Country. Nature Conservancy 41(2): 6-17. (The Balcones Canyonlands Conservation Plan - a regional multi-use conservation project)

Hannah, L. 1991. Tubbataha Foundation saves a threatened atoll in the Philippines. Tropicus 5(1): 8. (Seaweed farming and dynamite fishing)

Hare, W.L. (ed.) 1990. Ecologically Sustainable Development. Australian Conservation Foundation, Fitzroy, Australia. 94 pp.

Harvey, H.T. and Shellhammer, H.S. 1991. Survivorship and growth of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.) seedlings after fire. Madrono 38(1): 14-20.

Hayden, B.P., Dueser, R.D., Callahan, J.T. and Shugart, H.H. 1991. Long-term research at the Virginia Coast Reserve. BioScience 41(5): 310-318.

Hecht, S. and Cockburn, A. 1990. The Fate of the Forest: Developers, Destroyers and Defenders of the Amazon. Penguin Books. 230 pp.

International Council for Bird Preservation. 1989. World Bird Conservation: ICBP Annual Report 1988. ICBP, England. 32 pp.

International Council for Bird Preservation. 1991. World Bird Conservation: ICBP Annual Report 1989/1990. ICBP, England. 32 pp.

Ives, J. 1991. Floods in Bangladesh: who is to blame? New Scientist 130(1764): 34-37. (Deforestation not necessarily linked to flooding in 1987-88)

Jackman, B. 1991. Encore. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 184-189. (Peregrine falcon in Britain still faces problems)

Keevin, T., et al. 1990. Decurrent False Aster (Boltonia decurrens) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, St. Paul, MN. 26 pp.

Lavigne, D. 1991. Your money or your genotype. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 204-205. (Attitudes within the IUCN towards exploitation of wildlife)

Lubchenko, J., et al. 1991. The sustainable biosphere initiative: an ecological research agenda. Ecology 72(2): 371-412.

Luoma, J.R. 1991. The unfriendly skies. Wildlife Conservation 94(3): 70-85. (Effects of pollution on wildlife and ecosystems)

Mallon, D.P. 1991. Status and conservation of large mammals in Ladakh. Biol. Conservation 56(1): 101-119. (India)

Master, L. 1991. Aquatic animals: endangerment alert. Nature Conservancy 41(2): 26-27.

Merewood, A. 1991. Batman. Wildlife Conservation 94(3): 30-37. (Potential U.S. national park in American Samoa to benefit two endangered flying foxes)

Miller, G.O. 1991. There's gold in them thar hills. Wildlife Conservation 94(3): 38-41. (Endangered golden- cheeked warblers in Texas)

Mullins, G.W. and Neuhauser, H. 1991. Public education for protecting coastal barriers. BioScience 41(5): 326-330.

Myers, N. 1990. The biodiversity challenge: expanded hot- spots analysis. The Environmentalist 10(4): 243-256.

Office of Technology Assessment. 1988. Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity. Science Information Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA. 334 pp.

Orians, G.H., Brown Jr., G.M., Kunin, W.E. and Swierzbinski, J.E. (Eds.) 1990. The Preservation and Valuation of Biological Resources. Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 301 pp.

Pearce, F. 1991. Fire and air. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 194-195. (Effects of burning Kuwaiti oil wells)

Plotkin, M. and Famolare, L. 1991. The Sorcerer's Apprentice Program. Tropicus 5(1): 3. (Conservation International's program on ethnobotany)

Ratcliffe, D. 1991. Giving up the endgame. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 173-174. (Conservationists losing to development in England and Scotland)

Ray, G.C. and Gregg Jr., W.P. 1991. Establishing biosphere reserves for coastal barrier ecosystems. BioScience 41(5): 301-309.

Roberts, T.A. 1991. Death in the Gulf. Buzzworm 3(3): 53-59.

Schoenherr, A.A. (ed.) 1990. Endangered Plant Communities of Southern California: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Symposium. The Southern California Botanists, California. (Special Publication No. 3)

Sexson, T.N., Kemp, H.T. and Roitz, J.S. (Compilers). 1991. Wildlife Review . U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish & Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO. (Wildlife/natural resource citations)

Soos, A., Kerle, A. and Latz, P. 1990-91. The "underground pumpkin". Aust. Nat. Hist. 23(7): 522. (Ipomoea popha , rare sweet potato in Australia)

Stolzenburg, W. 1991. Winged saviors of the forest. Nature Conservancy 41(2): 18-25. (Oilbirds - "guacharo" - in Venezuela)

Sylvester, J. 1991. Privacy please! Canadian Geographic 111(2): 37-40. (Piping plover nesting grounds at Prince Edward Island National Park, Canada)

Thiollay, J.-M. 1991. Altitudinal distribution and conservation of raptors in southwestern Colombia. J. Raptor Research 25(1): 1-8.

Towns, D. and Atkinson, I. 1991. New Zealand's restoration ecology. New Scientist 130(1765): 36-39.

Van Tighem, K. 1991. River under siege. Canadian Geographic 111(2): 54-65. (Wetlands along British Columbia's Columbia River)

Various authors. 1991. Watershed management. Unasylva 42(164): 3-61. (Nine articles)

Walker, T. 1991. Dreissena disaster. Science News 139(18): 282-284. (Combatting the invasive zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha)

Walton, B. 1991. Catcalls. BBC Wildlife 9(3): 198- 202. (Trade in Latin American cat skins)

Wenzel, L. 1991. Reefs and the greenhouse effect: will coral go with the flow? End. Species Update 8(3 & 4): 1-4.

Wise, J. 1991. Decade of destruction for rare birds. New Scientist 130(1765): 16. (Great Britain)

Witmer, G. 1990. Re-introduction of elk into the United States. J. Penn. Acad. Sci. 64(3): 131-135.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (Compiler). 1991. 1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Cambridge, England. 228 pp.

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