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Department ofBotany

No. 100
August 1991

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Claire Kremen

A workshop, "Using Invertebrates as Indicators in Conservation Planning" was held in Eugene, Oregon on June 15, co- sponsored by the Xerces Society and the Department of Biology at the University of Oregon. Participating in the workshop was Rob Colwell, Steve Courtney, Terry Erwin, Claire Kremen, Russ Lande, John Lattin, Michael Lynch, Andy Moldenke, Reed Noss and Kathy Williams. The workshop began by establishing the unique attributes of non-marine arthropods for inventory, assessment and monitoring for conservation planning. Relative to other groups, some special attributes of non-marine arthropods which were identified included their pattern diversity at a broad range of temporal and spatial scales; their potential as early warning indicators to global change due to their rapid rates of development and evolution; their key functional roles in many trophic and non-trophic ecological interactions; the possibility of enhanced statistical rigor due to high diversity and density of species and large population sizes. Criteria were developed for selecting appropriate taxonomic assemblages, including both biological and practical criteria (stress-sensitivity; measurability; taxonomic and ecological knowledge; ability to cover a range of micro-habitat types, body sizes, biogeographic regions, ecological functions). Two case-studies were discussed: temperate grasslands and tropical forests. Assemblages of taxa meeting these criteria were identified for use in addressing inventory or monitoring problems. A document detailing the results of the workshop is in preparation. Please contact Dr. Clarie Kremen, The Xerces Society, 10 Southwest Ash Street, Portland, OR 97204, for more information.


Ten of the 270 species of trees in the United States have disappeared over the last 90 years. In response to the Forest Service's program to conserve biodiversity in the national forests, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station has recently established a center for conserving genetic diversity.

Gone or devastated are the American chestnut, American elm, white pine, sugar pine, butternut, and Port Orford white cedar. Fraser fir and red spruce are threatened by a combined onslaught of insects, climatic change, heavy metal pollution, and acid deposition. Beech, paper birch, sugar maple, and scores of other species would be all but eliminated from the U.S. in the next 60 years by a global warming of 5 degrees F.

Scientists at the new Center for Conservation of Genetic Diversity (CCGD) will conduct research on adaptation and evolutionary biology as they contribute to the survival of species and prevent extinction. The center will conserve biodiversity by helping federal agencies establish research natural areas and genetic resource management units and by protecting samples of genetic diversity in seed banks and plantations or arboreta. The center will also provide training workshops, internships and sabbatical opportunities. CCDG staff will map the patterns of genetic diversity within natural populations to determine which areas are suitable for reserves, which populations to sample for preservation in seed and gene banks, and which will be most useful if it becomes necessary to breed healthier forests and wildlife.


Two grants totalling $30,000 per year, through 1993, are available for basic and applied field research on the ecology of African montane ecosystems. Applications are welcomed from qualified agriculturists, botanists, climatologists, ecologists, geographers, geologists, zoologists, etc. Applicants should have at least the equivalent of a bachelor's degree. Grants are tenable at Karisoke Research Centre in the Virunga Volcano region of Rwanda.

For further details, inquire with a self-addressed, stamped envelope to: AME Programme, The Digit Fund, 45 Inverness Drive East, Englewood, CO 80112.


Global Environmental Change is a new international journal that addresses the human ecological and public policy dimensions of the environmental processes that are threatening the earth, including deforestation, desertification, soil degradation, species extinction, sea level rise, acid precipitation, destruction of the ozone layer. Authors are invited to submit manuscripts to Penny Street, Butterworth Scientific Ltd., Westbury House, Bury Street, Guildford, Surrey GUS 5BH, England. Subscription orders or sample copies of Global Environmental Change can be ordered from Promotion Department, Butterworths, 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham, Massachusetts 02180.

Wild Earth is a new quarterly publication dealing with problems of species reintroductions, design of wildlife corridors, analysis of preservation strategies and tactics, and conservation biology. Subscriptions are $20/yr. in the USA; $30 in Canada. Contact: Wild Earth, P.O. Box 492, Canton, NY 13617.

An information packet on global climate change is available free of charge from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library. The packet includes reprints of articles supporting and rejecting the global change concern, bibliographies of other readings on global change, a guide to global change information sources and a directory of global climate change organizations. It may be obtained by sending a request with a self-addressed mailing label to: National Agricultural Library, Reference Section, R. 111, 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705-2351.

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is funding a project to promote the development of human resources with the aid of achieving conservation and sustainable management of tropical forests in the Asia-Pacific region. A regular newsletter, "ITTO Tropical Forests Management Update", will present information on tropical forest management innovations, approaches to tropical forest conservation, and training opportunities for forest managers. For more information, write: ITTO Tropical Forest Management Update, ANUTECH Pty Ltd., GPO 4, Canberra A.C.T. 2601, Australia.


September 2-4. "Biogeography, Ecology and Conservation of Montane Forest in Peru", sponsored by the Natural History Museum of San Marcos University, will be held in Lima. The goal is to present the actual state of knowledge concerning the distribution and diversity of montane forest biota and their present status. For more information, write: Dr. Niels Valencia or Dr. Kenneth Young, Museo de Historia Natural, Casilla 14-0434, Lima 14, Peru.

September 2-6. "Ungulates 91", an international conference on ungulate conservation, ecology and management, will be held in Toulouse, France. For more information, contact: Secretariat, Symposium Ongules 91, I.N.R.A.- I.R.G.M., B.P. 27, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, Cedex, France.

September 17-26. The 10th World Forestry Congress will be held in Paris, France. The theme, "Forests: A Heritage for the Future", will address issues on conservation, management, and protection of the forest heritage. For details, write: Organization Committee of the World Forestry Congress, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, 45 Bis, Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent Sur Marne, Cedex, France.

September 21-25. A national conference for land trusts and land conservationists, "Rally '91", will be held in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire. There will be workshops on land protection, effective organization and program management, fund raising, and other areas. For information, contact: The Land Trust Alliance, 900 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Suite 410, Washington, D.C. 20006- 2596.


Anon. 1991. Desert dust nurtures faraway rain forest. Geotimes 36(6): 7-8. (Amazon depends on nutrients in soil dust blown from the Sahara)

Anon. 1991. Nepal rhino relocation promotes species survival. Focus 13(3): 1, 6.

Anon. 1991. Una Reserve success secures primate habitat. Focus 13(3): 1, 6.

Anon. 1991. Wild chile reserve established. American Horticulturist 70(7): 9. (Five acre reserve in Arizona containing Capsicum annuum var. aviculare)

Anon. 1991. WWF forms unique partnership to save Pantanal. Focus 13(3): 1, 3. (Cattle ranchers have started conservation organizations and teamed up with WWF)

Alderton, D. 1991. The Atlas of Parrots of the World. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ. 544 pp. (Paintings and descriptions, including status in the wild, of all known parrots)

Allen, R.B. and Wilson, J.B. 1991. A method for determining indigenous vegetation from simple environmental factors, and its use for vegetation restoration. Biol. Conservation 56(3): 265-280. (New Zealand)

Arthur, W. 1991. The bulging biosphere. New Scientist 130(1775): 42-45. (More species at low latitudes - why?)

Bedward, M., Pressey, R.L. and Nicholls, A.O. 1991. Scores and score classes for evaluation criteria: a comparison based on the cost of reserving all natural features. Biol. Conservation 56(3): 281-294. (Quantifying the relative conservation values of sites)

Birnbaum, J. 1991. Just too beastly for words. Time 137(25): 60. (Zoos troubled by financial crises and animal-rights activists)

Booth, W. 1991. Before man, Hawaii was birds' paradise. Washington Post July 3: A3.

Bowman, S. 1991. Hawaii hotspot. Am. Forests 97(7 & 8): 45, 76. (Proposed geothermal wells in the Wao Kele o Puna rainforest)

Bright, C. 1991. A fish story about whales. Wildlife Conservation 94(4): 64-69. (Norway wants to end the moratorium on whaling)

Burgess, T.L., et al. 1991. Exotic plants at the desert laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono 38(2): 96-114.

Burke, R.L., et al. 1991. Conservation of the Stephen's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys stephensi): planning for persistence. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 90(1): 10-40.

Buzas, M.A. and Culver, S.J. 1991. Species diversity and dispersal of benthic foraminifera. BioScience 41(7): 483- 489.

Chapin, M. 1991. Travels with Eucario: in search of ecodevelopment. Orion 10(2): 49-58.

Cheater, M. 1991. Save that taiga. World Watch 4(4): 10, 34.

Cleary, D. 1991. The Brazilian Rainforest: Politics, Finance, Mining and the Environment. The Economist Intelligence Unit, London, England.

Cohn, J.P. 1991. New focus on wildlife health. BioScience 41(7): 448-450. (Tracking and controlling disease in the wild may be important to conservation efforts)

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1991. A World List of Mammalian Species, Third Edition. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 243 pp.

Crispin, S. 1991. Using Natural Heritage data to monitor Great Lakes ecosystem health. End. Species Update 8(5 & 6): 1-4.

Cross, M. 1991. Antarctica: exploration or exploitation? New Scientist 130(1774): 29-36.

Daly, H.E. 1991. Sustainable growth: a bad oxymoron. Orion 10(2): 5.

Dayton, L. 1991. Save the sharks. New Scientist 130(1773): 34-38.

de Castri, F., Hansen, A.J. and Debussche, M. 1991. Biological Invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Klumer Academic, 463 pp.

DeFreitas, M. 1991. Feathering a nest in the windwards. Americas 43(2): 40-45. (Program to save the Amazona versicolor parrot in Saint Lucia)

Earle, S.A. 1991. Sharks, squids, and horseshoe crabs - the significance of marine biodiversity. BioScience 41(7): 506-509.

Ezzell, C. 1991. Conserving a coyote in wolf's clothing? Science News 139(24): 374-375. (Red wolf)

Faber, S. 1991. Ancient woods in danger. The Prince George's Journal June 17: A7. (Development threatens Seton Belt Woods, a stand of oaks and poplars in Maryland)

Field, R.T. 1991. A vision in Mali. Am. Forests 97(7 & 8): 28-30, 70. (Mali villagers plant trees with support of special foresters)

Forsyth, A. 1991. First contact: a visit to a temperate rain forest. Orion 10(2): 28-32. (Canada)

Freas, K.E. and Murphy, D.D. 1991. The endangered Bakersfield saltbush. Fremontia 19(2): 15-18. (Atriplex tularensis, with implications for conserving any endangered species)

Fredrich, B., Salazar, D., Wright, R. and Woodward, R. 1991. Using a Geographic Information System. Fremontia 19(2): 10-14. (Monitoring envir. impacts of ORVs)

Glynn, P.W. and de Weerdt, W.H. 1991. Elimination of two reef-building hydrocorals following the 1982-83 El Nino warming event. Science 253(5015): 69-71.

Grassle, J.F. 1991. Deep-sea benthic biodiversity. BioScience 41(7): 464-469.

Greeton, A., Komdeur, J. and Komdeur, M. 1991. Saving the magpie robin. World Birdwatch 13(1): 10-11. (Seychelles)

Hadfield, P. 1991. Environmentalists condemn Japan's Olympic plans. New Scientist 130(1772): 17. (Development at proposed site of winter '98 Olympics could threaten wildlife)

Heckard, L.R. 1991. Notes: Status and distribution of Castilleja mollis (Scrophulariaceae). Madrono 38(2): 141-142. (California Channel Island endemic plant)

Horta, K. 1991. The last big rush for the green gold: the plundering of Cameroon's rainforests. The Ecologist 21(3): 142-147.

Ikeda, D., Morey, S. and Skinner, M. 1991. Protecting the floral treasure of the Santa Monica Mountains. Fremontia 19(3): 3-5.

Jackson, J.B. C. 1991. Adaptation and diversity of reef corals. BioScience 41(7): 475-482.

Jackson, J.A. 1991. Will-O'-the-wisp. The Living Bird 10(1): 29-32. (The ivory-billed woodpecker and other birds native to Cuba)

Javna, J. 1991. One way to help save rainforests: buy products from them that don't involve cutting the trees. Chicago Tribune June 2.

Jensen, D.B. 1991. A strategy for the future of California's flora. Fremontia 19(2): 3-9. (Conservation of CA's floral biodiversity)

Jukofsky, D. 1991. Problems & progress in tropical forests. Am. Forests 97(7 & 8): 48-51, 76-77.

Keatinge, T. 1990. Scotland's threatened mires and mosses: policies to protect the peatlands of Caithness and Sutherland. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 417-426.

Kenney, J. 1991. Beyond park boundaries. Nat. Parks 66(7-8): 20-25. (Development and industry imperil adjacent national parks)

Kopeny, M.T. 1991. Florida's proposed incidental take rule for gopher tortoises. End. Species Update 8(7): 1-4.

Laycock, G. 1991. All-American survivor. Wildlife Conservation 94(4): 38-46. (Bald eagle)

Lerdau, M., Whitbeck, J. and Holbrook, N.M. 1991. Tropical deciduous forest: death of a biome. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6(7): 201-202.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Cunningham, R.B., Tanton, M.T., Nix, H.A. and Smith, A.P. 1991. The conservation of arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, Southeast Australia: III. The habitat requirements of leadbeater's possum Gymnobelideus leadbeateri and models of the diversity and abundance of arboreal marsupials. Biol. Conservation 56(3): 295-315.

MacKenzie, D. 1991. Plant breeders plan strategy for resilient crops. New Scientist 131(1776): 17. (Preserving genetic diversity of crop plants)

MacKenzie, D. 1991. Whalers spurn plans for "scientific" quotas. New Scientist 130(1772): 15. (Iceland threatens to leave the IWC, wants more whales)

Mardon, D.K. 1990. Conservation of montane willow scrub in Scotland. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 427- 436.

Milne, R. 1991. "Gene raiders" must pay for conservation. New Scientist 130(1774): 17. (Proposal for biotech. companies to pay a levy to help conserve biodiversity)

Moorhouse, R.J. and Powlesland, R.G. 1991. Aspects of the ecology of kakapo Strigops habroptilus liberated on Little Barrier Island (Hauturu), New Zealand. Biol. Conservation 56(3): 349-365. (Birds released in 1982 have yet to breed successfully)

Pardo, R.D. 1991. Watershed year for world forests. Am. Forests 97(7 & 8): 22-25, 68-69. (Review of various planned local activities by NGOs on behalf of forests for 1992)

Park, P. 1991. Green light for plan to save the Arctic. New Scientist 130(1774): 13. (Eight nations bordering Arctic pledge to preserve environment)

Perrin, W.F. 1991. Why are there so many kinds of whales and dolphins? BioScience 41(7): 460-461.

Peuquet, D.J. and Marble, D.F. (Eds.) 1990. Introductory Readings in Geographic Information Systems. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Bristol, PA. 371 pp.

Planterose, B. and Planterose, E. 1990. Restoring our native woodlands: a case study on the RSPB Reserve of Isle Martin. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 501-507.

Raven, J.A. 1990. The coastal fringe: habitats threatened through global warming. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 437-462.

Ray, G.C. 1991. Coastal-zone biodiversity patterns. BioScience 41(7): 490-498.

Ray, G.C. and Grassle, J.F. 1991. Marine biological diversity. BioScience 41(7): 453-457.

Renner, M.G. 1991. Military victory, ecological defeat. World Watch 4(4): 27-33. (Persian Gulf war aftermath)

Ricciuti, E.R. 1991. The comeback kid. Wildlife Conservation 94(4): 52-61. (Black-footed ferrets)

Robins, C.R. 1991. Regional diversity among Caribbean fish species. BioScience 41(7): 458-459.

Robinson, E. 1991. Stone Age crumbling. The Washington Post June 24: A1, A16. (Modern world threatens Brazil's Yanomami Indians)

Robinson, J.G. and Redford, K.H. (Eds.) 1991. Neotropical Wildlife Use and Conservation. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. 520 pp.

Rubluo, A., Rodriguez-Garay, B. and Flores-Martinez, G. 1991. In favor of Mexican cacti. Cactus and Succulent Journal 63(3): 150-151. (Review of meeting held to review the problem of endangered Mexican cacti)

Ryan, J.C. 1991. Goods from the woods. World Watch 4(4): 19-26. (Non-timber forest products can create jobs while protecting biodiversity)

Sawhill, J.C. 1991. Last great places. Nature Conservancy 41(3): 6-15. (An initiative of TNC to protect entire ecosystems)

Sayer, J. 1991. International initiatives for forest conservation. IUCN Forest Cons. Prog. Newsletter 10: 1-2.

Schmid, J.A. New Jersey Higher Plants. Schmid & Co., Inc., Media, PA. 245 & 173 pp. (Two volumes)

Schwartz, D.M. 1991. Drawing the line in a vanishing jungle. Int. Wildlife 21(4): 4-11. (Awa Indians of Ecuador)

Scott, M.M. 1990. Losses and gains to the Scottish flora. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 403-416.

Shi-don, Z. and Guang, Z. 1991. Management of Changbai mountain biosphere reserve: current situation, problems and perspectives. Nature & Resources 24 & 25(2-4 & 1-4): 27- 30. (China)

Skinner, M. 1991. Rare plants of California: Braunton's milk-vetch. Fremontia 19(3): 6-7. (Astragalus brauntonii)

Steele, J.H. 1991. Marine functional diversity. BioScience 41(7): 470-474. (Marine ecosystems may be more adaptable than land ones)

Stein, B.A. 1991. Rapid ecological assessment: the "Big Picture" approach to conservation. Nature Conservancy 41(3): 24-25.

Stewart, N. 1990. Red Data Books for cryptogamic plants. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 473-482.

Stubbs, S. 1991. Architects work with former lawyer to preserve rain forest. Chicago Tribune June 2: 5-6.

Watling, R. 1990. On the way towards a red data book on British fungi. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 463-472.

Wilcock, C.C. 1990. Botanical sanctuaries for Scotland's flora. Transactions Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh 45(5): 509-517. (ex situ conservation)

Wille, C. 1991. Buy or boycott tropical hardwoods? Am. Forests 97(7 & 8): 26-27, 60, 66-67.

Williams, K. 1991. Super snoots. Wildlife Conservation 94(4): 70-75. (Tapirs in Costa Rica)

Wrigley, R.E., Dubois, J.E. and Copeland, H.W. R. 1991. Distribution and ecology of six rare species of prairie rodents in Manitoba. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105(1): 1-12.

Yonzon, P.B. and Hunter Jr., M.L. 1991. Conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens. Biol. Conservation 57(1): 1-11.

Young, C. 1991. Caring for the world. Orion 10(2): 9- 13. (An interview with Robert Prescott-Allen)

Young, C. and Margolis, K.R. 1991. Clayoquot Sound. Orion 10(2): 14-26. (Temperate rainforests on Vancouver Island, Canada)

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