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Department ofBotany

No. 101
September 1991

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


During the past several years there has been an increasing public concern for the habitat destruction and species extinctions occurring on a global scale. One facet of these universal phenomena is exemplified by reports of a widespread decline in amphibian populations. Although the amphibian declines are not consistently noted at all locations, nor among all species, their magnitude is undeniable. The significance of these reports is accentuated by certain characteristics of amphibians (i.e. biphasic life cycle, permeable skin) that provoke a sensitivity of response to varying environmental conditions. Consequently, many species are considered to be early indicators of potentially drastic changes in ecosystems.

Following an international symposium convened by Dr. John W. Wright (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History) at the annual joint meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists' League, a clear consensus emerged as to the world-wide character of the problem and the need for immediate action. In response to this demand, the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Species Survival Commission (SSC), has activated the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force with David B. Wake (Univ. of California, Berkeley) as Chair. The focus of this program is to provide a global coordinating center for investigators and agencies concerned with documentation and determination of causes of these declines. It will also identify priorities for research on indicator species, as well as to the status of species in critical habitats. An inherent component of these objectives will be the prescription of uniform protocols by which studies of different species and habitats can be compared.

Overseeing the activities of the Task Force will be a Board of Directors, having international representation, that will act within the fabric of the IUCN/SSC. This directorate is responsible for establishing policies, determining priorities and raising funds. A Coordinating Council will serve as the operational unit for the program, which will include researchers, liaison officers of societies and agencies, and others. The Council will collate all available information, establish a computerized data base, and set up a global monitoring program with electronic input and access. A newsletter will be issued at frequent intervals and distributed to all interested parties. James L. Vial has been appointed coordinator and will also work with the directorate to establish regional working groups of independent scientists and technical personnel.

The IUCN/SSC invites persons and organizations interested in the Declining Amphibian Program to correspond with the Task Force Coordinator, James Vial, c/o Faculty of Biological Science, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104; (918) 631-2757; FAX (918) 631-2762.


The Kakerori or Rarotonga flycatcher is one of only four native landbirds which lives and breeds in the rugged mountains of central Rarotonga, the largest and most populous of the Cook Islands in the South Pacific. Although none of the species has a very large population, the Kakerori is the one most in danger of extinction, with a population of fewer than 40 birds. A census of the bird was performed in 1987, and after a three year research and conservation program which followed, breeding success was achieved by poisoning rats, one of the main predators, and protecting individual nests with aluminum bands, so the rats could not reach the nests. Another means of saving this species is habitat protection. In 1988 a proposal to establish a Kakerori Nature Reserve in the Turoa Valley was outlined and it is hoped that the reserve will be established in the near future with the support and involvement of the families who own the land.

A full color booklet on the Kakerori, published by the Cook Islands Conservation Service, is available from the Cook Islands Library, P.O. Box 71, Rarotonga, Cook Islands for NZ$ 7, plus NZ$ 2.50 for overseas airmail postage. (Please make checks payable to Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project).


The Latin American Scholarship Program of American Universities and the Fullbright Academic Exchange Program of the U.S. Information Agency has established a new program to provide scholarships for U.S. graduate study to professors, researchers, and policymakers from Amazon Basin countries. The scholarship will have a multidisciplinary focus, drawing from the areas of natural science, social science and public policy. Scholars will be selected from institutions in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela and will be expected to return to those institutions upon completion of their U.S. program. For further information, contact Jenifer Burckett-Picker or Ned Strong, Harvard University, Office of News and Public Affairs, Holyoke Center 1060, Cambridge, MA 02138; (617) 495-5255.


A new guide listing approximately 200 grants, scholarships and fellowships offered in program areas related to international forestry and natural resources has been published by the Forestry Support Program. It contains descriptions of foundations, government agencies, institutions and other organizations that support research, field studies, degree programs, short-course participation, and other related activities through annual or periodic competitive awards. It includes awards available to both U.S. and non-U.S. applicants. For a copy, write to: Forestry Support Program, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, D.C. 20090-6090.


October 25-26. The Indiana Academy of Science presents a major symposium, "Biological Pollution: The Control and Impact of Invasive Exotic Species", which will be held in Indianapolis, Indiana. The conference will deal with both aquatic and terrestrial systems, with specific focus on causes, control measures, management practices, ecologic and economic consequences, and policy. Registration fee: $60. For registration materials, contact: Bill McKnight, Indiana State Museum, 202 N. Alabama St., Indianapolis, IN 46204; (317) 232-8178.

October 28-30. The University of California Cooperative Extension is sponsoring a symposium on biodiversity of northwestern California. Topics include: genetics of threatened and endangered species, protection of habitat "islands", and ecosystem restoration. Additional information can be obtained from Richard Harris at (707) 445-7351 or Extension Forestry (415) 642-2360.

October 29 - November 2. "Globescope Americas: Charting A Sustainable Future", sponsored by Global Tomorrow Coalition, will be held at the Omni International Hotel in Miami, Florida. The meeting will provide a forum to explore new policies, practices, systems, and structures to achieve a lasting, equitable, productive and humane balance between the economy and the environment. For further information, contact: John McKain, Liaison UNCED, Global Tomorrow Coalition, 1325 G Street, N.W., Suite 915, Washington, D.C. 20005-3014.

November 3-8. The theme of the Heritage Interpretation International Third Global Congress is "Joining Hands for Quality Tourism: Interpretation, Preservation and the Travel Industry" and will be held at the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel in Honolulu, Hawaii. The congress will explore how parks, museums, historic areas and other visitor attractions can help preserve cultural and natural heritage while providing meaningful and memorable experiences for residents and visitors. For more information, write: HII Congress, UH Sea Grant Extension Service, 1000 Pope Road, MSB 226, Honolulu, HI 96822.

November 19-21. The "National Forum on Ocean Conservation", sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, will be held in the Baird Auditorium of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Approximately 50 speakers, a diverse group of experts, will frame the current critical issues, outline the state of our knowledge, and discuss policy options and research needs. Among the topics to be addressed are the loss of biological diversity, mineral and fisheries exploitation, coastal development and human population growth, global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion and pollution. Registration forms will become available in mid- September; contact Sheri Price, Office of Conference Services, Smithsonian Institution, International Center Rm. 3123, Washington, D.C. 20560; (202) 357-4789. Registration is $30, with space available on a first-come, first-served basis.


Anon. 1991. American black bear needs protection. Focus 13(4): 4. (Proposal to list American black bear on Appendix II)

Anon. 1991. The bottom line is green and black. Tropicus 5(1): 6-7. (Harvesting rain forest products)

Anon. 1991. Campaign launched to conserve Latin America's "Parks in Peril". Diversity 7(1 & 2): 74-75.

Anon. 1991. Congress considers exotic bird bill. Focus 13(4): 1. (Bird trade)

Anon. 1991. Debt-for-nature swaps could protect Latin America's biodiversity. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 39.

Anon. 1991. Everglades land swap imperiled. Nat. Parks 65(9-10): 10-11.

Anon. 1991. Final listing rules published for three species. End. Species Tech. Bull. 16(5): 10-11. (Schoepfia arenaria, white-necked crow, silver rice rat)

Anon. 1991. High sea adventure uncovers evidence of Pacific- based turtles in the Atlantic. Focus 13(4): 5. (Bijagos archipelago of Guinea Bissau, W. Africa)

Anon. 1991. Reintroduction plan endangers wolves. Nat. Parks 65(9-10): 12. (Return of gray wolves to Yellowstone Nat. Park would take away protection from wolves elsewhere in the West)

Anon. 1991. Saguaro expanded to aid vanishing cacti. Nat. Parks 65(9-10): 11-12. (3,500 acres added to Saguaro Nat. Monument, Arizona)

Anon. 1991. Thriving on conservation challenges. Focus 13(4): 2. (Expansion of Guyana's Kaieteur Falls Nat. Park)

Anon. 1991. The Vitoria Amazonia Foundation. Tropicus 5(1): 9. (New Brazilian foundation for conservation of Amazonia biodiversity)

Anon. 1991. WWF finalizes debt swap. Focus 13(4): 1,7. (Philippines)

Abbiw, D. 1990. Useful Plants of Ghana. Intermediate Technology Publications & the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, England. 337 pp. (Indigenous and exotic plants of West Africa)

Bawa, K., Ashton, P. and Nor, S. 1990. Reproductive ecology of tropical forest plants: management issues. In K. Bawa and M. Hadley (Eds.), Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants. UNESCO & the Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris. pp. 3- 16.

Bawa, K. and Hadley, M. (Eds.) 1990. Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants. UNESCO & the Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris. 421 pp. (MAB Series Vol. 7)

Benirschke, K. and Kumamoto, A. 1991. Mammalian cytogenetics and conservation of species. J. Heredity 82(3): 187-191. (Cytogenetic studies for conservation of wild captive animals)

Bergman, C. 1991. Manatees and the metaphors of desire. Orion 10(3): 20-27.

Bretzfelder, M. 1991. Panda conference issues strong warnings. ZooGoer 20(4): 25. (Pandas seriously in danger of extinction)

Brooke, J. 1991. Plan to develop Amazon a failure. New York Times (Int. Section) August 25: 9. (Colonization plan in Rondonia, Brazil)

Brush, S. 1991. Farmer conservation of New World crops: the case of Andean potatoes. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 75-79. (Peru)

Burgos, F. 1991. Enthusiasts have field day searching for rare flower. Chicago Sun-Times August 11: 3. (Thismia americana)

Chapin, M. 1991. Losing the way of the Great Father. New Scientist 131(1781): 40-44. (Kuna Indians of Panama)

Chasan, D. 1991. The owl war escalates. Defenders 66(4): 8-18. (Spotted owl, Northwest USA)

Clark, T., Backhouse, G. and Lacy, R. 1991. Report of a workshop on population viability assessment as a tool for threatened species management and conservation. Australian Zoologist 27(1 & 2): 28-35. (Population viability assessment applied to 6 species of threatened wildlife in Victoria, Australia)

Clement, C. 1991. Amazonian fruits: neglected, threatened and potentially rich resources require urgent attention. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 56-59.

Cubberly, P. 1991. Huge reserve protects ancient Mayan forests with wealth of wildlife. Focus 13(4): 3. (Mexico's Calakmul Biosphere Reserve)

Cubillos, A. and Suzuki, S. 1991. Japan assists Chile in launching INIA genetic resources conservation program. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 38-39.

Darr, D. and Boulter, D. 1991. Timber trends and prospects for North America. Unasylva 42(166): 51-59. (Assessment of the prospects for timber supply & demand in North America to 2005)

Emmel, T. and Austin, G. 1991. The tropical rain forest butterfly fauna of Rondonia, Brazil: species diversity and conservation. Tropical Lepidoptera 1(1): 1-12.

Faulks, J. 1991. A preliminary investigation of the distribution of koalas and their potential habitat in the Tweed Shire, and implications for management. Australian Zoologist 27(1 & 2): 1-13. (Australia)

Fischer, H. 1991. Discord over wolves. Defenders 66(4): 35-39. (Yellowstone Nat. Park wolf restoration)

Fogarty, M., Sissenwine, M. and Cohen, E. 1991. Recruitment variability and the dynamics of exploited marine populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6(8): 241-246.

Frankie, G., Vinson, S., Newstrom, L., Barthell, J., Haber, W. and Frankie, J. 1990. Plant phenology, pollination ecology, pollinator behavior and conservation of pollinators in neotropical dry forest. In K. Bawa, and M. Hadley (Eds.), Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants. UNESCO & the Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris. pp. 37-48. (Costa Rica)

Frome, M. 1991. Challenge in the Everglades. Defenders 66(4): 6-7, 44-47. (Florida)

Gadant, J. 1991. France's forests. Unasylva 42(166): 46-50.

Gamez, R. 1991. Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute: biodiversity working sustainably for society. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 79-81.

Gentry, A. 1991. Tropical forest diversity vs. development: obstacle or opportunity? Diversity 7(1 & 2): 89-90.

Gipps, J.H. W. (Ed). 1991. Beyond Captive Breeding. Re- introducing Endangered Mammals to the Wild. Clarendon Press, London. 304 pp. (Symposium of the Zoological Society of London No. 62)

Gonzalez, L. and Okada, K. 1991. The IBPGR in the Americas. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 10-12. (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources)

Gonzalez, M. and Bosland, P. 1991. Strategies for stemming genetic erosion of Capsicum germplasm in the Americas. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 52-53.

Goodman, M. and Hernandez, J. 1991. Latin America maize collections: a case for urgent action. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 87-88.

Guzman, R. and Iltis, H. 1991. Biosphere reserve established in Mexico to protect rare maize relative. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 82-84. (Zea diploperennis , Sierra de Manantlan)

Hamilton, L. 1991. Tropical forests: identifying and clarifying issues. Unasylva 42(166): 19-27.

Hawkes, J. 1991. The centers of plant genetic diversity in Latin America. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 7-9.

Hoke, F. 1991. Return of the Ridley. Nat. Parks 65(9- 10): 36-41. (Padre Island Nat. Seashore, Texas)

Holdgate, M. 1991. The environment of tomorrow. Environment 33(6): 14-20, 40-42.

Huaman, Z. 1991. International Potato Center safeguards plant genetic resources in Peru. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 16.

Huaman, Z., Collins, W. and Puente, F. 1991. Genetic conservation of sweet potato in Latin America and the genebank of CIP, the International Potato Center. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 47-48. (Peru)

Huaman, Z. and Schmiediche, P. 1991. The importance of ex situ conservation of germplasm: a case study. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 68-69. (Peru)

Iwanaga, M., Maass, B. and Hidlago, R. 1991. Plant genetic resources: the key to CIAT's mission to help national agricultural systems. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 12-14. (Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia)

Laird, S. 1991. Rainforest Alliance conserves tropical diversity for medicinal uses. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 28. (Sustainable utilization of tropical medicinal plants)

Lancaster, J. 1991. Searching for survival: saving the parks isn't enough. Washington Post August 4: C3.

Lavigne, D. 1991. Planet as barnyard. BBC Wildlife 9(6): 402-404. (Farming wild animals)

Leary, T. 1991. A review of terrestrial wildlife trade originating from Solomon Islands. Australian Zoologist 27(1 & 2): 20-27.

Lesica, P., and Antibus, R.K. 1991. Canopy soils and epiphyte richness. Research & Exploration 7(2): 156-165.

Linden, E. 1991. Will we run low on food? Time 138(7): 48-50. (Decline of crop diversity)

Lleras, E. 1991. Conservation of genetic resources in situ . Diversity 7(1 & 2): 72-74.

Luxner, L. 1991. Nature's dividends. Americas 43(3): 3-4. (Brazil debt-for-nature swap)

MacKenzie, D. 1991. Strong words to save the planet. New Scientist 131(1781): 17-18. (Earth Summit in Geneva)

Martin, C. 1991. The Rainforests of West Africa. Birkhauser Boston Inc., New York. 235 pp.

Meadows, R. 1991. Rhinos: on the horns of their dilemma. ZooGoer 20(4): 5-13.

Miller, M. 1991. Raptor recovery: can it continue? ZooGoer 20(4): 14-19.

Muthoo, M. 1991. An overview of the FAO Forestry Field Programme. Unasylva 42(166): 30-39.

Nixon, W. 1991. The greening of the Big Apple. E Magazine 2(5): 30-39. (New York)

Noda, H., Bueno, C. and Silva, D. 1991. Genetic erosion threatens native Amazonian vegetable crops. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 62-63. (Brazil)

Pearsall, S. and Whistler, W.A. 1991. Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping for Western Samoa: Summary, Project Report, and Proposed National Parks and Reserves Plan. South Pacific Regional Environment Program and the East-West Center, Honolulu. 241 pp.

Percival, A. 1991. Collectors track cotton in Latin America to stay ahead of habitat destruction. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 66-68.

Pounds, J.A. 1991. The secret Sahara. BBC Wildlife 9(6): 381. (Biologist of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica speculates on why the golden toad disappeared)

Pritchard, P. 1991. "The best idea America ever had". Nat. Geographic 180(2): 36-59. (U.S. National Park Service is 75 years old)

Publications and Information Directorate. 1990. Plants for Reclamation of Wastelands. Publications & Information Directorate to the National Mission on Wastelands Development, New Delhi, India. (List of 1000 selected economic plants)

Reid, W. and Trexler, M. 1991. Drowning the National Heritage: Climate Change and U.S. Coastal Biodiversity. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. 48 pp.

Rosenberger, A. 1991. The Cabo Frio four. ZooGoer 20(4): 20-24. (National Zoological Park's golden-lion tamarin conservation program in Brazil)

Rubin, S. and Bowles, I. 1991. Debt-for-nature in the 1990s: new directions, new opportunities. Tropicus 5(2): 3. (Conservation International's debt-for-nature swaps)

Sayer, J. 1991. Conservation and protection of tropical rain forests: the perspective of the World Conservation Union. Unasylva 42(166): 40-45.

Schultes, R. 1991. Ethnobotanical conservation and plant diversity in the Northwest Amazon. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 69- 72.

Simpson, C. 1991. Global collaborations find and conserve the irreplaceable genetic resources of wild peanut in South America. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 59-61. (Brazil)

Smith, G. 1991. Populations of Haworthia fasciata are dwindling in urban Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa. British Cactus & Succ. J. 9(2): 42-44. (Not endangered over its entire range, but becoming rare in Port Elizabeth area)

Smith, N., Williams, J. and Plucknett, D. 1991. Conserving the tropical cornucopia. Environment 33(6): 6-9. (Conservation of genetic resources)

Sparks, S. 1991. Politicking for the rainforest. E Magazine 2(5): 19-22. (Harrison Ngau's methods to save the Sarawak rainforest)

Villalobos, V. 1991. The role of CATIE in protecting plant genetic resources of Mesoamerica. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 23- 26. (Tropical Agricultural Research & Training Center, Costa Rica)

Wallace, J. 1991. Rainforest Rx. Sierra 76(4): 36-41. (Ethnobotany and medicinal plants)

Wang, Si-yu. 1990. Conservation and exploitation of tropical forests in China. Cathaya 2: 199-206. (Hainan & Xishuan Banna)

Webb, G. 1991. A survey of the reptiles and amphibians of Bondi State Forest and surrounding areas, near Bombola, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 27(1 & 2): 14-19. (Australia)

Wille, C. 1991. The greening of debt. E Magazine 2(5): 17-19. (Debt-for-nature swaps)

Wolf, E. 1991. Rain forest "rapid assessment" tested in northern Bolivia. Diversity 7(1 & 2): 81-82.

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