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Department ofBotany

No. 103
November 1991

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Concern for neotropical migratory birds - species that breed in North America and winter in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and South America - has been building for years. In 1989 the publication of results from long-term survey programs confirmed what bird-watchers had feared all along - populations of many neotropical migrants were declining, in some cases precipitously. The causes of the declines are complex, but habitat loss and related problems are key issues.

In May of 1990, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation launched the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, a domestic and international initiative for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds. The objective of this program was to create the first integrated federal, state and private program for research, monitoring and habitat management for migratory nongame birds. International efforts are to focus on Canada, a major breeding area for neotropical migrants, and Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, the major overwintering grounds.

The strategy for this program is to stimulate cooperative public and private sector efforts involving federal, state and local governments, foundations, organizations, and businesses in North America and the neotropics. National/international and public/private partnerships are a key element, with the Foundation acting as a catalyst in program development, coordination, implementation, and joint venture funding. This strategy called for a tiered approach to program development, beginning in North America with the federal agencies. Attention would then shift to the state agencies, universities, non- government organizations, corporations and private landowners in North America. Once the North American component of the program is in place, this will become the model for implementation in Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.

In the United States, the program is coordinated by a Federal Agency Neotropical Migratory Bird Committee. The purpose of the Committee is to provide a mechanism for effective communication and coordination of activities for the conservation of neotropical migrants. Membership on the committee is open to those agencies with responsibility for, or activities affecting, nongame migratory birds. Technical aspects of the program are addressed through Working Groups established for specific topics, such as research, monitoring, information and education, legislation, and geographic areas.

To initiate this tremendous undertaking, the Foundation hosted a Neotropical Migratory Bird Workshop in December, 1990, in conjunction with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Forest Service and the National Wildlife Federation. This workshop formalized the proposed Interagency framework and the Working Groups after wide-ranging discussions had identified program priorities. Shortly after this meeting, the name "Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas" was adopted. The name emphasizes the importance of conservation partnerships and the shared nature of this avian resource with neighbor countries in the Caribbean and Latin America. The federal agencies made a strong early commitment to this program and support for agency programs was bolstered by strong Congressional appropriations to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Forest Service, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Smithsonian Institution.

The second national meeting of the Partners in Flight program was held October 21-23, 1991 which featured invited speakers from Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, St. Lucia, the Dominican Republic and Venezuela, who discussed programs in their countries that involve neotropical migratory birds, and explored partnerships with the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program.

The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation has available a brochure on the Program as well as a newsletter in English and Spanish. For more information, interested individuals can write to: Peter Stangel, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, 18th and C Streets, N.W., Rm. 2556, Washington, D.C. 20240.


The Garden Club of America is offering two $5,000 awards to assist with field work in the area of conservation of tropical botany. Awards will be made on a competitive basis to graduate students conducting field work in the tropics as part of their doctoral dissertation research.

There is no application form, however, students must include the following: 1) a curriculum vitae, including graduate and undergraduate transcripts (photocopies acceptable); 2) evidence of foreign language capability, if necessary for country of research; 3) a two-page outline of the proposed research, including its relevance to conservation; 4) a letter stating his/her plans for the future (a long term commitment to conservation of tropical forests and an intent to work in the area will add merit to the application); 5) a letter of recommendation from the advisor, which should include an evaluation of the student's progress to date.

U.S. citizenship is not a requirement, however, students must be enrolled in a U.S. university to be eligible for this scholarship. The awards will be made on a one-time basis, and applications are due by December 31, 1991. Recipients will be announced by Marh 15, 1992. Please mail applications to: Maritza Pinilla, World Wildlife Fund/Garden Club of America, Scholarships in Tropical Botany, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037.


The Manomet Bird Observatory has a research assistantship available beginning 15 March 1992. The full-time, year-round position is with the Manomet Bird Observatory's New York Harbor Project to study aquatic bird ecology. The job entails field work in New York City April - August and data analysis September - March at the Observatory. The salary ranges from $16,000 - $20,000 plus benefits (potentially including housing), depending on experience. There is a possibility for renewal in subsequent years. Please send resume, course listing, names and phone numbers of two references and description of research interests and experience to: Katherine C. Parsons, Manomet Bird Observatory, Box 1700, Manomet, MA 02345-1700; Tel: (508) 224- 6521.


The 1991-1992 Directory of the Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos is now available for $15.00. The directory provides an alphabetical listing of names and addresses of more than 600 people around the world, including their specific interests and projects. Names are also listed by specific groups of animals as well as by 35 areas of expertise, i.e. animal behavior, horticulture, invertebrates, public relations, wildlife management, development and planning, etc. There is also an index of the more than 300 institutions represented by those in the Consortium of Aquariums, Universities and Zoos network. To obtain a copy, write: Dr. Donna Hardy, Department of Psychology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330. Checks should be made out to C.S.U.N. Trust Fund.

The Island Resources Foundation has published six Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profiles for Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Each is designed as a guide for future development planning and resource management decision-making. A broad spectrum of topics are examined, including marine and terrestrial systems, national parks and protected areas, wildlife, land use, etc. A comprehensive bibliography of source materials dealing with resource development and environmental management is contained in each Profile. Each Profile is $25, with a $4 handling charge added to each order under $50.

In addition, a summary of the Profiles entitled, "Environmental Agenda for the 1990s: A Synthesis of the Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profile Series", was prepared and provides an overview summary of the key environmental issues and problems identified in the six Profiles. This can be obtained for $7, plus a $5 postage and handling charge. All orders must be pre-paid. For more detailed ordering instructions, contact: Publications Office, Island Resources Foundation, 1718 P Street, N.W., Suite T4, Washington, D.C. 20036; Tel: (202) 265-9712.


March 19-22, 1992. The Center for Marine Conservation is sponsoring the Coral Reef Coalition First Annual Conference at the Holiday Inn Beachside in Key West, Florida. Experts from New Zealand, Thailand, Belize, Curacao, Australia, and the United States have been invited to attend and discuss resource management issues and alternatives for the Florida Keys ecosystem. The Florida Keys reef tract is a unique ecosystem filled with an abundance of marine life, cultural artifacts and spectacular beauty, which was designated a National Marine Sanctuary in 1990. For registration information, contact: Center for Marine Conservation, 1725 DeSales Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.


Anon. 1991. Botanists find rare orchid under, er foot. Chicago Sun-Times October 2. (Corybas carseii, New Zealand)

Anon. 1991. Chapter to protect pristine stream system in Garrett County. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland 15(3): 1, 10.

Anon. 1991. Critical habitat designation proposed for the northern spotted owl. End. Species Tech. Bull. 16(6): 3-4. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Anon. 1991. Dying saguaro cactuses are bewildering scientists. New York Times (National Sect.) August 11: 23. (Arizona)

Anon. 1991. Endangered Species Act faces challenge. Focus 13(5): 1,7.

Anon. 1991. Fifteen Hawaiian plants proposed in May for Endangered Species Act protection. End. Species Tech. Bull. 16(6): 1, 5-7.

Anon. 1991. Final listing rules approved for four species. End. Species Tech. Bull. 16(6): 8-9. (Leafy prairie- clover, Schweinitz's sunflower, northeastern bulrush, Cumberland pigtoe mussel)

Anon. 1991. Meter-made crusade. Time 138(6): 59. (Conservation meters in zoos to help save tropical rain forest)

Anon. 1991. Service proposes to re-introduce black-footed ferrets into the wild as an experimental population. End. Species Tech. Bull. 16(6): 5. (Wyoming)

Anon. 1991. The Shipstern Nature Reserve, Belize. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(8): 30-33.

Anon. 1991. Ten species proposed during April for listing protection. End. Species Tech. Bull. 16(5): 1, 6-10. (Two fish, seven plants)

Anon. 1991. WWF opens new TRAFFIC office. Focus 13(5): 1, 7. (Malaysia & Malawi)

Agami, M. 1991. Plant conservation at Tel Aviv University's botanic gardens. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(8): 37-38.

Anderson, J. 1991. A conceptual framework for evaluating and quantifying naturalness. Cons. Biology 5(3): 347-352.

Anderson, L. 1991. Paronychia chartacea ssp. minima (Caryophyllaceae): a new subspecies of a rare Florida endemic. Sida 14(3): 435-442.

Armstrong, S. 1991. When paradise is a swamp. Int. Wildlife 21(6): 44-51. (Botswana's Okavango Swamp)

Balick, M. 1990. Ethnobotany and the identification of therapeutic agents from the rainforest. In D. Chadwick, and J. Marsh (eds.). Bioactive Compounds from Plants. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 22-40.

Barten, A. 1991. Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. Orion 10(4): 8-9.

Blader, S. 1991. Checklist and notes on the current status of the birds of New Georgia, Western Province, Solomon Islands. Am. Birds 45(2): 205-214.

Breuer, G. 1991. A strategy for the sea floor. New Scientist 1790: 34-37. (Protecting its riches from exploitation)

Campbell, R. 1991. Rare and endangered fishes and marine mammals of Canada: COSEWIC Fish & Marine Mammal Subcommittee Status reports; VII. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105(2): 151-156. (Followed by articles on the status of 12 species)

Casey, C. 1991. The bird of contention. Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 28-30, 65-68. (Northern spotted owl of old-growth forests)

Center for Marine Conservation. 1991. Federal Conservation & Management of Marine Fisheries in the United States. Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, D.C. 278 pp.

Clark, T., Amato, E., Whittemore, D. and Harvey, A. 1991. Policy and programs for ecosystem management in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem: an analysis. Cons. Biology 5(3): 412-422.

Clark, T. and Cragun, J. 1991. Organization and management of endangered species programs. End. Species Update 8(8): 1-4.

Clemente, M. 1991. The micropropagation unit at the Cordoba Botanic Gardens, Spain. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(3): 30-33. (Protecting plant genetic diversity of Andalusia)

Cubberly, P. 1991. Innovative conservation protects Rio Abiseo National Park. Focus 13(5): 3. (Raising alpacas in Peru)

Dallmeier, F. and Cringan, A. 1989. Biology, Conservation and Management of Waterfowl in Venezuela. Editorial Ex Libris, Caracas, Venezuela. 351 pp.

Dawes, K. 1991. Wild plants are prey in garden of greed. Chicago Sun-Times October 6: 19. (Wild collected bulbs sold at nurseries)

Dolan, R. 1991. Cooperation between developers, regulators, and the Federal government to resolve taxonomic status of rare plants: a case history. Nat. Areas J. 11(3): 168. (California)

Dybas, C. 1991. Big lift for a little falcon. Nat. Wildlife 29(5): 18-24. (American kestrel)

Egan, T. 1991. The great Alaska debate: can oil and wilderness mix? New York Times Magazine August 4(Sect. 6): 20-26, 49.

Ellshoff, Z. 1991. The rarest Hawaiian members of the hibiscus family. Bull. National Tropical Bot. Garden 21(3): 7-12. (Abutilon, Hibiscus, Kokia)

Erwin, T. 1991. How many species are there?: revisited. Cons. Biology 5(3): 330-335. (Comment on Gaston's article)

Finger, M. 1991. The military, the nation state and the environment. The Ecologist 21(5): 220-225. (Armed forces a cause of environmental degradation)

Forsyth, A. 1991. Approaching Irian. Orion 10(4): 32- 39. (Irian Jaya, Indonesia)

Franes, C. and Senner, S. 1991. Status and conservation of the eskimo curlew. Am. Birds 45(2): 237-239.

Frid, A. 1991. Into the last outpost of the huemul. Int. Wildlife 21(6): 14-19. (Rare deer of Chile and Argentina)

Gaston, K. 1991. The magnitude of global insect species richness. Cons. Biology 5(3): 283-296.

Goldsmith, F. (ed.). 1991. Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology. Chapman and Hall, London. 275 pp.

Gray, G. 1991. The politics of old-growth. Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 17-20. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Gray, G. and Eng, A. 1991. How much old-growth is left? Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 46-48. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Gregg, N. 1991. Will "new forestry" save old forests? Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 49-53, 70. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Hamilton, M. 1991. Conoco quits oil project in rain forest. Washington Post October 12: C1, C8. (Ecuador)

Haney, J., Wunderle, J. and Arendt, W. 1991. Some initial effects of Hurricane Hugo on endangered and endemic species of West Indian birds. Am. Birds 45(2): 234-236.

Harbrecht, D. 1991. Rescuing rare beauties. Nat. Wildlife 29(5): 4-9. (Butterfly conservation)

He, S., Jin, W. and Jin, J. 1991. Micropropagation research in the Nanjing Botanical Garden, Mem. Sun Yat-Sen. Botanical Gardens Micropropagation News 1(3): 29, 33. (Rare, economic & ornamental species)

Heckadon, S. et al. 1990. Hacia una Centroamerica Verde: Seis Casos de Conservacion Integrada. Departamento Ecumenico de Investigaciones, San Jose, Costa Rica. 142 pp.

Hegazy, A. and Eesa, N. 1991. On the ecology, insect seed- predation, and conservation of a rare and endemic plant species: Ebenus armitagei (Leguminosae). Cons. Biology 5(3): 317-324.

Holbrook, N. 1991. Small plants in high places: the conservation and biology of epiphytes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6(10): 314-315. (Summary of symposium on conservation & biology of epiphytes, May 1991; epiphyte communities studied to measure effects of global change)

Hutchins, M. and Wemmer, C. 1991. In defense of captive breeding. End. Species Update 8(9 & 10): 5-6.

Island Resources Foundation. 1991. Environmental Agenda for the 1990s: A Synthesis of the Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profile Series. Island Resources Foundation, Washington, D.C. 1500 pp.

Johnsingh, A. and Chellam, R. 1991. India's last lions. Zoogoer 20(5): 16-20. (Gir Forest)

Johnson, B. 1991. Responding to Tropical Deforestation. An Eruption of Crises - An Array of Solutions. WWF and the Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C. 63 pp.

Kaplan, J. 1991. USDA plant hunters. Bring 'em back alive and growing. Agricultural Research 39(7): 4-13. (Researchers' efforts in plant conservation for new crops)

Kerr, K. 1991. The economic potential of handicrafts enterprises in rural development: focus on Indonesia. Unasylva 42(165): 31-36.

King, B. 1990. Distribution and status of the Torresian imperial pigeon, Ducula spilorrhoa, in north-eastern Queensland: Cooktown to Cape York. The Emu 90(4): 248-253.

Kinzer, S. 1991. Swiss protester fighting for world's forests. New York Times (Int. Section) July 28: 6. (Sarawak)

Lesica, P. and Shelly, J. 1991. Sensitive, Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Occasional Publication No. 1, Helena, Montana. 88 pp.

Mason, G. 1991. Center for the Conservation of Genetic Diversity. Fremontia 19(4): 22-24. (California)

Mattson, D. and Reid, M. 1991. Conservation of the Yellowstone grizzly bear. Cons. Biology 5(3): 364-372.

May, P. 1991. Building institutions and markets for non-wood forest products from the Brazilian Amazon. Unasylva 42(165): 9-16.

McLean, H. 1991. Paying the price for old-growth. Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 22-27, 72-75. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Meadows, R. 1991. Catching the wildlife criminal. Zoogoer 20(5): 10-15. (Crime lab identifies wildlife parts and products for law enforcement)

Meadows, R. 1991. A murky outlook for small cetaceans. Zoogoer 20(5): 5-9. (Threats to river dolphins)

Meredith, L. 1991. An Australian network for plant conservation. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(8): 45- 47.

Nabhan, G. 1991. Cryptic cacti on the borderline. Orion 10(4): 26-31. (Rare Peniocereus striatus, US/Mexico border)

Nash, S. 1991. What price nature? BioScience 41(10): 677-680. (Ecological risk assessment)

National Research Council. 1991. Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 240 pp.

National Research Council. 1991. Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 190 pp.

Olsson, G. 1991. The socio-economic importance of non-timber forest products in the South Pacific: focus on Vanuatu. Unasylva 42(165): 24-31.

Omar, S. 1991. Dynamics of range plants following 10 years of protection in arid rangelands of Kuwait. J. Arid Environments 21(1): 99-112.

Orr, D. 1991. Biological diversity, agriculture and the Liberal Arts. Cons. Biology 5(3): 268-270.

Page, L. and Jeffords, M. 1991. Our living heritage: the biological resources of Illinois. Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey Bull. 34(4): 1-477.

Patten, D. 1991. Human impacts in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem: evaluating sustainability goals and eco-redevelopment. Cons. Biology 5(3): 405-411.

Powell, A. 1991. Great Lakes piping plovers: recovery or extirpation. End. Species Update 8(9 & 10): 1-4.

Power, T. 1991. Ecosystem preservation and the economy in the Greater Yellowstone area. Cons. Biology 5(3): 395-404.

Prance, G. 1990. Future of the Amazonian rainforest. Futures 22(9): 891-903.

Prance, G. 1991. What is ethnobotany today? J. of Ethnopharmacology 32: 209-216. (Need for future research before indigenous cultures & natural habitats are destroyed)

Preston, J. 1991. Amazon resisting environmentalists. Washington Post October 22: A15. (Brazil)

Rabinowitz, A. 1991. Chasing the shadows called civets. Int. Wildlife 21(6): 38-43. (Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand)

Ripley, S. 1991. The case of the disappearing Rallus owstonii. Smithsonian 22(5): 112-119. (Guam rail)

Rogers, D. 1991. The Santa Lucia mountains: diversity, endemism, and austere beauty. Fremontia 19(4): 3-11. (California)

Rohlf, D. 1991. Six biological reasons why the Endangered Species Act doesn't work - and what to do about it. Cons. Biology 5(3): 273-282.

Romme, W. and Turner, M. 1991. Implications of global climate change for biogeographic patterns in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Cons. Biology 5(3): 373-386.

Roush, J. 1991. Our ship is coming in, but who's at the wheel? Orion 10(4): 12-16. (Conservation movement)

Rousseau, M. 1991. A note on in vitro culture at the National Botanic Conservatory of Porquerolles, France. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(3): 33. (Research on tissue culture propagation of species in grave danger of extinction)

Russell, D. and Reynolds, S. 1991. Old-growth movers and shakers. Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 61-64. (Twelve decision makers speak out on issue of old-growth forest, Pacific Northwest, USA)

Sargent, F., Lusk, P., Rivera, J. and Varela, M. 1991. Rural Environmental Planning for Sustainable Communities. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 260 pp.

Scher, S. 1991. Conserving the Pacific yew. Fremontia 19(4): 15-18. (Taxus brevifolia, Pacific Northwest, USA)

Seitz, A. and Loeschcke, V. (eds.). 1991. Species Conservation: A Population - Biological Approach. Birkhauser Boston Inc., Secaucus, New Jersey.

Stap, D. 1991. A bird in the hand. Orion 10(4): 40- 45. (Ornithological fieldwork in Peru)

Sunquist, F. 1991. China's feathered splendor. Int. Wildlife 21(6): 4-13. (Rare birds of the Far East)

Titone, J. 1991. Suffering the enviro-doc. Am. Forests 97(9 & 10): 58, 75-77. (Dr. John Osborn, activist to save old growth forest, Pacific Northwest, USA)

Tobin, R. 1991. The Expendable Future: U.S. Politics and the Protection of Biological Diversity. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina. 325 pp.

van der Have, T. 1991. Conservation of Palearctic-African migrants: are both ends burning? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6(10): 308-310.

von Puttkamer, W. 1991. Brazil protects her Cinta Largas. Nat. Geographic 140(3): 420-444. (Indians of Rondonia)

Weiss, S., Switky, K. and Murphy, D. 1991. Grazing and endangered species management. End. Species Update 8(8): 6.

Wickens, G. 1991. Management issues for development of non- timber forest products. Unasylva 42(165): 3-8.

Wilcove, D. and Murphy, D. 1991. The spotted owl controversy and conservation biology. Cons. Biology 5(3): 261-262.

Williams, C. 1991. Maintenance of the disturbance-dependent Appalachian endemic, Pinus pungens, under low - disturbance regimes. Nat. Areas J. 11(3): 169-170. (Rare species)

Wolf, E. 1991. Pictures from an expedition: a rapid assessment of rain forest in Bolivia. Orion 10(4): 17-25.

Yuhu, L. 1991. Conservation of Magnoliaceae and rare and endemic plants in South China. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(8): 52-54.

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