Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Website Search Box

Department ofBotany

No. 106
February 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Center for Marine Conservation (CMC) have recently joined forces in a cooperative agreement aimed at better protecting imperiled marine environments. The agreement enables both CMC and WWF to take advantage of the complementary strengths of their respective organizations.

With over 2,000 projects in more than 110 countries, WWF is the largest private conservation organization working worldwide to preserve the abundance and diversity of wildlife and to promote the wise use of the Earth's natural resources. The Center for Marine Conservation is America's largest non-profit organization dedicated soley to the protection of marine and coastal ecosystems. CMC projects operate throughout the world, such as along the coast of Japan, Greece, England, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Canada, Israel, Cuba, Venezuela and the United States. The Center conducts projects in the areas of marine species recovery, biological diversity, pollution prevention, habitat protection and fisheries conservation.

The cooperative agreement between WWF and CMC is a non- exclusive compact that allows each organization to work independently of each other. A number of joint activities are planned, including: campaigning to restore the severely overfished Atlantic bluefin tuna; conducting workshops on the reform of U.S. fishery management practices; strengthening protection for whales and other cetaceans at the next meeting of the International Whaling Commission in May; and implementing a new international marine biological diversity strategy action plan through a worldwide marine conservation network.


A canopy walkway has been constructed in a northern temperate maple-beech-oak forest in northwestern Massachusetts by Dr. Meg Lowman. Although the walkway is intended for use in undergraduate ecology education, it is also providing access to research opportunities in temperate forest canopy ecology. Any interested biologists who wish to see, climb or discuss the costs and construction of a walkway (particularly in relation to its application in the tropics) are welcome to call or visit Williams College: Dr. Meg Lowman, Biology Department, Williamstown, MA 01267. Tel.: (413) 597-3314.


The Smithsonian Institution/Man and the Biosphere Program is offering the following courses in 1992:

  • Conservation, Management and Interpretation of the Galapagos Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, May 26 - June 20. Contact: Roberto Ulloa, Fundacion Ecociencia, Av. 12 de Octubre 959 y Roca, Edificio Mariana de Jesus, Quito, Ecuador. Tel.: 593-2-502409.
  • Conservation and Management of Protected Areas and Wildlife in Bolivia, June 9 - July 4. Contact: Cynthia Silva, Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Casilla 20171, La Paz, Bolivia. Tel.: (591 2) 792-582.
  • Biodiversity Monitoring of Protected Areas in the Canary Islands, Spain, October 10 - 25. Contact: Francisco Dallmeier, Smithsonian Institution, 1100 Jefferson Drive, S.W., Suite 3123, Washington, DC 20560. Tel. (202) 357-4792.
  • Biological Monitoring of Protected Areas in Venezuela, November 22 - December 18. Contact: Franscisco Dallmeier (address above).

Colorado State University is conducting a workshop to introduce participants to the the field of conservation biology, 13-17 July in Fort Collins. An increased emphasis and concern for biotic diversity on public and private lands has resulted in the need for information on how best to approach this complex issue. Additionally, restrictions on logging, grazing, mining and recreation activities have placed those responsible for natural resources in the position of attempting to manage, simultaneously, for apparently conflicting goals. Enrollment is limited to 30 participants. For further information and enrollment write or call: Dr. Richard Knight, Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, (303) 491-6714 or Dr. Luke George, Dept. Wildlife, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521, (707) 826-3430.


The Charles Darwin Research Station is hiring the following positions: Science Coordinator (experience in coordination, supervision and development of new research programs); Natural Resources Advisor (experience in management and protection of natural areas); Ecologist (experience in wildlife management, especially vertebrate pest control); Ornithologist (experience in bird censuses, basic research and protection of threatened species); and Marine Biologist (experience in basic research and/or management of marine reserves).

Applicants should be fluent in Spanish and English. All positions carry an initial two year contract which can be renewed. Applicants should be available to start in June, 1992. Sends letters of application and curriculum vitae, or requests for further information, to: Director, Charles Darwin Research Station, Casilla 17-01-3891, Quito, Ecuador.

The newly opened Pan American Regional Office of the International Council for Bird Preservation in Quito, Ecuador is seeking a Program Assistant. Candidates must have a degree in biology, environmental studies or ornithology, and experience in conservation work. Ideally candidates should be fluent in English, Spanish and Portuguese. To apply, mail a curriculum vitae to: CIPA - Oficina Regional, Programa Panamericano, P.O. Box 17-17-717, Quito, Ecuador. Tel.: (593-2) 244-734; Fax (593-2) 244-734.


The New Zealand-based Maruia Society, a conservation organization with a work program in New Zealand, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Fiji, has produced the first issue of a quarterly magazine, Maruia. Maruia features articles on a solution-finding approach to environmental issues, one that explores and fosters the reconciliation of our environmental, social and economic goals. The first issue contains articles on tropical forest conservation work conducted by Maruia Society field staff in the South Pacific (see current literature). For information on subscriptions, contact: The Secretary, Maruia Society, P.O. Box 756, Nelson, New Zealand. Tel: (3) 54 83336; Fax (3) 54 87525.


March 25 - 27. Annual conference of the Society of Ethnobiology will be held at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Registration: $45. In addition a special one day symposium, "Can Nuts Save the Rainforest? The Promise of Ethnobiology and Non-Timber Forest Products", will be held on March 25 at the S. Dillon Ripley Center. For more information on the annual meeting, contact: Dr. Bruce Smith, Dept. of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560; (202) 357-1572. For free passes to the symposium, call the Office of Conference Services: (202) 357-4789.

April 27 - May 1. First World Congress of Tourism and the Environment will be held in Belmopan, Belize. For more information, contact: Ministry of Tourism & Environment, 19 Mayflower Street, Belmopan, Belize, or First World Congress on Tourism and the Environment, 15 Penn Plaza, 415 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10012.


Anon. 1991. Guyana expands Kaieteur National Park. Focus 13(6): 1,7.

Anon. 1991. Rescue mission saves rare carnivorous plants from extinction in Georgia. Clippings Atlanta Bot. Garden Newsletter 14: 2. (Sarracenia oreophila)

Anon. 1991. Tissue culture of rare and endangered species. A List of laboratories. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(4): 49-50. (Preliminary list of Royal Botanic Gardens and Botanic Gardens Secretariat, Kew, UK)

Anon. 1991. WWF receives gift for global conservation. Focus 13(6): 5. (Bank of Tokyo Group donates $1 million in developing-country debt for conservation projects)

Anon. 1991. WWF survey uncovers rare Jamaican lizard. Focus 13(6): 5. (Cyclura collei)

Boroden, C. 1992. Lonesome lobo. Wildlife Conservation 95(1): 44-53, 73. (Mexican wolf)

Borota, J. 1991. Tropical Forests. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 296 pp. (Emphasis on Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Laos)

Bourne, J. 1991. Treasures in the scrub. Defenders 66(6): 13-17. (Lake Wales Ridge, Florida)

Brown, L. et al. 1992. State of the World 1992. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.

Campbell, D., Lowell, K. and Lightbourn, M. 1991. The effect of introduced hutias (Geocapromys ingrahami) on the woody vegetation of Little Wax Cay, Bahamas. Cons. Biology 5(4): 536-541. (Endangered rodent)

Center for International Development and Environment. 1992. 1992 Directory of Country Environmental Studies. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 200 pp.

Collins, N. and Thomas, J. 1991. (Eds.) The Conservation of Insects and Their Habitats. Academic Press, San Diego, California. 450 pp.

Committee on Sea Turtle Conservation. 1991. Decline of the Sea Turtles, Causes and Prevention. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 280 pp.

Cox, P., Elmqvist, T., Pierson, E. and Rainey, W. 1991. Flying foxes as strong interactors in South Pacific island ecosystems: a conservation hypothesis. Cons. Biology 5(4): 448-454.

Cubberly, P. 1991. Komodo dragons "star" in WWF project. Focus 13(6): 3. (Indonesia)

Cutler, A. 1991. Nested faunas and extinction in fragmented habitats. Cons. Biology 5(4): 496-505.

Daniels, R., Hegde, M., Joshi, N. and Gadgil, M. 1991. Assigning conservation value: a case study from India. Cons. Biology 5(4): 464-475.

Davis, G. 1991. Saving Pacific tropical forests: the Maruia way. Maruia 1(1): 4-5.

Dixit, R. and Krishna, B. 1990. Phytogenetic analysis of the endemic pteridophytes of India: conservation priorities. Indian Fern J. 7: 49-53.

Drew, L. 1992. Wrangling for change on the range. Nat. Wildlife 30(2): 46-49. (Grazing cattle on western lands, USA)

Eldredge, N. 1991. Fossils: The Evolution and Extinction of Species. Harry N. Abrams, New York. 220 pp.

Ellis, G. and Kane, K. 1991. America's Rainforest. North-Word Press, Minocqua, Wisconsin. (US Pacific forest)

Espinoza, E. and Mann, M.-J. 1991. Identification Guide to Ivories and Ivory Substitutes. World Wildlife Fund & The Conservation Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland. 35 pp.

Flora and Fauna Support Group. 1991. Recommendations for listing of taxa, communities and potentially threatening processes under the FFG Act. Victorian Nat. 108(2): 38-41.

Folkerts, G. 1991. The white-topped pitcher plant - a case of precarious abundance. Oryx 24: 201-207. (Sarracenia leucophylla)

Franklin, J. and Steadman, D. 1991. The potential for conservation of Polynesian birds through habitat mapping and species translocation. Cons. Biology 5(4): 506-521.

Freemuth, J. 1991. Islands Under Siege. National Parks and the Politics of External Affairs. University of Kansas Press. 186 pp.

Fujita, M. and Tuttle, M. 1991. Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economic importance. Cons. Biology 5(4): 455-463.

Gilpin, M. and Wills, C. 1991. MHC and captive breeding: a rebuttal. Cons. Biology 5(4): 554-555.

Gould, J. 1991. Nature tourism takes off in Fiji. Maruia 1(1): 6.

Graham, B. 1991. Rescuing our refuges. Defenders 66(6): 10-12. (USA)

Green, M. (Compiler) 1990. IUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas. The World Conservation Monitoring Centre and IUCN. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 294 pp.

Hansen, P. and Jorgensen, S. (Eds.) 1991. Introduction to Environmental Management. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 404 pp. (Developments in Environmental Modelling Vol. 18)

Iriondo, J. and Perez, C. 1991. In vitro storage of three endangered species from S.E. Spain. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(4): 46-48. (Coronopus navasii , Lavatera oblongifolia , Centaurium rigualii)

Jeffrey, D. and Madden, B. (Eds.) 1991. Bioindicators and Environmental Management. Academic Press, San Diego, California. 432 pp.

Jhala, Y. and Giles, R. 1991. The status and conservation of the wolf in Gujarat and Rajasthan, India. Cons. Biology 5(4): 476-483.

Jusaitis, M. 1991. Micropropagation of endangered Phebalium (Rutaceae) species in South Australia. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(4): 43-45.

Kiernan, M. and Earhart, J. 1992. Promise and problems in the Palcazu. Orion 11(1): 29. (Palcazu Valley, Peru)

Laarman, J. and Sedjo, R. 1992. Global Forests. McGraw-Hill, New York. 337 pp.

Leberg, P. 1991. Influence of fragmentation and bottlenecks on genetic divergence of wild turkey populations. Cons. Biology 5(4): 522-530.

Lees, A. 1991. The Solomons. A new future for the forests. Maruia 1(1): 7-10.

Lieberman, A. 1991. Return to the wild. South American Explorer 30: 5-8. (Andean condor)

Manes, C. 1992. In praise of yew. Orion 11(1): 30-39. (Taxus brevifolia)

Martin, G. 1991. Geese, grapes and greed. Defenders 66(6): 18-27. (Sacramento Valley, California)

Master, L. 1991. Assessing threats and setting priorities for conservation. Cons. Biology 5(4): 559-563.

Matthews, D. 1992. A turn for the better. Wildlife Conservation 95(1): 54-59. (Mississippi's threatened least tern)

Middleditch, B. and Amer, A. 1991. Kuwaiti Plants. Distribution, Traditional Medicine, Phytochemisty, Pharmacology and Economic Value. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 322 pp.

Miller, P. and Hedrick, P. 1991. MHC polymorphism and the design of captive breeding programs: simple solutions are not the answer. Cons. Biology 5(4): 556-558.

Mitchell, R. et al. 1991. Factors associated with loblolly pine mortality on former agricultural sites in the Conservation Reserve Program. J. Soil Water Conservation 46(4): 306-311.

Newmark, W. (Ed.) 1991. The Conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 136 pp.

Nielsen, B. 1992. Paul Butler sells parrots. Wildlife Conservation 95(1): 66-71. (Conservation awareness campaign to save Caribbean birds)

Orenstein, R. 1991. Elephants. The Deciding Decade. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, California. 160 pp.

Orr, D. 1991. The economics of conservation. Cons. Biology 5(4): 439-441.

Paaby, P., Clark, D. and Gonzalez, H. 1991. Training rural residents as naturalist guides: evaluation of a pilot project in Costa Rica. Cons. Biology 5(4): 542-547.

Pringle, C. 1991. U.S.-Romanian environmental reconnaissance of the Danube Delta. Cons. Biology 5(4): 442-445.

Reisner, M. 1991. Game Wars. Undercover Pursuit of Game Poachers. Viking/Penguin Press. 294 pp.

Ricciuti, E. 1992. Guns 'n rhinos. Wildlife Conservation 95(1): 26-35. (Smuggling of South African rhino horns)

Rogers, R., Rogers, L., Hoffman, R. and Martin, L. 1991. Native American biological diversity and the biogeographic influence of ice age refugia. J. of Biogeography 18(6): 623-630.

Salmon, G. 1991. Papua New Guinea. On track for leadership in saving tropical rainforests. Maruia 1(1): 11-12.

Salwasser, H. 1991. New perspectives for sustaining diversity in the U.S. National Forest ecosystems. Cons. Biology 5(4): 567-569.

Sample, V. 1991. Land Stewardship in the Next Era of Conservation. Grey Tower Press, Milford, Pennsylvania. 43 pp.

Schmidt, C. 1992. The valley of a thousand trees. Orion 11(1): 16-28. (Palcazu Valley, Peru)

Schonewald-Cox, C., Azari, R. and Blume, S. 1991. Scale, variable density, and conservation planning for mammalian carnivores. Cons. Biology 5(4): 491-495.

Seelinger, U. (Ed.) 1991. Coastal Communities of Latin America . Academic Press, San Diego, California. 392 pp.

Simbiota. 1991. Potential Funding Sources for Neotropical Field Biologists and Conservationists. Simbiota, Madison, Wisconsin.

Smith, J. and McDougal, C. 1991. The contribution of variance in lifetime reproduction to effective population size in tigers. Cons. Biology 5(4): 484-490.

Swisher, J. and Masters, G. 1991. Buying environmental insurance: prospects for trading of global climate-protection services. Climate Change 19(1-2): 233-240.

Tisdell, C. 1991. Economics of Environmental Conservation. Economics for Environmental and Ecological Management. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 234 pp.

TRAFFIC-US. 1991. Wildlife Trade Laws of Asia and Oceania. WWF TRAFFIC-US, Washington, DC.

Tulchin, J. and Rudman, A. (Eds.) 1991. Economic development and environmental protection in Latin America. Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colorado.

Venters, V. 1991. Stiffer penalties may deter poaching: law strengthened to protect rare Venus'-flytraps. Wildlife in North Carolina 55: 2.

Walker, L., Brokaw, N., Lodge, D. and Waide, R. 1991. Special Issue: Ecosystem, plant and animal responses to hurricanes in the Caribbean. Biotropica 23(4): 313-521.

Walters, J. 1991. Application of ecological principles to the management of endangered species: the case of the red- cockaded woodpecker. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22: 505-524.

Wellner, P. and Dickey, E. 1991. The Wood Users Guide. Rainforest Action Network, San Francisco, California. (Lists tropical woods and suggests alternatives)

Western, D. 1991. Biology and conservation: making the relevant connection. Cons. Biology 5(4): 431-433.

Whelan, T. (Ed.) 1991. Nature Tourism. Managing for the Environment . Island Press, Covelo, California. 220 pp.

White, L. 1992. Here an elephant... Wildlife Conservation 95(1): 36-43. (Animal census in Gabon)

[ TOP ]