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Department ofBotany

No. 107
March 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Bruce MacBryde

The 8th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP8) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was held 2-13 March 1992 in Kyoto, Japan. There are several highlights regarding the progress in conservation of plants. The utility of CITES to prevent ecological extinction of timber species was clearly established with the addition of several more species: in Appendix II, Pericopsis elata (afrormosia) and Swietenia mahagoni (Caribbean mahogany), including their logs, sawn wood, and veneer (and no other parts or derivatives); and Guaiacum officinale (Commoner lignum vitae); in Appendix I, Dalbergia nigra (Brazilian rosewood); as well as retention on Appendix II of Caryocar costaricense (garlic tree) and Platymiscium pleiostachyum (granadillo or cristobal), and downlisting to Appendix II of Oreomunnea pterocarpa (gavilan). The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and CITES were recognized as complementary in COP8 statements of the ITTO representative and several Parties, which may become formal interaction when the ITTO meets in May 1992 in Cameroon.

Delisted were five neotropical tree species: Quercus copeyensis, Vantanea barbourii, Cynometra hemitomophylla, Tachigali versicolor, and Batocarpus costaricensis; and also the Philippine palm Areca ipot. Proposals to include several familiar tropical timber species were withdrawn: Intsia (merbau), Swietenia macrophylla (bigleaf mahogany), and Gonystylus bancanus (ramin); as well as Schinopsis (quebrachos), used as timber locally and to obtain tannin for export.

Other taxa added to Appendix II are the carnivorous plant Dionaea (Venus flytrap); and seven gray-leaved Tillandsia species, the first bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) to be regulated by CITES. For cacti (Cactaceae), it was determined necessary to uplist to Appendix I: the rest of the taxa of Ariocarpus and Turbinicarpus ; the genera Discocactus and Uebelmannia; and four species of Melocactus. Alocasia sanderiana and Hedychium philippinense were downlisted to Appendix II. Flasked artificially propagated seedlings of Appendix I orchid species were excluded from CITES; the Himalayan orchid Didiciea cunninghamii was retained in Appendix I, pending India's generation of information (to be reviewed by COP9) on likely risk from international trade.

Preparation (by collaboration) of a checklist of Orchidaceae was endorsed (and some CITES 1993 funds allocated); the nearly published Cactaceae Checklist (which CITES initiated in 1986) was adopted as a guide. The 1979 definition of artificial propagation for CITES was revised; also, a plan was devised to develop a CITES register of the nurseries artificially propagating Appendix I taxa for export to facilitate their trade, with the detailed procedures and criteria on standards to be composed in collaboration with the appropriate organizations and experts, for COP9 (in 1994 in USA). A 1993 meeting will be convened to reevaluate the 1979 criteria for listing, transfer and delisting of animal and plant taxa in relation to the appendices. For the CITES Plants Committee (CPC), the six CITES Regions reselected three representatives, for Oceania and the new CPC Chairman: James A. Armstrong, Australia; North America and now CPC vice chairman (the 1985-1992 chairman): Bruce MacBryde, USA; Europe: Noel McGough, UK; and selected three new members, for Africa (Christine H.S. Kabuye, Kenya); Asia (B.D. Sharma, India); and South America, Central America and the Caribbean (Maria Luisa Reyna de Aguilar, El Salvador).


By Minette Johnson

In preparation for the upcoming United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the Center for Marine Conservation has launched a major initiative on marine biological diversity. The Center's Chief Scientist, Dr. Elliott A. Norse, is heading the efforts to produce a Global Marine Biological Diversity Strategy to highlight the values and vulnerabilities of life in the sea and to propose mechanisms for their protection and sustainable use.

Two years in the making, the Strategy is a companion document to the Global Biodiversity Strategy produced by World Resources Institute, IUCN and the United Nations Environment Programme. English, Spanish and French versions of the Global Marine Biological Diversity Strategy will be distributed after the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro next June.

The Center for Marine Conservation developed the outline for the Global Marine Biological Diversity Strategy in a year- long process that included consultations with experts at meetings in Australia, the Federated States of Micronesia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic and the United States, and correspondence with experts worldwide. People who provided information, insights or written sections of the text come from more than 30 countries throughout the world.

The Strategy, which has been drafted by nearly 100 experts worldwide, is a comprehensive page examination of marine conservation written for government policymakers, mid-level managers, funders in intergovernmental, governmental and private organizations, conservation advocates in nongovernmental organizations, research administrators, scholars in the marine science and policy communities, industries and anyone else with a clear stake in maintaining the health of the seas, and the position or commitment to do something about it. To ensure that the Strategy represents the best available information on marine conservation, it is being reviewed by hundreds of experts worldwide.

Perhaps most importantly, the Strategy, and the recommendations it makes, will be the basis for new international efforts to conserve life in the sea.

To receive copies, please send your name, title, full address, phone number and fax numbers to: Minette Johnson, Center for Marine Conservation, 1725 DeSales St., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036.


The proceedings of the symposium on establishing research priorities for conservation of Papua New Guinea's biological diversity, which was held June 3, 1991 at the East-West Center, has just been published. Edited by Mary Pearl, Bruce Beehler, Allen Allison and Meg Taylor, it has contributions from 17 authors from Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Australia and the U.S. It is available from either Dr. Mary Pearl, Asia/Pacific Program, Wildlife Conservation International, Bronx, NY 10460, or from Her Excellency Ambassador Meg Taylor, Embassy of Papua New Guinea, 1615 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009. The editors suggest a donation of US $30 or 30 PNG Kina (make checks payable to Wildlife Conservation Intl. PNG Student Fund); proceeds will support Papua New Guinean student conservation research projects.

Wild Medicine: An Overview of the U.S. Herb Trade and Its Conservation Implication, by Douglas O. Fuller, evaluates the scope of the U.S. herb trade and its effect on populations of certain native herb species. It explores the economics of wild collected plants for medicinal purposes, the reasons for overcollections, and the adverse effect of collection pressure on certain herbal resources. It also discusses the efforts of herbalists and medicinal herb companies to promote ethical and conservation minded collection practices to help ensure sustainable use of native herbs. It can be ordered for $7.50 (plus $2.00 for shipping) by writing: WWF Publications, P. O. Box 4866, Hampden Post Office, Baltimore, MD 21211.


May 5-7. "Marketing Forest Products of the Pacific Rim" will be held in Santiago, Chile. For more information, contact: Bob Flynn, Jay Gruenfeld Associates, Inc., P. O. Box 66836, Seattle, WA 98166; Tel. (206) 242-3551; Fax (206) 242-6175.

May 18-19. "Linking Biological Diversity and Sustainable Economic Development Needs in the Adirondack Park" will be held in Lake George, New York. The Adirondack Park Agency along with other local, state and national organizations will examine how to protect and preserve the richest species diversity in the eastern United States while providing sustained and compatible economic development. For more information, write: Edward J. Hood, New York State Adirondack Park Agency, P. O. Box 99, Ray Brook, NY 12977; Tel. (518) 891-4050.


The Rainforest Alliance, in coordination with Mountain Travel*Sobek, an adventure company, is offering an innovative medical seminar on the prevention and treatment of tropical diseases in the Amazon Basin of Brazil in June 1993. The course will provide an opportunity for health professionals to examine the interdependence of western and traditional medicine in tropical forest regions. It will also look at the importance of tropical biodiversity for the development of pharmaceuticals and for use in traditional medical systems.

The seminar will be fully accredited for 16 units AMA category 1. Program instructors are Donald Heyneman, Ph.D., an internationally known parasitologist and Director of the Tropical Disease Laboratory at the University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, and Phil Rasori, M.D., Medical Director of Village Hopecare International, a private community development organization that focuses on rural health care delivery in the developing world.

For further information on this innovative seminar, contact Ms. Susan Pritchard at Mountain Travel*Sobek, 1-800-227-2384, ext. 3046.


The Institute of Economic Botany of The New York Botanical Garden has established a small grants program to support research and education projects in Economic Botany in the Neotropics. The program hopes to help create a strong community of individuals and institutions engaged in economic botany research and training in the tropical regions of Latin America and the Caribbean. This program has been initiated in an effort to help address the urgent issues of deforestation and loss of cultural diversity in this region. Funds have been generously provided by The Rockefeller Foundation. Grants are awarded up to $10,000 per year. Deadline is August 31, 1992. For more information, contact: Dr. Michael Balick, Director, Institute of Economic Botany, Administrator, PREBELAC, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458; Tel. (212) 220-8763; Fax (212) 220-6504.

The Latin American Scholarship Program of American Universities and the Fulbright Academic Exchange Program of the U.S. Information Agency have established a new scholarship program for graduate study in the U.S. for professors, researchers and policymakers from Amazon basin countries. The program has a multidisciplinary focus and will draw recipients from natural and social sciences, and public policy. Scholars will be selected from institutions in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela and will be expected to return to those institutions upon completion of their U.S. program. For information, write: J. Burckett-Picker or N. Strong, Harvard University, Office of News and Public Affairs, Holyoke Center 1060, Cambridge, MA 02138; Tel. (617) 495-5255.


Anon. 1992. Poaching upsurge in Nepal prompts protection measures. Focus 14(1): 1, 7.

Anon. 1992. Brazilian government moves to protect Kayapo & Yanomami lands. The Canopy Winter: 1,7.

Anon. 1991. Project NOAH builds U.S. support for global ex situ conservation. DIVERSITY 7(4): 20-21.

Anon. 1991. Will the U.S. Congress act on the biodiversity challenge? DIVERSITY 7(4): 25-26.

Anon. 1991. World Bank proceeds with massive project to protect biological diversity. DIVERSITY 7(4): 9-10.

Ackerman, J. 1992. Tracking a river of birds. Nature Conservancy 42(2): 22-27. (Study of migratory songbirds)

Barker, K. 1992. Bambi gets boost from science. Wash. Post (Maryland Sect.) February 6: MD4. (Artificial insemination helps save Eld's deer)

Bean, M. 1992. Issues and controversies in the forthcoming reauthorization battle. End. Species Update 9(1 & 2): 1-4.

Becker, J. 1992. Spotted cat transfer. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 6. (Ocelot, margay & oncilla transfered from Appendix II of CITES to Appendix I)

Beissinger, S. and Bucher, E. 1992. Can parrots be conserved through sustainable harvesting? BioScience 42(3): 164-173.

Borota, J. 1991. Tropical Forests: Some African and Asian Case Studies of Composition and Structure. Elsevier Publishers, New York, New York. 274 pp.

Boysen, J. 1992. Ka-bloom! Int. Wildlife 22(2): 18- 21. (Rafflesia arnoldii, largest flower on earth - threatened in Sumatra & Borneo)

Campbell, F. 1992. Endangered plant species shortchanged: increased funding needed. End. Species Update 9(1 & 2): 6.

Damanian, A. and Valkoun, J. 1991. In a race against time: plant collectors trace Vavilov's trail to explore Syrian and Tibetan regions. DIVERSITY 7(4): 18-19. (Collection of rare germplasm)

DeBlieu, J. 1991. Meant to be Wild: The Struggle to Save Endangered Species through Captive Breeding. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, Colorado. 340 pp.

Dennis, J. 1992. From a hilltop, looking back. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 22-23, 85. (Passenger pigeon)

Deshen, G., Liangzhen, Y., Yong, L. and Tiancai, Z. 1991. Conservation and exploitation of Guizhou plant resources in Guizhou Botanical Garden. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 68-70. (China)

Disney, R. 1991. Two rare scuttle flies (Diptera, Phoridae) from Yorkshire, including one new for Britain. The Naturalist 116(998): 93-94.

Dunn, T. 1992. A tropical sanctuary in Florida. Horticulture 69(10): 36-43. (Conservation at Marie Selby Botanical Gardens)

Ericson, J. 1992. Island of hope. Nature Conservancy 42(1): 14-21. (Community of Block Island, Rhode Island set aside as refuge)

Friends of the Eurobodalla Botanical Gardens. 1991. Eurobodalla Native Botanical Gardens, Australia. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 49-54. (Public education on rare and endangered species)

Gilroy, S. 1992. Disturbing the ancients. Buzzworm 4(1): 38-43. (Temperate forests, Chile)

Goldberg, M. 1992. New hope for forest communities. Am. Forests 98(3 & 4): 17-20. (Ways for people & forests to coexist)

Goldstein, B. 1992. The struggle over ecosystem management at Yellowstone. BioScience 42(3): 183-187.

Hagemann, I. and Vogt, R. 1991. The Botanic Garden and Botanic Museum Berlin - Dahlem and its programme for the conservation of local flora. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 24-27. (Germany)

Haq, N. 1991. Profile: the International Centre for Underutilized Crops. DIVERSITY 7(4): 16-17.

Holing, D. 1992. California teaming. Nature Conservancy 42(2): 8-13. (Preserving the Santa Rosa Plateau)

Hoshovsky, M. 1992. Developing partnerships in conserving California's biological diversity. Fremontia 20(1): 19-23.

Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1992. Controversy erupts over Taiwanese company's proposal to log forested corner of Nicaragua. The Canopy Winter: 5.

Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1992. U.S. drug company pays a million for chance to mine Costa Rica's "Green Gold" for new medicines. The Canopy Winter: 6.

Kelly, S. 1992. Setting CITES on gallbladder trade. Wash. Post February 21: A3.

Kiambi, D. and Mbaratha, J. 1991. Kenya's NGO coalition promotes biodiversity conservation. DIVERSITY 7(4): 15-16. (Kenya Energy & Environment organization)

Lang, J. 1992. White bears, black gold. Defenders 67(1): 10-21. (Impact of Arctic refuge oil operations)

Laycock, G. 1992. Aliens. Wildlife Cons. 95(2): 60- 67. (Effects of introduced species on US species)

Leakey, R. 1991. Low-tech cloning of tropical trees. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 39-40. (Technique for conservation)

Lippincott, C. 1992. Restoring Sargent's cherry palm on the Keys. Fairchild Trop. Gard. Bull. 47(1): 12-21. (Florida)

Lufkin, A. (Ed). 1991. California's Salmon and Steelhead: The Struggle to Restore an Imperiled Resource. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 305 pp.

Luoma, J. 1992. The great Alaska land battle. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 26-37, 84. (Arctic refuge)

Mahler, R. and Wotkyns, S. 1991. Belize: A Natural Destination. John Muir Publications, Santa Fe, New Mexico. 288 pp. (Travel guide describes country's protected areas)

Martin, E. 1992. Wildlife trade booms in Laos. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 8-9.

McGough, N. 1991. CITES and botanical gardens. Bot. Garden Conservation News 1(9): 44-47.

McGuire, P. 1991. University of California offers Summer Institute for Genetic Resources Conservation. DIVERSITY 7(4): 26-28.

Meadows, R. 1992. The Guam rail: a second chance for survival. Zoogoer 21(1): 11-15.

Miller, M. 1992. Beach master: a decade in the life of an elephant seal. Zoogoer 21(1): 16-21. (California)

Miller, S. 1992. Sermon on the farm. Int. Wildlife 22(2): 48-51. (Songhai Project, sustainable agriculture in Benin, Africa)

Mirsky, S. 1992. Migratory birds versus malathion and medflies. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 14-15. (Spraying of malathion to control medfly in Guatemala highlands threatens survival of endangered golden-cheeked warbler)

Missouri Department of Conservation. 1991. Rare and Endangered Species of Missouri Checklist. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Murphy, D. and Noon, B. 1992. Exorcising ambiguity from the Endangered Species Act: critical habitat as an example. End. Species Update 9(1 & 2): 6.

Neering, W. 1991. Wetlands of North America. Thomasson-Grant, Charlottesville, Virginia. 160 pp.

Norton, D. and Roper-Lindsay, J. 1992. Conservation, tourism, and commercial recreation: conflict or cooperation? - A New Zealand perspective. Natural Areas J. 12(1): 20-25.

Oliver, I. 1991. The cultivation of Euphorbia obesa Hook. f. a subglobose euphorbia with a vulnerable status. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 33-36. (Eastern Karoo)

Owen, W. and Rosentreter, R. 1992. Monitoring rare perennial plants: techniques for demographic studies. Natural Areas J. 12(1): 32-38.

Paez, F. and Gomez, C. 1991. Ezequiel Zamora University Botanical Garden, Barinas, Venezuela. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 55-58. (Plant conservation)

Peterken, G. 1992. Conservation of old growth: a European perspective. Natural Areas J. 12(1): 10-19.

Polsky, C. 1992. Crossroads of the continents. Nature Conservancy 42(2): 14-21. (Panama's Darien National Park)

Preston, J. 1992. Brazil's logging "free-for-all" compounds threat to Amazon Basin rain forest. Wash. Post February 25: A5.

Preston, J. 1992. Gold rush brings mercury poisoning to Amazon. Wash. Post February 17: A31, A35.

Raver, A. 1992. Endangered species: New York City's native trees. New York Times (Metro Sect.) January 11: 21-22. (Foresters re-introduce oaks, tulips, sweet gums & hickories)

Reeves, J. 1991. Africa and Latin America embark on germplasm exchange. DIVERSITY 7(4): 19-20. (African Feed Resources Network)

ReVelle, C. 1991. World experts convene on need to incorporate biological diversity conservation goals in development projects. DIVERSITY 7(4): 13-14.

Ricciuti, E. 1992. The ecological state of Montenegro. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 50-59. (Yugoslavia's biological diversity)

Roser, M. 1992. Helictotrichon cintranum, species nova, a rare south-west European oatgrass (Poaceae: Pooideae: Aveneae). Taxon 41(1): 60-61.

Roudna, M. and Tyllerova, D. 1991. Experience with cultivation of Davidia involucrata Baillon var. vilmoriniana (Dode) Wanger. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 28-32. (Endangered species, China)

Ryan, J. 1992. Conserving biological diversity. Am. Forests 98(3 & 4): 37-44.

Saunders, R. 1992. Northern Puget Sound Sanctuary taking shape. Marine Conservation News 4(1): 5. (Washington State)

Shaoxing, C., Yuanzhen, Z. and Ning, W. 1991. Some approaches to the main types of Chinese endangered plants. J. Chinese Geography 2(2): 57-67. (Germplasm resources)

Spooner, D. and Bomberg, J. 1991. Profile: the Inter- Regional Potato Introduction Project (IR-1), U.S. Center for Potato Germplasm. DIVERSITY 7(4): 32-35.

Stevens, S. 1992. Deadly threats to Mediterranean monk seals. Wildlife Conservation 95(2): 13. (Fishing, tourism, pollution)

Stolzenburg, W. 1992. Detectives of diversity. Nature Conservancy 42(1): 22-27. (Virginia's Natural Heritage Program & Conservation Data Center Network)

Stolzenburg, W. 1992. The lonesome flower. Nature Conservancy 42(2): 28-29. (Brighamia, Hawaii)

Stolzenburg, W. 1992. Red danger for desert fish. Nature Conservancy 42(1): 28-29. (Small red shiner, aggressive foreign fish of Arizona streams threatens native fish species)

TenBruggencate, J. 1991. Things anyone can do to help preserve Hawaii's environment. Honolulu Sunday Star-Bulletin & Advertiser December 1.

Theuerkauf, W. 1991. Aiding orchids in the Gurukula Botancial Sanctuary, South India. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 41.

Vernon, A. 1992. Return of the takahe. Int. Wildlife 22(2): 22-27. (Rare flightless rail, New Zealand's South Island)

Villasenor, A. 1991. Medicinal plant conservation and the Medicinal Botanical Garden "De la Cruz-Badiano". Bot. Gardens Conservation News 1(9): 62-67. (Mexico)

Wagner, P. 1992. Conservationists: time to move beyond listing species. Honolulu Star-Bulletin January 6: A-8.

Wagner, P. 1992. Species lack safe habitats: endangered isle plants and animals should have safe havens, but few do. Honolulu Star-Bulletin January 6: A-1, A-8.

Warren, R. and Miller, D. 1992. Taking root. Am. Orchid Society Bull. 61(2): 146-149. (Re-establishment of Laelia crispa in regenerating Serra do Mar, Brazil forest)

Williams, J. 1991. The time has come to clarify and implement strategies for plant conservation. DIVERSITY 7(4): 37-39.

Wuerthner, G. 1992. Rocky Mountain refuge. Nature Conservancy 42(1): 8-13. (Whiskey Mtn., Wyoming - refuge for bighorn sheep)

Young, N. 1992. Gray whale may be first whale taken off Endangered Species List. Marine Conservation News 4(1): 8. (California)

Young, N. 1992. Species in peril: Indus River dolphin. Marine Conservation News 4(1): 6. (Endangered in Pakistan)

Zhi, L. and Chen, L. 1992. Huzi grows up. Int. Wildlife 22(2): 34-39. (Panda in China's Qinling mountains)

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