Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 108
April 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Christina Trowbridge

Public accessibility is what makes the Las Cruces Museum of Natural History an unique educational experience for the visitors of the Mesilla Valley Mall. The Museum is funded by the City of Las Cruces, and is located in the only shopping mall in southern New Mexico, 50 miles from El Paso and the Mexican border. People from a 150 mile radius come to the Mesilla Valley Mall for their shopping needs as well as to visit the Museum, which is free. Children and adults can look at live and dead specimens under microscopes, make tracks of animals and observe the habitats of animals that live in the desert. Exhibits range from birds of prey to fossilized tracks from the Permian period discovered in Las Cruces.

Natural history classes, scientific demonstrations and lectures are always well attended and a big hit with the public. The Museum also publishes a quarterly newsletter, The Cenozoic Times and a children's newspaper by and for kids, The Chihuahuan Times.

For more information, write: Las Cruces Museum of Natural History, Mesilla Valley Mall, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88001; Tel. (505) 522-3120.


The National Zoological Park (NZP) chapter members of the American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK) have learned that many foreign zoos are operating under severe hardships. Some of them have minimal trained staff, they lack equipment (keeper and veterinary), and they can not afford the cost of subscriptions to wildlife publications. Since one of AAZK's bylaws is "to promote greater communication with members of the profession through projects that will strengthen the zoo keepers' knowledge", it was suggested at NZP's August 1990 chapter meeting to mail past issues of wildlife publications to zoos in foreign countries in hopes of helping their animal caretakers and staff members in the performance of their responsibilities. The idea was discussed and approved by attending members. What started out as a naive suggestion has bloomed into an international outreach project.

Twenty-five foreign zoos were chosen (from a list of "Zoos and Aquaria of the World" that was published in the International Zoo Yearbook) based on their large collections of diverse animal groups. Then a letter was sent, from the NZP-AAZK, which offered to send "donated" materials (published in English) on exotic wildlife, conservation, and ecology (at no cost to them) and asked if they were interested in participating in this project. Twelve of the 25 zoos responded with enthusiasm and confirmed that there is a definite need for wildlife literature, and each zoo specifically requested information on a variety of other relevant subject areas.

The next step was to distribute a flyer to the NZP chapter members describing the project's objectives and requesting donated publications on conservation, ecology, natural history, animal behavior, wildlife habitats and plants. They also requested donations on specific topics, such as keeper safety materials, veterinary medicine, capture techniques, zoo husbandry, and reproduction. Additionally, they requested donations of current books and journals.

NZP's initial response resulted in a zoo-wide collection of 464 wildlife magazines, 17 books, and 2 complete sets of the 26 volume "Library of Nature" encyclopedias. The first mailing (a sampling box, weighing 20-25 pounds) of wildlife information was mailed to a total of 13 foreign zoos.

Additionally, the overwhelming response to the project from members of the Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ), the zoo's active volunteer program, enabled a second mailing of wildlife information, weighing between 60-70 pounds, to be sent to zoos in the following countries: Brazil (2), Morocco, Zimbabwe, Guatemala, Peru, Argentina, Pakistan, Korea, Indonesia, Ghana, Thailand, and South Africa. Donations from additional organizations and publishers provided a variety of materials. The number of recipient zoos has now increased to 17 (a third zoo in Brazil, and one each in: Nairobi, Tanzania, and India). The long- term objective of the project is to supply a library of reference materials that will be helpful to these foreign zoo keepers, and other zoo staff.

The outreach program has grown into a beneficial and rewarding experience for all involved, without much effort. The donations have been gratefully acknowledged by each zoo. Any group interested in supplying materials or wishing information on how to duplicate this project is urged to contact: Kathy Kelly, Department of Pathology, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008.


World Wildlife Fund's Innovation Grants program for nonprofit citizen and conservation organizations in the United States has become so successful that funding has been increased to over $200,000. Grants are available for the establishment of conservation and recreation areas, promoting sustainable growth, as well as protection of endangered species, wetlands, coastal and estuarine resources, and neotropical migratory birds. The average grant is approximately $7,500, which will provide critically needed seed money for local projects that protect natural resources and balance conservation with the need for sustainable development. Deadline for applications is July 1, 1992. For application information, write: Ms. Terry Colburn, Innovation Grants, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037.


The Nature Conservancy's Conservation Division anticipates three or more openings for interns on projects involving botanical aspects of the Conservancy's central scientific databases, national plant conservation priorities, implications of climate change for plant conservation, and related work. The work will familiarize the incumbent with one or more aspects of the Conservancy's information-management activities relating to conservation of plant species. Duties may include literature review, photocopying, bibliographic citations, filing reprints, data entry, quality control, and handling routine information requests. Entrance requirements: familiarity and comfort with computer data entry, with 30 wpm typing desirable; able to work under crowded office conditions and be well organized; taken college- level biology courses, preferable including botany, or equivalent experience; must be dependable, show initiative, and have an interest in conservation; and must be willing to live in the Washington, DC area at own expense. Internships are available Spring, Summer or Fall, 1992; dates negotiable, but appointments are typically for 10 weeks full-time or 20 weeks half-time. Salary is typically $5.00-$7.00/hr. (35-hour weeks), depending on education and experience.

If interested, send resume and cover letter (indicating dates available to work) to: Dr. Larry Morse, Chief Botanist, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209; (703) 841-5361.


June 14-18. The First International Conference on Global Climate Change will be held at the Dorint Hotel, Bad Durkheim, Germany. The conference will provide an opportunity for exchange of scientifc information between atmospheric and biological scientists regarding global climate change and effects on terrestrial ecosystems. For more information, contact: Kay Russell, Elsevier Science Publishers, Conference Department, Mayfield House, 265 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7DH, U.K.


Anon. 1992. Addition to Cranesville preserve protects north end of ancient swamp. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland Newsletter 16(1): 1-2. (63 acres added to preserve in Maryland and West Virginia)

Anon. 1992. Mexico accedes to CITES. TRAFFIC (USA) 11(2): 1-5.

Anon. 1992. The planning and design of a nature preserve. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland Newsletter 16(1): 3-5. (The Nature Conservancy method)

Anon. 1992. Snow trillium protected. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland Newsletter 16(1): 2. (Purchase of 40 acres along Potomac River, Washington Co., Maryland protects state's only population of Trillium nivale)

Anon. 1992. Spectacular acquisition at Sideling Hill Creek. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland Newsletter 16(1): 1. (Bellegrove Shale Barren, Washington Co., Maryland)

Anon. 1992. WWF grant saves South America's oldest trees. Focus 14(2): 4. (Alerce in Chile)

Adler, J. and Hager, M. 1992. How much is a species worth? Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 4-15.

Akerele, O., Heywood, V. and Synge, H. (Eds.) 1991. Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 378 pp.

Austin, D. 1992. Rare Convolvulaceae in the southwestern United States. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79(1): 8-16.

Beatley, T. 1992. Balancing urban development and endangered species - the Coachella Valley Habitat Conservation Plan. Environ. Management 16(1): 7-20.

Bennett, B. 1992. The Florida bromeliads: Catopsis nutans. J. Bromeliad Soc. 42(1): 3-7.

Bolgiano, C. 1992. The fall of the wild. Wilderness 55(196): 24-30. (Genetic analysis of endangered wildlife)

Brewer, C., et al. 1992. The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative: a student critique and call to action. Bull. Ecological Soc. America 73(1): 23-24.

Brooks, D., Mayden, R. and McLennan, D. 1992. Phylogeny and biodiversity: conserving our evolutionary legacy. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 7(2): 55-58.

Brown, G. and Sarewitz, D. 1992. Debt swaps: what about science? Geotimes 37(3): 6.

Callister, D. 1992. Australian imports of Asian slipper orchids. TRAFFIC Bull. 12(3): 59-67.

Callister, D. 1992. A review of the Tasmanian brushtail possum industry. TRAFFIC Bull. 12(3): 49-58.

Campbell, F. 1992. The Endangered Species Act threatened with extinction? End. Species 2(2): 1, 7-9, 11-21.

Chakrabarti, K. 1992. Export of live birds from Calcutta, India. TRAFFIC Bull. 12(3): 75-77.

Downing, D., Bayer, R. and Vitt, D. 1991. Rare and disjunct plants from Whitemud Falls Ecological Reserve, northeastern Alberta. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 105(3): 376-381.

Drell, E. and Morris, D. 1992. Mendocino National Forest draft ancient forest reserve system. Wild Earth 1(2): 63- 69.

Drew, L. 1992. Rough ride on the road to recovery. Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 34-38. (Struggle to save endangered animals)

Eggert, J. 1992. A silence of meadowlarks: can a songbird's demise lead us to a better economics? Bull. Ecological Soc. America 73(1): 34-35.

Ereira, A. 1992. Words of warning. Buzzworm 4(2): 40- 45. (Environmental message from Kogi tribe, Colombia)

Field, R. 1992. Kenya's green challenge. Urban Forests 12(1): 20-21. (Urban forestry)

Friedman, M. 1992. Ancient forests: the perpetual crisis. Wild Earth 1(2): 31-32.

Fries, J. 1991. Management of natural forests in the semiarid areas of Africa. Ambio 20(8): 395-400.

Gennino, A. (Ed) 1992. Amazonia. Voices from the Rainforest. Rainforest Action Network & Amazonia Film Project, San Francisco, California.

Hawkeswood, T., Callister, D. and Antram, F. 1992. Collection and export of Australian insects. TRAFFIC Bull. 12(3): 41-48. (Analysis of legislative protection & trade to Europe)

Heath, M., Merefield, J. and Paithankar, A. 1992. Environmental impact of mining on tropical forest. Geotimes 37(3): 14-17. (India)

Hellden, U. 1991. Desertification - time for an assessment? Ambio 20(8): 372-383.

Houy, D. 1992. Ecofuture: drugs. Buzzworm 4(2): 24. (Shaman Pharmaceuticals, California)

Huntley, B., et al. 1992. A sustainable biosphere: the global imperative. Bull. Ecological Soc. America 73(1): 7-13.

Janetos, A. 1992. The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative and the federal agencies. Bull. Ecological Soc. America 73(1): 25-27.

Kotagama, S. 1991. Status of management of protected areas in Sri Lanka. Tiger Paper 18(3): 25-32.

Lifuo, F. 1992. Ed, China Plant Red Data Book - Rare and Endangered Plants (Vol. 1). Science Press, Beijing, People's Republic of China. 741 pp.

Lipske, M. 1992. Race to save hot spots of life. Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 40-49. (Rapid Assessment Program, Conservation International)

MacKinnon, K. 1991. Protected area management to conserve biodiversity in Indonesia. Tiger Paper 18(3): 8-16.

Mast, R. and Samper, C. 1992. Educational initiatives in Madagascar and Colombia. Tropicus 6(1): 16.

McCann, J. 1992. Human activities threaten Samana Bay. Sanctuary Currents 4(1): 6. (Dominican Republic)

McDowell, J. 1992. A race to rescue the salmon. Time March 2: 59-60. (Northwest, USA)

Merlino, D. 1992. Grassroots wildlife management in Namibia. Buzzworm 4(2): 63. (Kaokoland)

Milius, S. and Johnson, D. 1992. Where would they be without the law? Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 50-59. (Species "saved" by Endangered Species Act)

Mitchell, J. 1992. Love and war in the big woods. Wilderness 55(196): 10-22, 31. (Maine Woods)

Nations, J. 1992. Conservation International sponsors tri- national conference on the Maya forest. Tropicus 6(1): 18. (Mexico, Belize, Guatemala)

Nilsson, S., Sallnas, O. and Duinker, P. 1992. Future Forest Resources of Western and Eastern Europe . Parthenon Publishing Inc., Park Ridge, New Jersey. 500 pp. (Air pollution & logging)

Nilsson, S., Sallnas, O., Hugosson, M. and Svidenko, A. 1992. Future Forest Resources of the European USSR. Parthenon Publishing Inc., Park Ridge, New Jersey. 500 pp. (Air pollution & logging)

Olivieri, S. 1992. CI/SIG: a high-tech tool for grassroots conservation. Tropicus 6(1): 5-6. (Conservation International's Geographic Information System)

Panwar, H. 1991. Status of management of protected areas in India: problems and prospects. Tiger Paper 18(3): 17-25.

Parker, J. and Hope, C. 1992. The state of the environment: a survey of reports from around the world. Environment 34(1): 18-20, 39-44.

Penafiel, S. 1991. Status of protected areas and wildlife management in the Philippines. Tiger Paper 18(3): 1-7.

Pimm, S. 1992. The Balance of Nature? Ecological Issues in the Conservation of Species and Communities. Chicago University Press, Chicago, Illinois. 448 pp.

Porter, K. and Bowles, I. 1992. Building national support for local programs. Tropicus 6(1): 17. (Conservation International's policy design)

Ramakrishnan, P. 1992. Shifting Agriculture and Sustainable Development. A Case Study in North Eastern India. Parthenon Publishing Group, Park Ridge, New Jersey. 550 pp.

Redford, K. and Sanderson, S. 1992. The brief, barren marriage of biodiversity and sustainability? Bull. Ecological Soc. America 73(1): 36-38.

Reid, W. 1992. The United States needs a national biodiversity policy. WRI Issues & Ideas February: 1-12.

Rosie, R. 1991. Range extensions and rare vascular plants from southeastern Yukon Territory. The Canadian Field- Naturalist 105(3): 315-324.

Rubin, S. and Bowles, I. 1992. Innovations in conservation finance move beyond debt-for-nature swaps. Tropicus 6(1): 19-20.

Seitz, A. and Loeschcke, V. (Eds.) 1991. Species Conservation: A Population-Biological Approach. Birkhauser Boston Inc., Secaucus, New Jersey. 292 pp.

Skarpe, C. 1991. Impact of grazing in savanna ecosystems. Ambio 20(8): 351-356.

Smith, R. 1992. Making a difference: endangered ecosystems. End. Species 2(2): 3. (Big Darby Creek, Ohio)

Speart, J. 1992. A poacher's worst nightmare. Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 26-28. (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service law enforcement officer, Dave Hall)

Sugden, A. 1992. Using biotic interactions to forecast the consequences of global climate change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 7(2): 35-36.

Tangley, L. 1992. Esmeraldas at the crossroads. Tropicus 6(1): 10-12. (Conservation International's Tagua Initiative in Ecuador)

Tangley, L. 1992. Vital statistics. Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 16. (Figures on imperiled biological diversity)

TRAFFIC USA. 1992. Psittacine Captive Breeding Survey Report. WWF/TRAFFIC USA, Washington, DC. (Assessment of current & potential success of captive breeding of psittacines)

Tulloss, R., Ovrebo, C. and Halling, R. 1992. Studies on Amanita (Amanitaceae) from Andean Colombia. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 46 pp. (Habitat seriously endangered by encroaching pastureland)

Warren, S. and Sutherland, W. 1992. Goose populations: conservation, conflict and solutions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7(3): 71-72. (Europe)

Watson, J. 1992. Pulling turtles out of the soup. Nat. Wildlife 30(3): 18-25. (Rescuing loggerheads)

Williams, P., Humphries, C. and Vane-Wright, R. 1991. Salvaging diversity: divergent taxonomic measures for conservationists. Australian Syst. Bot. 4(4): 665-680.

Winker, K., Fall, B., Klicka, J., Parmelee, D. and Tordorff, H. 1991. The importance of avian collections and the need for continued collecting. The Loon 63: 238-246.

World Resources Institute, World Conservation Union, and United Nations Environment Programme. 1992. Global Biodiversity Strategy: Guidelines for Action to Save, Study, and Use Earth's Biotic Wealth Sustainably and Equitably. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 260 pp.

Young, N. 1992. Spotted dolphin ought to be listed on endangered species list. Marine Conservation News 4(1): 8. (Eastern tropical Pacific)

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