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Department ofBotany

No. 113
September 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Department of the Interior's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has announced the African elephant will remain listed as threatened rather than be reclassified to endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Information obtained during the public comment period on a 1991 proposed reclassification indicates that enhanced protection and the current ivory trade ban have drastically reduced the illegal killing of elephants.

Widespread poaching for ivory in the 1970s and 1980s severely reduced elephant populations in much of their range. In 1989, the Bush Administration imposed a moratorium on ivory imports and the Service submitted a proposal to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) to list the species on Appendix I which was adopted later that year. In 1991, the Service proposed to reclassify most populations of African elephants as endangered, a status indicating a species likely to become extinct.

The Service's final decision to retain the threatened status was based on complete information on elephant conservation programs in African countries, updates on poaching activity, and reports from a CITES panel of elephant experts that became available at the CITES conference of the parties in March. However, the import of African ivory into the United States is still prohibited, as imposed by President Bush under the African Elephant Conservation Act in 1989.

The current African elephant population numbers approximately 600,000 animals occupying about 2 million square miles of habitat. Habitat loss continues to occur throughout much of the elephant's range due to the pressures of increasing human populations and agricultural encroachment.

In another step to save this species, the Secretary of the Interior announced that the United States will provide $200,000 in emergency relief for African elephants in drought-stricken southeastern Zimbabwe. The funding will support a relocation effort underway by the Zimbabwe government to move about 400 elephants from Gonarezhou National Park to surrounding farmland where food and water are more plentiful. Conditions are so severe the Zimbabwe government has been forced to thin the elephant herd to prevent drastic losses and permanent damage to the park's wildlife habitat. The U.S.-supported effort is reducing the number of elephants that must be culled from the herd. Meat from culled animals is being distributed to local communities whose people are facing severe food shortages. Area farmers, whose livestock and crops have been decimated by the drought, have agreed to refrain from grazing cattle on their land and allow wildlife to repopulate the region.


The Garden Club of America is offering two $5,000 awards to assist with field work in the area of conservation of tropical botany. Awards will be made on a competitive basis to graduate students conducting field work in the tropics as part of their doctoral dissertation research.

There is no application form, however, students must submit the following: 1) curriculum vitae, including graduate and undergraduate transcripts (photocopies acceptable); 2) evidence of foreign language capability, if necessary for country of research; 3) a two-page outline of the proposed research, including its relevance to conservation; 4) a letter stating his or her plans for the future; a long-term commitment to conservation of tropical forests, and an intent to work in the areas will add merit to the application; and 5) a letter of recommendation from the advisor, which should include an evaluation of the student's progress to date.

U.S. citizenship is not a requirement, however, students must be enrolled in a U.S. university to be eligible for this scholarship. The awards will be made on a one-time basis, and applications are due by December 31, 1992. Recipients will be announced by March 15, 1993. Mail applications to: Lori Michaelson, World Wildlife Fund/Garden Club of America Scholarships in Tropical Botany, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037.

The International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP) offers two types of grants: U.S. Section annual research grants and Pan American Section small grants. The U.S. Section annual research grants are for projects with a strong conservation orientation relating to species or habitats at risk in the Americas. Consideration will be given to the catalytic nature of the work and the likelihood that an ICBP grant will trigger additional funding. Awards are up to US$2,000. Submit four copies of the project proposal (5 pages maximum, double-spaced), plus a budget and a resume of the investigator to: ICBP Grants Committee, ICBP c/o World Wildlife Fund-US, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037. Deadline: February 1, 1993.

The Pan American Section offers small grants for avian conservation projects in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. A wide diversity of project proposals may be considered for funding, including research, habitat protection and management, and public education. All projects, however, must have a clear conservation component. Anyone can apply for a grant which can range from $100 to $5,000. For more information on submitting proposals, write: Dr. James Lynch, Pan American Continental Section/ICBP, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, P. O. Box 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 U.S.A. Deadlines: February 1 and September 1, 1993.


Researchers in remote tropical locations can now apply for funding which is available from the American Academy of Science for subscriptions to scientific journals. For more information contact: American Academy of Science, 1776 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036 U.S.A.


The tropical montane cloud forests symposium/workshop announced in the May issue has been changed and will now be held June 1-5, 1993 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The symposium will focus on the importance of tropical montane cloud forests, assessing their threats, and culminating with a proposal for an international protection program to preserve these valuable ecosystems. Scientists working in montane cloud forests or with atmospheric systems that interact with cloud forests and who have a broad interest in their conservation, plus managers of these ecosystems, are invited to apply for participation. The organizers are particularly interested in papers describing current research, distribution and protected area status of cloud forests in: Africa, South East Asia, Pacific Islands, Northern Australia/New Guinea; Central America/Caribbean, and South America. Case studies dealing with management and use of cloud forest areas (including tourism impact and economics) are also invited. Other topics to be covered include cloud forest hydrology, forest-atmosphere interactions, linkage to global climatic or air quality change, biodiversity and research methods. Abstracts of papers (2 pages) should be submitted to the organizers by November 15, 1992 for screening. Full papers are due by April 15, 1993. For further information contact any of the Program organizers: Dr. Fred Scatena, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Call Box 25000, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928 U.S.A., Fax (809) 250-6924; or Dr. Lawrence S. Hamilton or Dr. James O. Juvik, EAPI East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96848 U.S.A.; Fax (808) 944-7970.


October 17-21. A World Congress for Education & Communication on Environment & Development (ECO-ED), sponsored by UNESCO and the International Chamber of Commerce, in co-operation with UNEP, will be held in Toronto, Canada. ECO-ED's purpose is to stimulate informed action by improving accuracy, quality and delivery of education and communication relating to the environment and sustainable development. For further information, contact: CONGRESS CANADA, 191 Niagara Street, Toronto, Canada M5V 1C9; Tel: (416) 860-1772; Fax: (416) 860-0380.

October 27-30. The 19th Annual Natural Areas Conference, "Rediscovering America: Natural Areas in the 1990s", will be held at Indiana University, Bloomington. The conference will provide an opportunity for biologists, ecologists, natural resource managers, naturalists, and volunteers to exchange ideas on protecting, preserving and managing rare species and significant habitats. For registration information, contact: NAC Registration, Indiana University Conference Bureau, IMU Room 677, Bloomington, Indiana 47405; Tel: (812) 855-6451. For conference information, contact: Cloyce L. Hedge, Division of Nature Preserves, 402 W. Washington Street, Room W267, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204; Tel: (317) 232-4052.

June 7-11, 1993. The Society for Conservation Biology will hold its 1995 annual meeting on the campus of Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. For more information, contact: Richard L. Knight, Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523; Tel: (303) 491-6714.


Island Resources Foundation has published six new books providing a national overview of the state of the environment in each of six neighboring island states in the Lesser Antilles: Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The country environmental profiles are designed primarily for those engaged in setting a national environmental action agenda in motion. Island Resources Foundation and the Caribbean Conservation Foundation have also prepared an executive summary in Environmental Agenda for the 1990s: A Synthesis of the Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profile Series. These publications can be obtained from Island Resources Foundation, 1718 P Street, N.W., Suite T 4, Washington, DC 20036; Tel: (202) 265-9712.


TRAFFIC USA - Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce - is the principal U.S. source of objective information on international wildlife trade for the U.S. government, Congress, non-governmental organizations, and industry, and a program of World Wildlife Fund-US. There are 17 TRAFFIC offices worldwide which monitor global trade in wildlife and wildlife products. TRAFFIC is currently searching for a Program Officer to be based in its Washington, DC office to initiate and supervise projects and research relating to policy, wildlife conservation, and status and management of species subject to trade and utilization.

Qualified applicants should possess a Master's or Doctoral degree in botany, ecology, wildlife biology, conservation biology, or resource management, and have at least 2 years of experience in field ecology, wildlife management, natural resources management, or related conservation work. At least 1 year of field or work experience relating directly to wildlife trade and/or management is necessary. Fluency in English and at least one other language preferred. Public policy experience is desirable. Interested applicants should send a cover letter and resume to: World Wildlife Fund-US, Human Resources Dept. - 228M, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037; Fax: (202) 293- 9211.


Anon. 1992. Biodiversity after UNCED: next steps. Biodiversity Cons. Strategy Update 3(2): 1-4.

Anon. 1992. The Endangered Species Act under threat. Focus 14(4): 4-5.

Anon. 1992. Marine conservation efforts focus on critical Atlantic Coast. Focus 14(4): 6. (Panama & Belize)

Anon. 1992. New Kenyan ecology center opens. BioScience 42(7): 574. (Mpala Wildlife Research Trust)

Anon. 1992. Norway announces plans to resume commercial whaling next year. Focus 14(4): 1, 6.

Anon. 1992. Regenerating endangered Latin American maize germplasm: the USAID/CIMMYT cooperative project. DIVERSITY 8(2): 14.

Anon. 1992. Reserve in Zaire benefits okapi. Focus 14(4): 3. (Okapi Nature Reserve)

Anon. 1992. Sao Paulo zoo has model education program. Focus 14(4): 3. (Sorocaba Zoo, Brazil)

Anon. 1992. Study prompts improved park protection. Focus 14(4): 3. (Iguacu National Park, Brazil)

Anon. 1992. WWF finds rare duck in Madagascar. Focus 14(4): 3. (Madagascar pochard)

Adams, R. 1992. DNA Bank-Net to use DNA technology to save endangered germplasm. DIVERSITY 8(2): 23.

Aiken, S. and Leigh, C. 1992. Vanishing Rain Forests. The Ecological Transition in Malaysia. Oxford University Press, New York. 232 pp.

Allen, J. and Pye, K. (Eds.) 1992. Saltmarshes. Morphodynamics, Conservation and Engineering Significance. Cambridge University Press, New York. 192 pp.

Ashton, D. and Dowd, E. 1991. Fragile Legacy: Endangered, Threatened and Rare Animals of South Dakota. South Dakota Dept. of Game, Fish & Parks, Pierre, South Dakota. 54 pp.

Baskin, Y. 1992. Africa's troubled waters. BioScience 42(7): 476-481. (Lake Victoria)

Bennett, C. 1992. Human activities on the Central American land bridge and their relevance to the region's biogeography. In S. Darwin, and A. Welden (Eds.) Biogeography of Mesoamerica. Proceedings of a Symposium. Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 1-8.

Biodiversity Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1992. Biodiversity in China. Status and Conservation Needs. Science Press, Beijing. 22 pp.

Bischof, L. 1992. Genetics and elephant conservation. End. Species Update 9(7 & 8): 1-4, 8.

Blakesley, D. and Powell, D. 1992. The UK trade in Tillandsia. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(1): 38-41.

Boyd, J. 1992. Sycamore - a review of its status in conservation in Great Britain. Biologist 39(1): 29-31.

Bratton, J.(Ed.) 1992. British Red Data Books 3. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, England. 253 pp. (Threatened British invertebrates other than insects)

Breman, H. 1992. Desertification control, the West African case; prevention is better than cure. Biotropica 24(2b): 328-334.

Broad, S., Lochen, K. and Thomsen, J. 1992. Eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(1): 9-22.

Broswimmer, F. 1991. Botanical imperialism: the stewardship of plant genetic resources. Critical Sociology 18(1): 3- 18.

Cairncross, F. 1992. Costing the Earth. The Challenge for Governments, the Opportunities for Business. Harvard Business School, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 341 pp.

Catchpole, C. and Phillips, J. 1992. Territory quality and reproductive success in the Dartford warbler Sylvia undata in Dorset, England. Biol. Conservation 61(3): 209-216.

Chadwick, D. 1992. Denali, Alaska's wild heart. Nat. Geographic 182(2): 63-87.

Chadwick, D. 1992. Exiled elephants. Defenders 67(4): 37-46. (Malaysia)

Cline, W. 1992. The Economics of Global Warming. Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC. 350 pp.

Cline, W. 1992. Global Warming: The Economic Stakes. Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC. 103 pp.

Cooke, R. and Ranere, A. 1992. Precolumbian influences on the geography of Panama: an update based on archeofaunal and documentary data. In S. Darwin, and A. Welden (Eds.) Biogeography of Mesoamerica. Proceedings of a Symposium. Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 21-58.

Cowan, P. 1992. The eradication of introduced Australian brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula, from Kapiti Island, a New Zealand nature reserve. Biol. Conservation 61(3): 217-226.

Dahl, K. and Nabhan, G. 1992. From the grassroots up: the conservation of plant genetic resources by grassroots organizations - "latter-day Noahs" of North America. DIVERSITY 8(2): 28-31.

Dallmeier, F., Kabel, M. and Rice, R. 1992. Methods for long-term biodiversity inventory plots in protected tropical forest. In F. Dallmeier (Ed.) Long-term Monitoring of Biological Diversity in Tropical Forest Areas. Methods for Establishment and Inventory of Permanent Plots. UNESCO, Paris. pp. 9-46.

Dallmeier, F., Taylor, C., Mayne, J., Kabel, M. and Rice, R. 1992. Case study of SI/MAB biological diversity plot research methodology: effects of Hurricane Hugo on the Bisley Biodiversity Plot, Luquillo Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico. In F. Dallmeier (Ed.) Long-term Monitoring of Biological Diversity in Tropical Forest Areas. Methods for Establishment and Inventory of Permanent Plots. UNESCO, Paris. pp. 47-72.

Darwin, S. and Welden, A. (Eds.) 1992. Biogeography of Mesoamerica. Proceedings of a Symposium. Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana. 342 pp.

Davis, M. 1992. The sum of the parts. Nature Canada 21(3): 17-22. (British Columbia's black bears threatened by poaching)

Dawson, C. 1992. Denver Botanic Gardens: conserving the flora of the Rocky Mountains. Plant Conservation 7(1): 1.

Devroy, A. 1992. Bush: $150 million hike in U.S. aid to forests. Washington Post June 2: A9.

Dibble, S. 1992. Paraguay: plotting a new course. Nat. Geographic 182(2): 88-113.

Donnelly, M. 1992. CITES meeting illustrates differences between developed and developing world. Marine Conservation News 4(2): 6-7.

Donnelly, S. 1992. Summit to save the Earth. Time 139(22): 38-39.

Dudley, J., Mensah-Ntiamoah, A. and Kpelle, D. 1992. Forest elephants in a rainforest fragment: preliminary findings from a wildlife conservation project in southern Ghana. African J. Ecology 30(2): 116-126.

Elder, J. 1992. North Mountain gyres. Orion 11(3): 39-42. (Peregrine falcons, Vermont)

Elmer-Dewitt, P. 1992. Rich vs. poor. Time 139(22): 42-58. (Earth Summit)

Ferreras, P., Aldama, J., Beltran, J. and Delibes, M. 1992. Rates and causes of mortality in a fragmented population of Iberian lynx Felis pardina Temminck, 1824. Biol. Conservation 61(3): 197-202.

Finlayson, M. and Moser, M. (Eds.) 1992. Wetlands. Facts on File, Slimbridge, England. 224 pp. (Lists of wetlands and their threats)

Fischer-Smith, J. 1992. Environmentalism of the spirit. An interview with Senator Al Gore. Orion 11(3): 75-79.

Fitzpatrick, T. 1992. The giving tree. Washington University Alumni News Summer: 15-18. (Promising economic plant, neem tree)

Flamm, B. 1992. Limiting factors in the establishment, growth, and survival of rare canopy trees in a tropical wet forest. In S. Darwin, and A. Welden (Eds.) Biogeography of Mesoamerica. Proceedings of a Symposium. Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 101-110.

Fowle, S. 1992. Marine fishery reserves are sound management. Marine Conservation News 4(2): 15.

Gillis, A. 1992. Keeping aliens out of paradise. BioScience 42(7): 482-485. (Alien pests in Hawaii)

Gould, J. 1992. In defence of wild water. Maruia Winter: 23-26. (Legal initiatives to protect rivers)

Grossman, D., Ferrar, T. and du Plessis, P. 1992. Socio- economic factors influencing conservation in South Africa. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(1): 29-31.

Hathorn, C. 1992. It's a dam shame. Wildlife Cons. 95(4): 54-59. (Hyrdoelectric dams on Columbia River kill salmon)

Heacox, K. 1992. Where mining cuts long and deep. Wilderness 55(197): 22-26. (Mining in Alaska)

Heinsohn, R. 1992. When conservation goes to the dogs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7(7): 214-215. (African wild dog)

Hubbard, A., Mcorist, S., Jones, T., Boid, R., Scott, R. and Easterbee, N. 1992. Is survival of European wildcats Felis silvestris in Britain threatened by interbreeding with domestic cats? Biol. Conservation 61(3): 203-208.

Huber, O. (Ed.) 1992. El Macizo del Chimanta. Oscar Todtmann Editores, Caracas, Venezuela. 343 pp. (Ecology of Venezuela's tepuis)

Johnson, M. and Upchurch, R. 1991. Legumes and the recovery of the endangered masked bobwhite quail. Aridus 3(4): 1-2. (Arizona)

Johnston, J. 1992. Plant biodiversity becomes a growing world concern. J. NIH Research 4(2): 25-27.

Joyce, C. 1992. Western medicine men return to the field. BioScience 42(6): 399-403. (Search for new medicines)

Jugens, N. 1992. A national park for succulent plants in Africa. SSC Cacti & Succulent Group Newsletter 4: 6. (Richtersveld, South African Cape Province)

Kaiya, Z. and Xingduan, Z. 1991. Baiji. The Yangtze River Dolphin and Other Endangered Animals of China. Stonewall Press, Washington, DC. 132 pp.

Kenworthy, T. 1992. Saving plant and animal life. Washington Post June 1: A15.

Kikkawa, J. and Dwyer, P. 1992. Use of scattered resources in rain forest of humid tropical lowlands. Biotropica 24(2b): 293-308.

Kremen, C. 1992. Butterflies as ecological and biodiversity indicators. Wings Summer: 14-17. (Madagascar)

Kremen, C. 1992. Ny fizahana lolo eto Madagasikara. Wings Summer: 18. (Conservation of Madagascar's butterflies)

Kumar, Y. 1992. "Extinct" orchid rediscovered. Current Science 62(8): 547-548. (Bulbophyllum rothschildianum, India)

Lake, D. and Rare Plant Committee of the East Bay Chapter of California Native Plant Society (Compilers). 1992. Unusual and Significant Plants of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. East Bay Chapter, California Native Plant Society, Berkeley, California. 43 pp.

Lauren, B. 1992. Singing the blues for songbirds. Nat. Wildlife 30(5): 4-11. (Effect of deforestation on songbirds)

Leach, G., Dunlop, C., Barritt, M., Latz, P. and Sammy, N. 1992. Northern Territory plant species of conservation significance. Northern Territory Bot. Bull. 13: 1-65. (Australia)

Lesica, P. 1992. Effects of cryptogamic soil crust on the population dynamics of Arabis fecunda (Brassicaceae). Am. Midl. Nat. 128: 53-60. (Rare endemic, SW Montana)

Linden, E. 1992. The last eden. Time 140(2): 62-68. (Ndoki region, northern Congo)

Lovejoy, T. 1992. Making things happen in Rio. Time 139(23): 98. (Earth Summit)

Lowry III, P. 1992. Conservation and development in Madagascar. Wings Summer: 10-13.

Luoma, J. 1992. The big thirst. Wildlife Cons. 95(4): 36-43, 88. (Everglades restoration)

Margolis, M. 1992. The Last New World. The Conquest of the Amazon Frontier. W.W. Norton & Co., New York. 367 pp.

Martin, E. 1992. Going to market in Vietnam. Wildlife Cons. 95(4): 16. (Wildlife trade)

Martin, E. 1992. The trade and uses of wildlife products in Laos. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(1): 23-28.

McCann, J. 1992. Long-term dream for Samana Bay could be realized soon. Marine Conservation News 4(2): 8. (Dominican Republic)

McLeod, C. 1992. Northern exposure. New Brunswick's gypsum cliffs harbour arctic relict species. Nature Canada 21(3): 14-15. (Area being considered as reserve for endemic plants)

Mihok, S., Munyoki, E., Brett, R., Jonyo, J., Rottcher, D., Majiwa, P., Kang'ethe, E., Kaburia, H. and Zwaygarth, E. 1992. Trypanosomiasis and the conservation of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary, Tsavo West National Park, Kenya. African J. Ecology 30(2): 103- 115.

Monks, V. 1992. Baja's periled porpoise. Defenders 67(4): 10-19. (Vaquita, Mexico)

Murphy, D. 1992. Invertebrates and the conservation challenge. Wings Summer: 4-7.

Nash, S. 1992. Parrot trade records for Irian Jaya, Indonesia. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(1): 42-45.

National Geographic Society. 1992. Amazonia: A World Resource at Risk. National Geographic, Washington, DC. (Map of Amazonia & South America, in Issue 182(2).

National Research Council. 1992. Neem. A Tree for Solving Global Problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 141 pp.

Okali, D. 1992. Sustainable use of West African moist forest lands. Biotropica 24(2b): 335-344.

Pakeman, R. and Mars, R. 1992. The conservation value of bracken Pteridium aquilinum. Biol. Conservation 62(2): 101-114.

Pino, J., Gregory, K., Bradford, E. and Balain, D. 1992. New program aims to conserve India's animal genetic resources. DIVERSITY 8(2): 12-13.

Preston, J. 1992. Seeking the key to "sustainable development". Washington Post May 31: H1, H6.

Pritchard, P. 1992. Time out for turtles. Wildlife Cons. 95(4): 68-73. (Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group, IUCN)

Pulido, V. 1991. El Libro Rojo de la Fauna Silvestre del Peru. INIAP, Lima, Peru. 219 pp.

Raeburn, P. 1992. The Convention on Biological Diversity: landmark Earth Summit pact opens uncertain new era for use and exchange of genetic resources. DIVERSITY 8(2): 4-7.

Redford, K. 1992. The empty forest. BioScience 42(6): 412-422. (Loss of animals due to human activity in Neotropics)

Redman, D. 1991-1992. An annotated list of the ferns and fern allies of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Maryland Naturalist 35(1-4): 15-24. (New project to update 1953 book)

Ricciuti, E. 1992. Fish alert. Wildlife Cons. 95(4): 44-47. (Species at risk)

Robinson, E. 1992. At Earth Summit, South aims to send bill North. Washington Post June 1: A1, A14.

Robinson, M. 1992. Global change, the future of biodiversity and the future of zoos. Biotropica 24(2b): 345-352.

Rodriguez, A. and Delibes, M. 1992. Current range and status of the Iberian lynx Felis pardina Temminck, 1824 in Spain. Biol. Conservation 61(3): 189-196.

Rucker, M. 1992. Conservation on location. Center for Marine Conservation regional offices. Marine Conservation News 4(2): 11-12.

Salmon, G. 1992. Meiboku and the forests of Aotearoa. Maruia Winter: 4-10. (Niche marketing to support sustainable forestry in New Zealand)

Salmon, G. 1992. Native forests and the Treaty. Maruia Winter: 13-22. (Policy for sustainable forestry on Maori and privately owned land, New Zealand)

Sandlund, O., Hinder, K. and Brown, A. (Eds.) 1992. Conservation of Biodiversity for Sustainable Development. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 327 pp.

Serrill, M. 1992. Brazil's two faces. Time 139(23): 74-77.

Shaver, G., Billings, W., Chapin, F., Giblin, A., Nadelhoffer, K., Oechel, W. and Rastetter, E. 1992. Global change and the carbon balance of arctic ecosystems. BioScience 42(6): 433-441.

Strauss, D. 1992. New leadership takes the reins of the U.S. genetic resources program. DIVERSITY 8(2): 24-26.

Struzik, E. 1992. Which way did they go? Nature Canada 21(3): 38-43. (Burrowing owl, Canada)

Tennesen, M. 1992. Kelp: keeping a forest afloat. Nat. Wildlife 30(4): 4-11. (California's kelp forest threatened)

Terborgh, J. 1992. Maintenance of diversity in tropical forests. Biotropica 24(2b): 283-292. (Fragmentation, western Amazonia)

Terwilliger, K. and Harrison, T. 1992. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. End. Species Update 9(7 & 8): 5-8.

TeWinkel, L. 1992. Biodiversity and the Endangered Species Act. EnviroAction 10(5): 14-15.

United States Department of Agriculture. 1992. Agriculture and the Environment. The 1991 Yearbook of Agriculture. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 325 pp.

Walters, T. and Decker-Walters, D. 1992. In search of the elusive and endangered Okeechobee gourd. Plant Conservation 7(1): 2, 7. (Florida)

Watkins, T. 1992. Law and liquidation. Wilderness 55(197): 10-13. (General Mining Law of 1872)

Wexler, M. 1992. Sacred rights. Nat. Wildlife 30(4): 18-23. (Indians of Wind River Reservation take steps to protect their resources)

Wuerthner, G. 1992. Hard rock and heap leach. Wilderness 55(197): 14-21. (Costs of mining in the western USA)

Yablokov, A. and Ostroumov, S. 1991. Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. Springer-Verlag, New York. 271 pp. (Conservation, Russia)

Young, N. 1992. Recovery plans chart course for saving two endangered whales. Marine Conservation News 4(2): 8. (Northern right whale & humpback whale)

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