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Department ofBotany

No. 114
October 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


On September 3, 1992 President Rafael Angel Calderon and Maurice Strong announced the opening of the offices of the Organizing Committee of the Earth Council which will be based in San Jose, Costa Rica. This follows from the initiative to establish the Earth Council proposed by the Government of Costa Rica at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June. Sponsors of the Earth Council include the International Council of Scientific Unions, the World Conservation Union and the Society for International Development. Mr. Strong has agreed to become Chairman of the Organizing Committee following completion of his term as Secretary-General of the United Nations 1992 Earth Summit Conference on Environment and Development.

The Earth Council will be an independent, international group of eminent non-governmental persons from many nations. Nominations for membership of the Council are now being invited from interested organizations and groups, and members will be selected on the basis of broad consultations. The Earth Council will seek to become a major focal point for promoting and facilitating follow-up and implementation agreements reached at the Earth Summit and cooperation amongst various non-governmental and citizen groups for this purpose.

For further information, contact: Earth Council Organizing Committee, San Jose, Costa Rica; Tel: (506) 233-418; Fax: (506) 552-197.


In a joint effort between the Interior Department's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Canadian Wildlife Service, and the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, the endangered whooping crane has been proposed for reintroduction into the State of Florida.

The proposal calls for the release of from 9 to 12 juvenile whooping cranes within the state's Three Lakes Wildlife Management Area in south-central Florida north of Vero Beach. The reintroduction site is part of the nearly 260,000-acre Kissimmee Prairie region of Florida, more than half of which is in public ownership. The Kissimmee Prairie was chosen as the site for reintroduction because of the suitability of its habitat. The area currently sustains one of the largest and most productive populations of Florida sandhill cranes, a relative of the whooper, as well as numerous federally listed endangered and threatened species.

The stately 5-foot whooping cranes are the tallest birds in North America. Florida is part of the crane's historic range, having been reported from the state in the early 1900s, but has not been seen since 1927 or 1928. The whooping crane was named to the federal list of endangered species in 1967. Today, about 145 birds comprise the only remaining self-sustaining natural wild population of whoopers in existence. The birds winter at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas on the Texas Gulf Coast and nest in Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada's Northwest Territories. The flock rebounded from a population low of 16 birds in the winter of 1941-42.

Due to the bird's limited wintering distribution along the intracoastal waterway of the Texas Coast, the population is vulnerable to destruction from natural catastrophe, such as a hurricane, red tide outbreak, or contaminant spill. The Florida flock will be made up of captive-reared birds from the Service's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, and the International Crane Foundation in Baraboo, Wisconsin. The birds to be used in the reintroduction have been conditioned for release into the wild by being reared in isolation from humans. The flock will be nonmigratory and will remain in the Kissimmee Prairie region year-round, since studies have shown migration is a learned rather than innate behavior.

A copy of the proposal to reintroduce the whooping cranes can be obtained by contacting the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 3100 University Boulevard South, Suite 120, Jacksonville, Florida 32216-2737.


The Center for Plant Conservation is holding a three-day symposium to review existing reintroduction and resotration policies to develop national guidelines for rare plant reintroductions and to develop a model policy on rare plant reintroductions. The goal of the symposium is to review current policies of various federal and state agencies, conservation organizations, and private corporations, and to publish and publicly distribute the results of the workshops and the symposium.

This project is being guided by a Steering Committee, consisting of eleven individuals representing nine different agencies and organizations, at the federal, state, and private levels. The Steering Committee is reviewing the available policies, organizing the format and speakers for the symposium, and will assist with the editing of the proceedings. The expected results of the symposium will be a book of contributed papers, including national guidelines that can be used for reintroduction projects by agencies and organizations throughout the country.

If you would like to receive a registration form for the Rare Plant Reintroduction Symposium, please send your name, affiliation, address and a statement of your interest in reintroduction (i.e. policy, mitigation, techniques, guidelines, biology, case studies, other) to: Marie M. Bruegmann, Center for Plant Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166 by January 1, 1993. Space is limited, so please register early.


November 9. "Biodiversity: How Important are Species to Ecosystem Function?" symposium will be held in conjunction with the Association for Ecosystems Research Centers annual meeting at the S. Dillon Ripley Center Lecture Hall, Smithsonian Institution's International Center, Washington D.C. For more information, call (202) 357-4789.

December 6-11. The Sixth International Congress on Traditional and Folk Medicine will be held at the Texas A&I University campus in Kingsville, Texas. Sponsored by the Academia Mexicana de Medicina Tradicional and Texas A&I University, this will be the first time the Congress is held in the United States. The Congress attracts scholars from over thirty different countries and from a wide variety of disciplines, including: anthropology, ethnobotany, sociology, chemistry, history, pharmacology, ethnology and a broad range of health care specializations. NAPRALERT (Natural Products Alert), a dynamic database funded by the National Institutes of Health and managed by the Colllege of Pharmacy of the University of Illinois will be featured. This database contains a synthesis of over 90,000 scientific journals, books, abstracts, and patents from global literature since 1975. It is updated from current literature at the rate of nearly 700 artciles per month.

For further information on the Congress, contact: Dr. Eliseo Torres (512-595-3612) or Dr. Joe S. Graham (512-595-2702) at Texas A&I University, Kingsville, Texas 78363.


The University for Peace is offering short courses on natural resources conservation with the first course, "Enhancing the Value of Tropical Forests through Non-Timber Products and Services" to be held March 1-17, 1993. This course will offer a wide range of options to increase the value of tropical forests, contributing to their protection and sustainable use. The second course, "Buffer Zone Management for Protected Areas", will combine lectures, field visits and practical exercises to explore alternatives for improving and stabilizing land use and socioeconomic welfare in areas adjacent to National Parks and similar reserves. This course will be offered April 19-May 7, 1993. Other courses to be offered later in the year include: "Trees and Sustainability: Biological, Economic and Social Benefits" and "Conflict Resolution in Natural Resources Management". All courses will be given in Spanish and cost US$2300 (all-inclusive, except air travel). For further information, contact: Mr. Felipe Matos, University for Peace, Apdo. 138, 6100 Ciudad Colon, Costa Rica. Tel: (506) 49 15 11/12/13; Fax: (506) 49 19 29/53 42 27.


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Allen, L. 1992. Plugging the gaps. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 8-9. (Gap analysis used to map new preserves)

Argus, G. 1992. The phytogeography of rare vascular plants in Ontario and its bearing on plant conservation. Canadian J. Bot. 70(3): 469-490.

Blouin, M. 1992. The taxonomic twist. Zoogoer 21(4): 25-27, 29. (New biomedical techniques are changing the taxonomy of species and subspecies)

Bourn, N. and Thomas, J. 1992. The ecology and conservation of the brown argus butterfly Aricia agestis in Britain. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 67-74.

Buchele, D., Baskin, J. and Baskin, C. 1992. Ecology of the endangered species Solidago shortii. Plant associates. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119(2): 208-213. (Endangered U.S. species)

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Ceballos-Lascurain, H. 1992. Tourists for conservation. People & the Planet 1(3): 28-30. (Eco-tourism project)

Cheater, M. 1992. Alien invasions. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 24-27. (Invasive plants are a problem)

Chou, L. 1992. Potential impacts of climatic change and sea- level rise on the East Asian Seas Region. J. South East Asian Earth Sciences 7(1): 61-64.

Cohn, J. 1992. Reproductive biotechnology techniques to help infertile couples and the livestock industry may aid endangered species. BioScience 41(9): 595-598.

Common, M. and Norton, T. 1992. Biodiversity: Its conservation in Australia. Ambio 21(3): 258-265.

Cowie, N., Sutherland, W., Ditlhogo, M. and James, R. 1992. The effects of conservation management of reed beds. II. The flora and litter disappearance. J. Applied Ecology 29(2): 277-284.

Daly, D. 1992. Tree of life. Audubon 94(2): 76-85. (Taxol, product of western yew, may cure cancer)

Day, A. 1992. Botanical research imperiled, gardens ravaged by Andrew. Washington Post September 2: A1. (Fairchild Tropical Gardens (Florida) devastated by Hurricane Andrew)

Derr, M. 1992. Raiders of the reef. Audubon 94(2): 48-59. (Commercial collecting of coral is killing reefs)

Devine, B. 1992. The salmon dammed. Audubon 94(1): 82-89. (Hydropower in Pacific Northwest threatens fish)

Ditlhogo, M., James, R., Laurence, B. and Sutherland, W. 1992. The effects of conservation management of reed beds. I. The invertebrates. J. Appiled Ecology 29(2): 265-276.

Doherty, J. 1992. When folks say "cutting edge" at the Nez, they don't mean saws. Smithsonian 23(6): 32-47. (Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho)

Edenhamn, P., Nilsson, T., Ebenhard, T. and Sjogren, P. 1992. What is habitat fragmentation for amphibians? Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 2(2): 57.

Ehrlich, P., Dobkin, D. and Wheye, D. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy. The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

Eldredge, N. (Ed.) 1992. Systematics, Ecology, and the Biodiversity Crisis. Columbia University Press, New York. 220 pp.

Fargey, P. 1992. Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary - an example of traditional conservation in Ghana. Oryx 26(3): 151-160.

Forrest, G. 1992. Conservation of the native pinewoods of Scotland: the role of gene pool analysis. Scott. For. 46(3): 194-201.

Gadgil, M. 1992. Conserving biodiversity as if people matter: A case study from India. Ambio 21(3): 266-270.

Goh, K. 1992. UNEP's activities and future programmes on global climate change focusing on sea-level rise. J. South East Asian Earth Sciences 7(1): 1-4.

Greatorex-Davies, J., Sparks, T., Hall, M. and Marrs, R. 1992. The influence of shade on butterflies in rides of coniferised lowland woods in southern England and implications for conservation management. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 31- 42.

Gunson, J. 1992. Historical and present management of wolves in Alberta. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 20(3): 330-339.

Hakham, E. and Ritte, U. 1992. Foraging pressure of the Nubian ibex Capra ibex nubiana and its effect on the indigenous vegetation of the En Gedi Nature Reserve, Israel. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 9-22.

Hill, N. and Keddy, P. 1992. Prediction of rarities from habitat variables: coastal plain plants on Nova Scotia lake shores. Ecology 73(5): 1852-1859.

Hill, N. and Mats, E. 1992. Geographical distribution and ecology of Long's bulrush, Scripus longii (Cyperaceae) in Canada. Rhodora 94(878): 141-155. (Rare Coastal Plain species in Nova Scotia)

Hoose, P. 1992. Canada: best of the rest. Biodiversity Network News 5(2): 1-2, 7. (Conservation Data Centers)

Horton, T. 1992. The Endangered Species Act: too tough, too weak, or too late? Audubon 94(2): 68-75.

Huilum, H., Manzhang, Z. and Dooley, P. 1992. Natural history museums and their role in conservation. Curator 35(3): 206-214.

Hunt, D. 1992. CITES Cactaceae Checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 190 pp.

Hunt, D. and Zarema, R. 1992. The northeastward spread of Microstegium viminerum (Poaceae) into New York and adjacent states. Rhodora 94(878): 167-170. (Rapid invader poses threat to rare native species)

Imbach, A. 1992. 500 years after Columbus. People & the Planet 1(3): 18. (Assessment of natural resources, Central America)

Iriondo, J. and Perez, C. 1992. In vitro plant regeneration of Lavatera oblongifolia (Malvaceae), an endangered species. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(5): 54-57.

Jackson, L. 1992. Giving life back to a river. Canadian Geographic 12(5): 92-98. (Volunteers reclaim a rich trout stream in St. John's, Newfoundland)

Jukofsky, D. 1992. Path of the panther. Wildlife Cons. 95(5): 18-25. (Paseo Pantera project)

Kautsky, H. 1992. The impact of pulp-mill effluents on phytobenthic communities in the Baltic Sea. Ambio 21(4): 308-313.

Kidder, C. 1992. Return of the red wolf. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 10-15. (Reintroduction to Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina)

Klomp, N. and Furness, R. 1992. Non-breeders as a buffer against environmental stress: declines in numbers of great skuas on Foula, Shetland, and prediction of future recruitment. J. Applied Ecology 29(2): 341-348.

Kurzejeski, E., Burget, L., Monson, M. and Leukner, R. 1992. Wildlife conservation attitudes and land use intentions of conservation program participants in Missouri. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 20(3): 253-259.

Lumpkin, S. 1992. Cheetahs. Zoogoer 21(4): 10-12, 15- 17. (Threatened species)

Luoma, J. 1992. Born to be wild. Audubon 94(1): 50- 61. (Breeding programs to save endangered animals)

Lusby, P. 1992. Conservation of rare plants in Scotland. BSS News 58: 2-5.

Malmgren, S. 1992. Large scale asymbiotic propagation of Cypripedium calceolus - plant physiology from a surgeon's point of view. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(5): 59-63. (Rare plant in England & Denmark)

Matlack, G., Gibson, D. and Good, R. 1992. Clonal propagation, local disturbance, and the structure of vegetation: erinaceous shrubs in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 1-8.

Matthews, D. 1992. Mountain monarchs. Wildlife Cons. 95(5): 26-29, 78. (Monarch butterflies in Mexico)

May, R. 1992. How many species inhabit the Earth? Scientific American 267(4): 42-49.

McCune, B. and Rosentreter, R. 1992. Texosporum sancti- jacobi, a rare western North American lichen. The Bryologist 95(3): 329-333.

McIntyre, L. 1992. Amazonia. Sierra Club, San Francisco, California. 164 pp.

McIntyre, S. 1992. Risks associated with setting of conservation priorities from rare plant species lists. Biol. Conservation 60(1): 31-37.

Meadows, R. 1992. Gazelles. Zoogoer 21(4): 13-14. (Threatened species)

Mee, L. 1992. The Black Sea crisis: a need for concerted international action. Ambio 21(4): 278-286.

Mitchell, J. 1992. Our disappearing wetlands. Nat. Geographic 182(4): 3-45. (USA)

Munasinghe, M. 1992. Biodiversity protection policy: environmental valuation and distribution issues. Ambio 21(3): 227-236.

New, T. 1992. Threatened species in Australia: A select bibliography. Victorian Naturalist 109(3): 92. (Book review)

Nicholson, R. 1992. Death and Taxus. Nat. History 10(9): 20-23. (Taxus globosa, Mexican yew)

Obermeyer, B. 1992. Effect of logging on breeding bird diversity in riparian forests on Fall River wildlife area. Kansas Ornithological Soc. Bull. 43(3): 21-31.

Olmos, F. 1992. Serra da Capivara National Park and the conservation of north-eastern Brazil's caatinga. Oryx 26(3): 142-146.

Owen, P. 1992. Bird's nest coup. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 7. (Rare crested honeycreeper, Hawaii)

Owens, M. and Owens, D. 1992. Two against the odds. Int. Wildlife 22(5): 4-13. (Saving Zambia's elephants)

Pavlov, P., Crome, F. and Moore, L. 1992. Feral pigs, rainforest conservation and exotic disease in north Queensland. Wildl. Res. 19(2): 179-193.

Prins, H. and Wind, J. 1992. Research for nature conservation in South-east Asia. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 43-46.

Ragone, D. 1992. "Iliahi" - Hawaii's sandalwood. Bull. Nat. Tropical Bot. Garden 22(2): 51-52.

Rowley, J. 1992. Putting people in the picture. People & the Planet 1(3): 6-9. (Protected areas and people)

Sampson, N. and Hair, D. (Eds.) 1992. Forests and Global Change. Volume 1: Opportunities for Increasing Forest Cover. American Forests, Washington, DC.

Schneider, P. 1992. The Adirondacks: the remaking of a wilderness. Audubon 94(3): 55-65.

Sherwin, H. 1992. Spotlight on medicinal plants. Forum Botanicum 29: 1, 3. (Durham, Univ. of Natal, South Africa)

Sieren, D. and Warr, K. 1992. The flora of limesink depressions in Carolina Beach State Park, North Carolina. Rhodora 94(878): 156-166. (Lists 15 rare plant species)

Snow, D. 1992. Inside the Environmental Movement: Meeting the Leadership Challenge. Island Press, Covelo, California. 295 pp.

Speart, J. 1992. War on the range. Wildlife Cons. 95(5): 60-61, 82. (Sheep ranchers in the western US vs. bald eagles)

Spence, J., Van Pelt, N. and Franklin, M. 1992. Monitoring of a very rare meadow buttercup, Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis, in south-central Utah. Nat. Areas J. 12(3): 155-157.

Stavins, R. and Whitehead, B. 1992. Dealing with pollution: market-based incentives for environmental protection. Environment 34(7): 6-11.

Stewart, T. 1992. Land-use options to encourage forest conservation on a tribal reservation in the Philippines. Agrofor. Syst. 18(3): 225-244.

Stohlgren, T. and Quinn, J. 1992. An assessment of biotic inventories in western U.S. national parks. Nat. Areas J. 12(3): 145-154.

Stolk, R. 1992. Cheetah Conservation Station. Zoogoer 21(4): 18-20, 21-22. (National Zoological Park, Washington, DC)

Stolzenburg, W. 1992. Sacred peaks - common grounds. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 16-23. (American Indians and conservationists work to protect biodiversity and culture)

Stolzenburg, W. 1992. Vietnam's cranes rise from the ashes. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 6. (Tram Chim Nature Reserve burned as management tool)

Stone, J. and Legg, D. 1992. Agriculture and the Everglades. J. Soil and Water Conservation 47(3): 207-215. (Florida)

Sullivan, J. 1992. Sinking in the Shawnee. Living Bird 11(4): 14-19. (Decline of songbirds due to parasitism by cowbirds)

Taugbol, T., Skurdal, J. and Hastein, T. 1992. Crayfish plague and management strategies in Norway. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 75-82.

Taylor-Ide, D., Byers, A. and Campbell, J. 1992. Mountains, nations, parks, and conservation - a case study of the Mt. Everest area. GeoJournal 27(1): 105-112.

Tudge, C. 1992. Birds of prey fly again. New Scientist 135(1835): 20-21.

Van Gelder, L. 1992. Saving the homeland. Audubon 94(1): 62-67. (Kentucky environmentals in Appalachia)

Warren, M. 1992. Britain's vanishing fritillaries. Br. Wildl. 3(5): 282-296.

Weatherbee, P. and Crow, G. 1992. Natural plant communities of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Rhodora 94(878): 171- 209. (List of 117 rare plants of Massachusetts)

Whistler, W. 1992. The ethnobotany of Tonga: the plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Mus. Bull. Botany 2: 1-155.

Whitmore, T. and Sayer, T. 1992. Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction. Chapman & Hall, New York. 153 pp.

Wichman, C. 1992. Exciting rediscovery of "extinct" plant. Bull. Nat. Tropical Bot. Garden 22(2): 39-41. (Cyanea linearifolia, Hawaii)

Williams, M. 1992. Boom town for birds. Wildlife Cons. 95(5): 38-43. (Bird conservation in China)

Woodin, S. and Farmer, A. 1992. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on sites and species of nature conservation importance in Great Britain. Biol. Conservation 63(1): 23- 30.

Yoshidu, Y. 1992. Protocol on environmental protection. Antarctic Record 36(1): 143-161.

Ypsilantis, J. 1992. Fragile isthmus under pressure. People & the Planet 1(3): 19. (Panama)

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