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Department ofBotany

No. 115
November 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Center for Marine Conservation, a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining the ocean's ecological integrity for sustainable use and enjoyment, conducts many programs on habitat conservation, pollution prevention, species recovery, marine biological diversity and fisheries conservation.

The primary goal of the Fisheries Conservation Program is to promote conservation and sustained productivity of marine fisheries by advocating the prevention of overfishing, the rebuilding of depleted fish populations, and the reduction of bycatch and wasteful fishing practices. In the United States, more than half of the commercially valuable fish stocks are fished to their maximum potential or are overfished. And, according to the National Marine Fisheries Service, the status of another 34% is unknown and may be in serious decline. Throughout the coming year, the Center for Marine Conservation will be promoting public education and awareness of fishery management issues, particularly with regard to the 1993 reauthorization of the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the primary fisheries law in the United States. Public workshops will be conducted to train concerned citzens to actively participate in the fisheries management process. For more information, write: Fisheries Conservation Program, Center for Marine Conservation, 1725 DeSales Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036.


The Russian Journal of Ornithology is one of several new privately owned periodicals which have appeared during the year. It is the first ornithological periodical in Russia since the 1930s and is indeed the first non-governmental one for more than 70 years. It has inherited the best tradition of Russian field ornithology, developed by famous Russian ornithologists like Sushkin, Buturlin and Portenko and reinstated debate in Russian publications. Papers are in Russian with an English summary as well as some in English. All figure captions and tables are also translated into English.

The first volume contains the review of recent bird fossil findings in the territory of the former USSR, new hypothesis on bird origins, new method of sexing Willow Tits and extensive current ornithological information. The territory of the former USSR is enormous and some parts have been little studied ornithologically. A goal of the Russian Ornithological Journal is to initiate research on various aspects of ornithology in different regions of this huge territory.

Subscription and information on the publication is available from Eugene R. Potapov, Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Dept. of Zoology, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, U.K.


The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund was established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the world's threatened wildlife. Each year grants are awarded to individuals or institutions working in conservation biology for up to $1,000.

Projects and programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain ecosystems receive the highest funding priority. Field studies, environmental education programs, development of techniques that can be used in a natural environment and captive propagation programs that stress an integrative and/or multi-disciplinary approach to conservation are also appropriate. Proposals for single species preservation, initial surveys, or seed money for technique development are not appropriate.

Recipients are required to acknowledge the Roger Williams Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Park Society in any publications that result from the project. Recipients must also submit a progress report which includes an update on the status of the project. This report is due one year after funding.

All proposals must be submitted by May 1, 1993. Applications will be reviewed by a committee of zoo society and outside advisors. Grants will be awarded in July, 1993. For further information, including an application form, contact: Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Elmwood Ave., Providence, RI 02905. Tel: (401) 785-3510; Fax: (401) 941- 3988.


The Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica is offering 2 courses: tropical dendrology (January 18 - February 6, 1993), an intensive field identification of neotropical trees and shrubs, and life zone ecology (February 22 - March 13, 1993), instruction in the practical and theoretical use of the World Life Zone System of Ecological Classification developed by Dr. L.R. Holdridge. For more information on both courses, contact: Ing. Raul Solorzano or Dr. Humberto Jimenez Gaa, Tropical Science Center, P. O. Box 8-3870-1000, San Jose, Costa Rica. Tel: (506) 252649 or (506) 533267; Fax: (506) 534963.

The University of Florida Overseas Studies office and Center for African Studies are offering a six week course focusing on understanding tropical forest ecology, selective logging and forest regeneration, primate and duiker censusing, primate behavioral ecology, mist netting, plant enumeration, seed predation, social forestry, forest tourism and conflict resolution as well as problems of conservation implementation. Program dates are June 1 - July 14, 1993 at the Kibale Forest, Uganda. It is open to students who have completed their junior year, seniors and graduate students as well as other interested professionals. Students will receive six semester hours of University of Florida transfer credits. For program costs and application, contact: Dr. Thomas Struhsaker, c/o University of Florida Overseas Studies, 123 Tigert Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611. Tel: (904) 392-5206; Fax: (904) 392-5575.

In addition to the above course, the University of Florida Overseas Studies office is offering a six week program for undergraduate students who have completed their freshman year or higher, and interested educators on the ecology of the Yucatan and Spanish. One year of Spanish language is required. The program is offered in conjunction with the faculty of the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan in Merida, Mexico. Students may live with local families and attend courses that combine both classroom and field experiences. For program costs and an application, contact: Dr. Mark Brenner, address above.


Endangered Species, Endangered Wetlands: Life on the Edge is a comprehensive summary of the crisis of wetland-dependent endangered species in the United States. Published by the National Wildlife Federation, this 49-page study serves as a synopsis of the conditions in all 50 states as well as a call to action to save our wetland sanctuaries. Although wetlands occupy only five percent of the total area of the lower 48 states, 43 percent of all endangered species utilize these aquatic oases for feeding, breeding and shelter. Unfortunately, these precious resources are disappearing at a rate of 35 acres every hour.

To order this informative report (item #79932) and learn how to become active in the battle to save these resources, send $6.75 (includes shipping) to the National Wildlife Federation, Dept. 318, 1400 16th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036-2266.


Field assistantships are available at Manomet Bird Observatory, April - July, 1993 for seasonal field-work studying aquatic bird ecology with Manomet Bird Observatory's New York Project. Positions are available both in New York and Massachusetts (Cape Cod). If interested, please send resume, course listing, names and phone numbers of two references and description of research interests and experience to: Katherine C. Parsons, Manomet Bird Observatory, Box 1770, Manomet, MA 02345- 1770. Tel: (508) 224-6561; Fax: (508) 224-9220.


November 10-13, 1994. The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens will host an international symposium entitled, "Forest Canopies - Ecology, Biodiversity, and Conservation", in Sarasota, Florida. The major goal of the symposium is to bring together canopy researchers from different countries and from different forest ecosystems, both temperate and tropical, to discuss methods, results, and future directions in canopy research. The conference is open to all biologists and conservationists interested in and/or working on aspects of forest canopies. Invited and contributed papers will address canopy structure, organisms, processes, and aspects of conservation of forest. Further details about the program, speakers, and schedule of activities will be available in July 1993. Persons interested in attending the conference should write: Dr. Meg Lowman, Director of Research, Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34236. Tel: (813) 366-5730; Fax: (813) 366-9807.


Anon. 1992. Protection for 28 animals and plants proposed during January-June 1992. End. Species Tech. Bull. 17(3- 8): 1, 6-10.

Anon. 1992. Protecting a piece of paradise. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 33. (Garden Creek Preserve, Idaho)

Anon. 1991. Putting biodiversity on the map: priority areas for global conservation. World Birdwatch 14(3). (Special supplement)

Anon. 1992. Safeguarding a South American savanna. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 30-31. (Debt-for-nature swap helps protect Cerrado's Grand Sertao Veredas National Park, Brazil)

Anon. 1992. Swan song for the forest. Nature Conservancy 42(5): 31. (Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge, Kansas)

Alam, M. 1992. Medical ethnobotany of the Marma tribe of Bangladesh. Econ. Bot. 46(3): 330-335.

Amelung, T. and Diehl, M. 1992. Deforestation of Tropical Rain Forests - Economic Causes and Impact on Development. Horst Seibert, Kiel, Germany. 241 pp.

Askins, R., Lynch, J. and Greenberg, R. 1992. Population declines in migratory birds in eastern North America. Current Ornithology 7: 1-51.

Austin, D. and Bourne, G. 1992. Notes on Guyana's medical ethnobotany. Econ. Bot. 46(3): 293-298.

Bancroft, G., Hoffman, W., Sawicki, R. and Ogden, J. 1992. The importance of the water conservation areas in the Everglades to the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Cons. Biology 6(3): 392-398.

Barber, C., Miller, K. and Reid, W. 1992. The new conservation challenge. Defenders 67(5): 16-23. (To halt extinctions, local communities must adopt fresh strategies)

Bauer, E. and Bauer, P. 1992. Trekking in Tasmania. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 50-57.

Bawa, K. 1992. The riches of tropical forests: non-timber products. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7(11): 361-362.

Bawa, K. and Wilkes, H. 1992. Who shall speak for biodiversity? Cons. Biology 6(3): 473-474.

Beasley, Jr., C. 1992. Two faces of Japan. Buzzworm 4(6): 32-37. (Environmental movement)

Bennett, B. 1992. Plants and people of the Amazonian rainforests. BioScience 42(8): 599-607. (Role of ethnobotany in sustainable development)

Berman, J., Harris, L., Lambert, W., Buttrick, M. and Dufresne, M. 1992. Recent invasions of the Gulf of Maine: three contrasting ecological histories. Cons. Biology 6(3): 435- 441.

Bhattarai, N. 1992. Medical ethnobotany in the Karnali Zone, Nepal. Econ. Bot. 46(3): 257-261.

Blumenthal, M. 1992. Focus on rain forest remedies. HerbalGram 27: 8-10.

Bokdam, J. and Wallis de Vries, M. 1992. Forage quality as a limiting factor for cattle grazing in isolated Dutch nature reserves. Cons. Biology 6(3): 399-408.

Briscoe, D., Malpica, J., Robertson, A., Smith, G., Frankham, R., Banks, R. and Barker, J. 1992. Rapid loss of genetic variation in large captive populations of Drosophila flies: implications for the genetic management of captive populations. Cons. Biology 6(3): 416-425.

Brown-Babcock, M. 1992. California Marine Debris Action Plan: the year in review. Marine Conservation News 4(3): 14.

Burkhead, N. and Williams, J. 1992. The boulder darter: a conservation challenge. End. Species Tech. Bull. 17(3-8): 4-6. (Fish of the Elk River, Tennessee and Alabama)

Buskirk, S. 1992. Conserving circumboreal forests for martens and fishers. Cons. Biology 6(3): 318-323.

Calder, M. 1992. The management of government-funded environmental research. SEARCH 23(7): 214-215. (Australia)

Carlson, A. and Aulen, G. 1992. Territorial dynamics in an isolated white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) population. Cons. Biology 6(3): 450-454. (Sweden, species in decline)

Chadwick, D. 1992. U.S. imperative: networking habitats. Defenders 67(5): 26-33.

Chaudhri, M. and Qureshi, R. 1991. Pakistan's endangered flora - II. Pakistan Systematics 5(1-2): 1-84. (709 taxa)

Cohn, J. 1992. Decisions at the zoo. BioScience 42(9): 654-659. (Balancing conservation goals and public interests)

Corbin, B. 1992. Discovery of the lost scheuchzeria. Fremontia 20(4): 19-20. (Scheuchzeria palustris var. americana, thought to be extinct in California)

Crother, B. 1992. Genetic characters, species concepts, and conservation biology. Cons. Biology 6(3): 314.

Crouse, D. 1992. The ESA and economics: claims and reality. Marine Conservation News 4(3): 4.

Daily, G. and Ehrlich, P. 1992. Population, sustainability, and Earth's carrying capacity. BioScience 42(10): 761-772.

Dobson, A. 1992. Survival rates and their relationship to life-history traits in some common British birds. Current Ornithology 7: 115-144.

Dodd, Jr., C. 1992. Biological diversity of a temporary pond herpetofauna in north Florida sandhills. Biodiversity and Conservation 1(3): 125-142.

Dowling, T. and Childs, M. 1992. Impact of hybridization on a threatened trout of the southwestern United States. Cons. Biology 6(3): 355-364.

Dybas, C. 1992. Mermaid's hair. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 62-67. (Seaweed plays a vital role in the marine ecosystem and is a billion dollar industry in Maine)

Eagar, C. and Adams, M. (Eds.) 1992. Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Springer-Verlag, New York. 417 pp.

Eastman, D. 1990. Rare and Endangered Plants of Oregon. Beautiful America Publishing Co., Wilsonville, Oregon. 194 pp.

Ehrlich, P. and Ehrlich, A. 1992. The value of biodiversity. Ambio 21(3): 219-226.

Elmes, G. and Thomas, J. 1992. Complexity of species conservation in managed habitats: interaction between Maculinea butterflies and their ant hosts. Biodiversity and Conservation 1(3): 155-169.

Ernst, C. 1992. Venomous Reptiles of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 216 pp. (Lists conservation status)

Ezzell, C. 1992. Aliens wreak havoc in Hawaiian islands. Science News 142(7): 101. (Report released by two environmental groups warns of irreparable damage to Hawaii's ecosystems by alien introductions)

Fine, J. 1992. Greedy for groupers. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 68-71. (Future of fish species imperiled by unrestricted fishing)

Foster, S. 1992. The Artemis Project. Preserving biodiversity in the U.S. HerbalGram 27: 27.

France, R. and Sharp, M. 1992. Polynyas as centers of organization for structuring the integrity of Arctic marine communities. Cons. Biology 6(3): 442-446. (Winter refuge for marine mammals)

Friedman, M. and Skatrud, M. 1992. Conserving diversity in the Twentieth Century. Wild Earth 2(3): 21-25.

Fujimoto, L. 1992. Scientists make exciting find on Kahoolawe. Honolulu Star-Bulletin August 27: A-12. (Probable undescribed endemic Hawaiian legume discovered on uninhabited island which was used as target practice by the military for 50 years)

Georgiadis, N. and Balmford, A. 1992. The calculus of conserving biological diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7(10): 321.

Grant, P. and Grant, B. 1992. Global warming and the Galapagos. Noticias de Galapagos 51: 14-16.

Haack, R. 1992. Endangered and threatened insects in the U.S. and Michigan. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Soc. 37(2 & 3): 1-8.

Hagan, J. 1992. Conservation biology when there is no crisis - yet. Cons. Biology 6(3): 475-476.

Hagan III, J. and Johnston, D. (Eds.) 1992. Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 610 pp.

Hemley, G. 1992. CITES 1992: endangered treaty? Kyoto decisions political, not practical. TRAFFIC USA 11(3): 1- 3.

Herber, B. 1992. The economic case for an Antarctic world park in light of recent policy developments. Polar Record 28(167): 293-300.

Hiestand, E. 1992. Field notes from Belize. Orion 11(4): 41-54.

Hiss, A. and Pickart, A. 1992. An update on the rediscovered Humboldt milk-vetch. Fremontia 20(4): 21-22. (Astragalus agnicidus, California)

Hobbs, R. 1992. The role of corridors in conservation: solution or bandwagon. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7(11): 389-392.

Hobbs, R. and Huenneke, L. 1992. Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Cons. Biology 6(3): 324-338.

Hoffman, E. 1992. Wonderwoman of Belize. Int. Wildlife 22(6): 14-19. (Sharon Matola, founder of Belize Zoo)

Honegger, R. 1992. Undesirable trends in captive management and conservation of reptiles. Bull. Chicago Herpetological Soc. 27(10): 207-210.

Jackson, P. 1992. "They've shot Miro". Int. Wildlife 22(6): 38-43. (Survival of Eurasian lynx in Europe)

Jolly, A. 1992. On the edge of survival. In F. Lanting, A World Out of Time. Madagascar. Robert Hale, London. pp. 110- 141.

Jones, L. 1992. The big island. Buzzworm 4(6): 68-72. (Hawaii)

Jones, L. 1992. The nature of Hawaii. Buzzworm 4(6): 58-67.

Jones, L. 1992. South of the border. Buzzworm 4(5): 64-75. (Baja California)

Junkerstorff, K. and Junckerstorff, B. 1990. A Tranquil Journey. Days in the Rain Forests of Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 170 pp.

King, S. 1992. Conservation and tropical medicinal plant research. HerbalGram 27: 28-35.

Klimens, M. 1992. The TG interview: conserving the world's turtles. Tortuga Gazette 28(10): 8-9.

Lanting, F. 1992. A World Out of Time. Madagascar. Robert Hale, London. 143 pp.

Lewis, M. 1992. An Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina. 288 pp.

Loope, L. and Medeiros, A. 1992. Potential effects of alien fruit fly eradication on natural areas of Hawaii: an exploratory investigation in Haleakala National Park. Elepaio 52(10): 71-74.

Luoma, J. 1992. Eco-backlash. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 26-37.

M'Gonigle, M. et al. 1992. Comprehensive wilderness protection in British Columbia: an economic impact assessment. Forest Chronicles 68(3): 357-364.

Macdonald, I. et al. 1992. New stations for Carex oligocarpa (Cyperaceae) in Prince Edward County, Ontario. Michigan Botanist 31(2): 75-78. (Rare in Canada)

Mafham, K. 1991. Madagascar. A Natural History. Facts on File, New York. 224 pp.

Maguire, L. and Servheen, C. 1992. Integrating biological and sociological concerns in endangered species management: augmentation of grizzly bear populations. Cons. Biology 6(3): 426-434.

Mattoni, R. 1992. The endangered El Segundo butterfly. J. Research of the Lepidoptera 29(4): 277-304.

McDonald, K. and Brown, J. 1992. Using montane mammals to model extinctions due to global change. Cons. Biology 6(3): 409-415.

Miller, J. (Ed.) 1992. The Common Names of North American Butterflies. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 192 pp. (Indicates current threatened or endangered status according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

Munthali, S. and Mughogho, D. 1992. Economic incentives for conservation: bee-keeping and Saturniidae caterpillar utilization by rural communities. Biodiversity and Conservation 1(3): 143-154.

Nelson, J. and Serafin, R. 1992. Assessing biodiversity: a human ecological approach. Ambio 21(3): 212-218.

Neto, R.B. 1992. The Transamazonian Highway. Buzzworm 4(6): 28-29. (Brazil)

New, T. 1992. Conservation of butterflies in Australia. J. Research of the Lepidoptera 29(4): 237-253.

Norton, B. and Ulanowicz, R. 1992. Scale and biodiversity policy: a hierachical approach. Ambio 21(3): 244-249.

Novacek, M. and Wheeler, Q. (Eds.) 1992. Extinction and Phylogeny. Columbia University Press, New York. 253 pp.

O'Keeffe, M. 1992. Biosphere 2: the true story. Buzzworm 4(6): 38-45, 77, 81.

Payne, J. 1990. Wild Malaysia. The Wildlife and Scenery of Penisular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah. New London, London. 208 pp.

Pearson, D. and Cassola, F. 1992. World-wide species richness patterns of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae): indicator taxon for biodiversity and conservation studies. Cons. Biology 6(3): 376-391.

Perrings, C., Folke, C. and Maler, K.-G. 1992. The ecology and economics of biodiversity loss: the research agenda. Ambio 21(3): 201-211.

Pimentel, D., Acquay, H., Biltonen, M., Rice, P., Silva, M., Nelson, J., Lipner, V., Giordano, S., Horowitz, A. and D'Amore, M. 1992. Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. BioScience 42(10): 750-760.

Porteous, P. 1992. Eagles on the rise. Nat. Geographic 182(5): 42-55. (Conservation efforts in U.S. are successful)

Rasker, R., Martin, M. and Johnson, R. 1992. Economics: theory versus practice in wildlife management. Cons. Biology 6(3): 338-349.

Rasmussen, A. 1992. Managing cultural and biological treasures in the Florida Keys Sanctuary. Marine Conservation News 4(3): 16.

Rasmussen, A. 1992. Monterey Bay to finally become a National Marine Sanctuary. Sanctuary Currents Summer: 1-2, 6. (California)

Reidell, H. 1992. On the tightrope to conservation. Americas 44(4): 38-39. (Jamaica)

Reinhardt, R. 1992. Desert storm. Wilderness 56(198): 10-22. (Oregon's high desert wilderness threatened)

Sala, O. 1992. Achieving a sustainable biosphere: an international endeavour. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7(10): 324-325.

Sambou, B., Lawesson, J. and Barfod, A. 1992. Borassus aethiopum, a threatened multiple purpose palm in Senegal. Principes 36(3): 148-155.

Saunders, R. 1992. Monterey Bay will become nation's largest marine sanctuary! Marine Conservation News 4(3): 1. (California)

Sibatani, A. 1992. Decline and conservation of butterflies in Japan. J. Research of the Lepidoptera 29(4): 305-315.

Speart, J. 1992. Orang odyssey. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 18-25. (Trade in orangutans)

Stuart, G. 1992. Maya heartland under seige. Nat. Geographic 182(5): 94-107. (Guatemala)

Swanson, T. 1992. Economics of a biodiversity convention. Ambio 21(3): 250-257.

Tennesen, M. 1992. Ruler of the canyons. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 38-43. (California's mountain lion)

Thompson, D. and Brown, A. 1992. Biodiversity in montane Britain: habitat variation, vegetation diversity and some objectives for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 1(3): 179-208

Turback, G. 1992. Talking turkey. Wildlife Cons. 95(6): 58-61. (Species once headed for extinction, now abundant)

Ware, J. 1992. Where the wild things are. Am. Horticulturist 71(8): 19-25. (Center for Plant Conservation)

Wells, M. 1992. Biodiversity conservation, affluence and poverty: mismatched costs and benefits and efforts to remedy them. Ambio 21(3): 237-243.

Yosef, R. and Grubb, Jr., T. 1992. Territory size influences nutritional condition in nonbreeding loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus): a ptilochronology approach. Cons. Biology 6(3): 447-449. (Shrikes declining)

Zettler, L. and Mcinnis, Jr., T. 1992. Propagation of Platanthera integrilabia (Correll) Luer, an endangered terrestrial orchid, through symbiotic seed germination. Lindleyana 7(3): 154-161. (Southern Appalachians, USA)

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