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Department ofBotany

No. 116
December 1992

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The United Nations Development Program is establishing a $5 million Small-Grants Program under the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to support small-scale activities by community groups and non-governmental organizations in developing countries. GEF is a three-year pilot program managed by UNDP, UNEP and the World Bank, which assists developing countries in their efforts to protect the global environment.

To be eligible for support from the Small-Grants Program, activities must address the problems of global warming, pollution of international waters, destruction of biological diversity, or depletion of the ozone layer. Priority will be given to community-based activities that could have an impact on the global environment, if replicated over time on a large scale. Examples of projects: develop, test and market energy-efficient household products; crop diversification and soil renewal to preserve biological diversity; parks management, and environmental education. Awards to individual countries will range from US$1,000 to US$50,000. Awards for regional projects from US$50,000 to US$250,000.

For further information, contact: GEF Small-Grants Program, NGO Program, UNDP, One United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Attn: Jane W. Jacqz, Senior Adviser.

The Tropical Conservation and Development Program at the University of Florida is offering fellowships for students from Latin America. Fellows will combine social science training with natural science training toward conservation issues. Other areas of interest include public policy, population and the environment. Details of the fellowship program can be obtained by writing Steven Sanderson, Director, Tropical Conservation and Development Program, Center for Latin American Studies, 319 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


January 26-29, 1993. "International Conference on the Conservation on Biological Diversity: National Interests and Global Imperatives" will be held in Nairobi, Kenya. For more information, contact: Dr. Calestous Juma, Conference Secretary, African Centre for Technology Studies, P. O. Box 45917, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: 254-2-340650/336603; Fax: 254-2-336793.

February 14-19, 1993. "Industrial Utilization of Tropical Plants and the Conservation of Biodiversity" will be held st the Nike Resort Hotel in Enugu, Nigeria. The Congress will be hosted by the Bioresources Development and Conservation Programme of Nigeria in collaboration with the Rainforest Alliance. The congress will review models for sustainable utilization of tropical forests to articulate a comprehensive agenda for enhancing the extractive value of forest products for both the communities that depend on the forest for their livelihood and for the industries that depend on the raw materials.

For additional information, contact: Elizabeth Skinner, Rainforest Alliance, 270 Lafayette Street, Suite 512, New York, NY 10012; Tel: (212) 941-1900; Fax: (212) 941-4986 or Prof. Maurice M. Iwu, Bioresources Development and Conservation Program, c/o University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.


Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Priority Areas for Global Conservation", published by the International Council for Bird Preservation, identifies 221 sites which host most of the world's endemic birds. These endemic bird areas are compared with known endemisms of other fauna and flora, examined to determine their overall diversity, contrasted with protected area coverage, and analyzed in reference to diverse parameters (habitat types, area extension, percentage of species, latitudinal distribution, etc.). This is a very important tool for conservation since 25% of the world's bird species occur in 5% of the planet's land surface. These areas are also equally important as centers of diversity for other life-forms.

To obtain a copy, write International Council for Bird Preservation, 32 Cambridge Road, Girton, Cambridge CB3 0PJ England (12.50 pounds sterling) or ICBP, P.O. Box 57242, Washington, DC 20037-7242, USA ($23.50).


The Interior Department's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Geological Survey have published a new wetlands educational poster to aid teachers of science and environmental topics. The poster, "Wetlands: Water Wildlife, Plants and People", offers fun classroom activities for elementary and middle schools to help children learn about the many values of wetlands. The poster shows various kinds of wetlands and how people use them. The back of the poster explains wetland types, defines important terms, and suggests activities teachers. The poster is available in three versions, including two in color: elementary level (Kindergarten through grade 5) and middle school (grades 6 through 8). A black and white version with no text on the back is available for younger children to color.

The wetlands poster is being distributed to approximately 50,000 science teachers through "Science Scope" and "Science and Children", publications of the National Science Teachers Association. An additional 200,000 copies will be distributed to educators through other channels. Copies of "Wetlands" can be obtained from: U.S. Geological Survey, Branch Distribution, Box 25286, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, or from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Publications Unit, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, MS 130, Arlington, VA 22203.

The Madison, Wisconsin Returned Peace Corps Volunteers have created a kit designed to introduce global education to the classroom. The kit is targeted at grades 7 through 12, but may be adapted for elementary school. The 150-page teachers guide combines general exercises in discovering global linkages with activities focusing on individual countries and holidays. The 90- minute video features interviews with people from 12 countries, including Tunisia, Kenya, Peru, and Tonga.

For more information, contact: Returned Peace Corps Volunteers of Wisconsin, c/o Alan Weiner, 4581 W. Beltline # 110, Madison, WI 53711.


A plant conservation biologist is needed to develop a research program in conservation of the Caribbean Basin flora at the Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida. Fairchild Tropical Garden is a non-profit research institution and display botanical garden with an active endangered species program. The incumbent will develop inter-institutional cooperative agreements to enhance Caribbean plant conservation as well as seek funding for program development. Significant travel is involved. Salary is competitive.

Qualifications are: Ph.D. in biological sciences, with a strong background in botany and ecology. Experience in conservation-related research or equivalent: familiarity with Caribbean plant conservation issues; fluency in Spanish preferred. Starting date: mid-1993.

If interested, send cover letter and resume with names and phone numbers of three references before March 1, 1993 to: Dr. Jack Fisher, Chair of Botanical Sciences, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33156. Fax: (305) 665- 8032.

A graduate assistantship is available beginning June, 1993 to investigate the migratory behavior of the endangered nectivorous lesser long-tongued bat, Leptonycteris curasoae, using mtDNA sequence information. This project involves collaboration between the Universities of Maryland and Miami and the Arizona Department of Game and Fish. Appointment combines teaching and research assistantships with a 12-month stipend of at least $11,300 plus research allowance, health benefits, and waiver of tuition and fees. Prospective students should apply to the Department of Zoology Graduate Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 and contact Dr. Jerry Wilkinson (301) 405-6942 before March 1, 1993.


Environmental internships with the Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC are available for Spring or Summer semesters in the following program areas: agriculture, air quality, endangered species, global warming, international environment, nuclear weapons, public health, toxics, and water quality. Applicant should be a current student or a recent graduate with experience in environmental work, science, laws, policy issues, languages (especially Russian or Spanish), grassroots organizing. Research, writing and communication skills are required. College credit is available, but no salary offered. To apply send cover letter indicating programs and starting data preference, resume, writing sample, and transcript to: Intern Coordinator, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1350 New York Ave., N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005. Tel.: (202) 783- 7800. Apply at least threee months before preferred starting date.

The Tropical Forestry Program of the United States Forest Service recently funded a program for Mexican biologists, resource managers and natural resource students to participate in Forest Service management and research activities. This program will allow international exchange of information in technologies and philosophies for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds. Interns will receive housing, equipment and a living allowance from each Forest Service sponsor. The goal is for interns to use this knowledge to conduct conservation projects, workshops and training courses in Mexico.

For more information, contact: Mexican Intern Program, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 700 S. Knoles Dr., Flagstaff, Arizona 86001.


Anon. 1992. Anthrax outbreak threatens wildlife in Namibia. Focus 14(5): 3.

Anon. 1992. Biodiversity survey, inventory, and data organization effort underway. DIVERSITY 8(3): 20-21. (Proposed National Center for Research at the Smithsonian)

Anon. 1992. The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFF) of the Smithsonian Institution. ICBP Pan American Bull. 7(2): 5. (Brazil)

Anon. 1992. Bolivian debt-swap boosts conservation programs. Focus 14(5): 7.

Anon. 1992. Dignataries dedicate new state-of-the art seed laboratory, extol role it will play in conservation and research worldwide. DIVERSITY 8(3): 22-24. (Expansion of the U.S. National Seed Storage Laboratory, Fort Collins, Colorado)

Anon. 1992. Germplasm issues capture the spotlight at first international crop science congress. DIVERSITY 8(3): 10- 12.

Anon. 1992. Lista Oficial de Especies da Flora Brasileira Ameacadas de Extincao. Boletim dos Jardins Botanicos do Brasil 1: 25-28. (Portaria No. 006/92-N, 15 January 1992)

Anon. 1992. Marine conservation advances on Central America's Atlantic Coast. Focus 14(5): 3. (Belize & Panama)

Anon. 1992. New collaborative program will fund multidisciplinary teams to conserve biodiversity and undertake medicinal discoveries. DIVERSITY 8(3): 20. (International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups)

Anon. 1992. Red Data Books. ICBP Pan American Bull. 7(2): 1-2. (Describes bird red data books and their purpose)

Anon. 1992. Species-rich Guatemalan forests face increasing threats. Focus 14(5): 3. (Sierra de Las Minas)

Anon. 1992. U.S. House passes Wild Bird Conservation Act. Focus 14(5): 1.

Anon. 1992. Wood chip exports threaten Chile's forests. Focus 14(5): 3.

Anon. 1992. WWF launches protection effort for the Kodiak bear. Focus 14(5): 1,4. (Alaska)

Balslev, H. and Luteyn, J. (Eds.) 1992. Paramo. An Andean Ecosystem under Human Influence. Academic Press, New York, New York. 282 pp.

Barnett, A. 1992. Vanishing worlds of temperate forests. New Scientist 1846: 10.

Barry, D. 1992. Questions and answers about the Endangered Species Act. Focus 14(5): 4.

Basnet, K. 1992. Conservation practices in Nepal: past and present. Ambio 21(6): 390-393.

Becker, D., Krasny, M., Goff, G., Smith, C. and Gross, D. (Eds.) 1992. Challenges in the Conservation of Biological Resources - A Practitioner's Guide. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. (Based on symposium held in 1990)

Bennett, B. 1992. The Florida bromeliads: Guzmania monostachia. Bromeliad Soc. Bull. 5(71): 266-270. (Endangered Florida species)

Berlin, B. 1992. Ethnobiological Classification. Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 326 pp.

Benarde, M. 1992. Global Warning...Global Warming. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. 317 pp.

Bierregaard, J.R., Lovejoy, T., Kapos, V., Santos, A. and Hutchings, R. 1992. The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. BioScience 42(11): 859-866.

Breining, G. 1992. Back home on the range. Nature Conservancy November/December: 10-15. (Bison of Niobrara Valley Preserve, Nebraska)

Butler, R., Moyer, E., Hulon, M. and Williams, V. 1992. Littoral zone invertebrate communities as affected by habitat restoration project on Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. J. Freshwater Ecology 7(3): 317-328.

Casey, C. 1992. RNAs: lands left alone. Am. Forests 98(11-12): 44-45, 53-54. (Research natural areas of U.S. Forest Service)

Cleaver, K., et al. 1992. Conservation of West and Central African Rain Forests. World Bank, Washington, DC. (Selected papers from a conference organized by IUCN and the World Bank held in Abidjan, November 1990)

Cohn, J. 1992. Central and Eastern Europe aim to protect their ecological backbone. BioScience 42(11): 810-814.

Cole, K., Klick, K. and Pavlovic, N. 1992. Fire temperature monitoring during experimental burns at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Nat. Areas J. 12(4): 177-183.

Corlett, R. 1992. The ecological transformation of Singapore, 1819-1990. J. Biogeography 19: 411-420. (Human impact on an equatorial rain forest biota)

Cullen, J. and Smith, S. 1992. Cultivation and Propagation Methods for Plants in Botanic Gardens: A Sample Database. Horticultural Trust, Cambridge, England. 92 pp.

Dennis, A. 1992. Conservation of rare and threatened species in linear reserves. Victorian Naturalist 109(4): 121-125.

Dorfman, R. 1992. Potential AIDS drug from Malaysian rain forest. In the Field November/December: 1, 10.

Dubs, B. 1992. Birds of Southwestern Brazil. Catalogue and Guide to the Birds of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso and its Border Areas. Betrona - Beratungsstelle fur tropischen Naturschutz, Kusnacht, Switzerland. 164 pp.

Fabbri, P. (Ed.) 1992. Ocean Management in Global Change . Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, New York. 622 pp.

Fay, M. 1992. Weaning micropropagated plantlets. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(10): 41-42.

Fiedler, P. and Jain, S. (Eds.) 1992. Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York. 507 pp.

Frank, P. 1992. Conservation and ecology of the Anastasia Island beach mouse. End. Species Update 9(12): 9.

Gawlik, D. 1992. Conservation biology and the evolution of a land ethic. J. Raptor Research 26(3): 179-183.

Ghimire, K. 1992. Parks and People: Livelihood Issues in National Parks Management in Thailand and Madagascar. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, Switzerland.

Glosser, D. 1992. Illinois' endangered species program: an innovative approach. End. Species Update 9(12): 5-8.

Grehan, J. 1992. Biogeography and conservation in the real world. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 2(3): 96- 97.

Grove, N. 1992. The species you save may be your own. Am. Forests 98(11-12): 26-29.

Halloy, S. 1992. El programa de biodiversidad de Nueva Zelanda. Investigacion y conservacion de recursos geneticos sudamericanos. Yungas 2(3): 4-6. (Genetic diversity in Chile, Argentina, Costa Rica, Venezuela)

Hannah, L. 1992. African People, African Parks. USAID/Biodiversity Support Program/Conservation International, Washington, DC. (Madagascar, Kenya, Rwanda)

Hansson, L. (Ed.) Ecological Principles of Nature Conservation. Applications in Temperate and Boreal Environments . Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, New York. 436 pp.

Hardwick, L. 1992. Toward a stronger Endangered Species Act. Audubon Naturalist 18(9): 7-8.

Henderson, A. 1992. Literature on air pollution and lichens XXXVI. Lichenologist 24(4): 399-406.

Henderson, N. 1992. Wilderness and the nature conservation ideal: Britain, Canada, and the United States contrasted. Ambio 21(6): 394-399.

Hodel, D. 1992. Chamaedorea Palms. The Species and Their Cultivation. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas. 338 pp. (Conservation status listed)

Homer, S. 1992. The last hunt. On the trail with Paraguay's forest people. Nature Conservancy November/December: 24- 29. (Mbaracayu Nature Preserve)

International Council for Bird Preservation. 1992. Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Priority Areas for Global Conservation. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, England.

Jukofsky, D. 1992. Rainforest at risk. Am. Forests 98(11-12): 36-38. (Dam construction on Pacuare River, Costa Rica)

Kato, M., Kawakami, S. and Shimizu, H. (Eds.) 1991. Asian Botanical Gardens, Nature Conservation and Genetic Resources. Japan Association of Botanical Gardens, Tokyo, Japan. 168 pp. (Proceedings of the First Conference of International Association of Botanic Gardens Asian Division, May 1991)

Kaufman, L. 1992. Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems. BioScience 42(11): 846-858. (Lake Victoria)

Kirk, R. and Franklin, J. 1992. The Olympic Rain Forest: An Ecological Web. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. 129 pp.

Lamb, A. 1992. Orchid conservation in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo): a list of species of botanical and horticultural importance and interest and their conservation status. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(10): 44-47. (List of 453 species)

Lambelet, C. 1992. The 175 anniversary of the city of Geneva botanical conservatory and gardens. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(10): 48-50.

Langton, R. 1992. Species maintenance and the survival of the species. J. American Killifish Assoc. 25(3): 79-82.

Lesica, P. 1992. Autecology of the endangered plant Howellia aquatilis; implications for management and reserve design. Ecol. Applications 2(4): 411-421. (Swan Valley, Montana)

Lewis, T. 1992. The states seize power. Nat. Wildlife 31(1): 16-19. (States taking action on energy conservation)

Loiselle, B. and Blake, J. 1992. Population variation in a tropical bird community. BioScience 42(11): 838-845. (Implications for conservation)

Marcus, F. 1992. An optimistic sign for a rare species. New York Times (National Sect.) November 8: 31. (Pallid sturgeons in Mississippi River, Louisiana)

Marquard, R. 1992. Botanic gardens and arboreta "discover new horizons". DIVERSITY 8(3): 14-15.

Marr, K. 1992. Biosystematics of the endemic Hawaiian Lysimachia. The Bulletin 22(3): 69-74.

Martinez-Gomez, J. 1992. Raptor conservation in Veracruz, Mexico. J. Raptor Research 26(3): 184-188.

McNamee, T. 1992. Yellowstone's missing wolves. Defenders 67(6): 24-31.

Milius, S. 1992. Can anyone build this bird a home? Nat. Wildlife 31(1): 12-15. (Endangered light-footed clapper rail, Sweetwater Marsh, San Diego, California)

Miller, S. 1991. Biological diversity and the need to nurture systematics collections. Am. Entomologist 37(2): 76.

Monbiot, G. 1992. Amazon Watershed . Sphere Books, London, England. (Brazil)

Nepstad, D. and Schwartzman, S. (Eds.) 1992. Non-timber products from tropical forests. Evaluation of a conservation and development strategy. Advances in Econ. Bot. 9: 1-176. (Case studies from Amazonia, Africa, Southeast Asia)

Nguyen, T. 1992. Small-scale ideas for species maintenance. J. American Killifish Assoc. 25(3): 83-85.

Nordstrom, K. 1992. Estuarine Beaches. Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, New York. 225 pp. (An introduction to the physical & human factors affecting use & management of beaches in estuaries, lagoons, bays and fjords)

O'Brien, S., Hayden, B. and Shugart, H. 1992. Global climatic change, hurricanes, and a tropical forest. Climatic Change 22(3): 175-190.

Oates, J. 1992. Sclater's guenon - a rare Nigerian monkey threatened by deforestation. Research and Exploration (Nat. Geographic Soc.) 8(4): 476-491.

Parsons, M. 1992. Butterflies of the Bulolo-Wau Valley. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 262 pp. (Checklist of species and their conservation status, Papua New Guinea)

Pashby, P. 1992. The Humber Wildfowl Refuge: an experiment in wildfowl conservation. The Naturalist 1002(117): 81-98.

Podolsky, R. 1992. Remote sensing, geographic data and the conservation of biological resources. End. Species Update 9(12): 3-4.

Prendergast, H., Birouk, A. and Tazi, M. 1992. International team collects a rich trove of wild species in Morocco. DIVERSITY 8(3): 16-19.

Primack, R. 1992. Tropical community dynamics and conservation biology. BioScience 42(11): 818-821.

Primack, R. and Hall, P. 1992. Biodiversity and forest change in Malaysian Borneo. BioScience 42(11): 829-837.

Pringle, J. and McKean, B. 1992. Rare Wildflowers of Ontario. Royal Botanic Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 32 pp.

Ramberg, L. 1992. Wildlife conservation or utilization: new approaches in Africa. Ambio 21(6): 438-439.

Redford, K. and Padoch, C. (Eds.) 1992. Conservation of Neotropical Forests. Working from Traditional Resource Use. Columbia University Press, Irvington, New York. 475 pp.

Reiners, W. 1992. Twenty years of ecosystem reorganization following experimental deforestation and regrowth disturbance. Ecol. Monographs 62(4): 503-524. (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire)

Ritchie, M. 1992. Free trade versus sustainable agriculture: the implications of NAFTA. The Ecologist 22(5): 221-227. (North American Free Trade Agreement)

Rushing, K. 1992. American chestnut: the comeback tree? Audubon Naturalist 18(9): 4-5.

Saxena, N. 1992. Farm forestry and land-use in India: some policy issues. Ambio 21(6): 420-425.

Segedi, R. 1992. Ecotourism, one pathway to protection. Explorer (Cleveland Museum of Natural History) Fall: 12- 14.

Sherman-Broyles, S., et al. 1992. Comparisons of allozyme diversity among rare and widespread Rhus species. Syst. Bot. 17(4): 551-559. (North Carolina)

Siebeck, W. and Barton, J. 1992. The implications of applying the legal concept of trust to germplasm collections at CGIAR research centers. DIVERSITY 8(3): 29-35.

Slack, G. 1992. Natural law: Congress reconsiders the Endangered Species Act. Pacific Discovery 45(2): 22-31.

Slocombe, S. and Nelson, G. 1992. Management issues in hinterland national parks: a human ecological approach. Nat. Areas J. 12(4): 206-215.

Smil, V. 1992. China's environment in the 1980s: some critical changes. Ambio 21(6): 431-436.

Smith, A. 1992. Saving species in Tasmania. Roots 6: 16-19. (Botanic Gardens Conservation International Education Newsletter)

Smith, D. 1992. Environmental disturbances lead to disappearing butterflies. Audubon Naturalist 18(9): 1, 6.

Smith, M. 1992. Taking inventory of Caribbean wildlife. Marine Conservation News 4(4): 12, 14. (Center for Marine Conservation's Dominican Republic project)

Smith, N., Williams, J.T., Plucknett, D. and Talbot, J. 1992. Tropical Forests and Their Crops. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York. 568 pp.

Stolzenburg, W. 1992. The mussels' message. Nature Conservancy November/December: 16-23. (Threatened by stream pollution)

Stone, C., Smith, C. and Tunison, J. (Eds.) 1992. Alien Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii Management and Research. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 887 pp.

Sutcliffe, G. 1992. Perserving genetic diversity in killifish species maintenance. J. American Killifish Assoc. 25(3): 93-101.

Thin, N. 1992. The Cuc Phuong Botanical Garden, Vietnam. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(10): 31-33. (Rare and threatened trees)

Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute. 1992. Conserving Paphiopedilum druryi at Trivandrum, South India. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(10): 40.

Tyrrell, L. 1992. Characteristics, distribution, and management of old-growth forests on units of the National Park Service: results of a questionnaire. Nat. Areas J. 12(4): 198-205.

Vegas Velez, M. 1992. Eco-92: la convencion sobre biodiversidad. Medio Ambiente 7(51): 17, 36. (Peru)

Wallace, S. 1992. Introduction of Conradina glabra; a pilot project for the conservation of an endangered Florida endemic. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 1(10): 34-39.

Weber, D. 1992. Is there a need for species maintenance? J. American Killifish Assoc. 25(3): 75-78.

Wells, M., Brandon, K. and Hannah, L. 1992. People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. World Bank/WWF/USAID, Washington, DC.

Wexler, M. and Lewis, T. 1992. A monk on their backs. Nat. Wildlife 31(1): 44-49. (Rescuing the Hawaiian monk seal)

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