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Department ofBotany

No. 117
January 1993

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Katrina Brown

The Centre for Economic and Social Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE), based at the University of East Anglia and University College London in the UK has recently celebrated its first year anniversary. Funded by the UK Government's Economic and Social Research Council, the Centre undertakes policy- oriented research on global environmental issues focused on three main topics: loss of global biodiversity, climate change and institutional adaptation.

A recent project undertaken by CSERGE researchers and collaborators has sought to examine the range of values of medicinal plants. The study has involved the valuation of medicinal plants on a number of different levels. One aspect examines the global value of pharmaceuticals derived from medicinal plants, and attempts to quantify the monetary value of these and of the potential values which could be derived from as yet undiscovered substances isolated from plant material. Such values are often used to justify conservation projects, for example in tropical forests.

Within a developing country context, on the other hand, the use of medicinal plants within traditional medicinal systems is not only economically important, but also inextricably linked to cultural values concerning the relationship between humans and the natural environment, and beliefs on the natural and super- natural causes of disease. This in turn affects how people manage and conserve the environment. For example, in Ghana, areas of natural forest are preserved as sacred groves, where medicinal plants may be gathered by priests for use by the local community. Access and harvesting are strictly controlled. In addition, local collection and marketing of medicinal plants and cures may provide income for members of the rural community. This may be threatened by increasing commercialization and demands from urban areas resulting in over-exploitation and erosion of traditional management institutions. Research shows that property rights, both locally and globally in terms of intellectual property rights are extremely important in determining incentives to conserve valuable plants and their habitats.

The example of medicinal plants shows how environmental economics can play a role in many different aspects of the management and use of natural resources. Another important factor is in distinguishing the scale of costs and benefits; this can be illustrated by the tropical forest case: micro (local); meso (national/regional); macro (global). The developed countries naturally tend to put more emphasis on the global value of these resources, (hence the concentration of "global commons" at Rio), and this has implications in terms of policy formulation and implementation, especially in the light of current emphasis on global environmental issues, and the mechanisms for funding conservation.

For more information about CSERGE and details of publications, contact Kate Brown, Senior Research Associate, CSERGE, School of Environmental Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. Tel: (603) 593176; Fax: (603) 250588.


By Keith Bildstein

Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, the world's first refuge for birds of prey, was established in 1934 by Rosalie Edge to stop the slaughter of hawks and eagles migrating past a rocky promontory on the Kittatinny Ridge in eastern Pennsylvania. Since its founding, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary has played a key role in protecting North America's raptors and their essential habitats by developing grass-roots support for state and national anti- shooting and habitat-protection legislation.

Today, habitat destruction, environmental contaminants, and shooting continue to plague hawks and eagles elsewhere on their migratory journeys. In an attempt to address these problems -- many of which transcend international boundaries -- Hawk Mountain Sanctuary recently launched Hawks Aloft Worldwide international effort designed to formalize the Sanctuary's long- standing role as informal mentor to raptor conservation organizations and grass-roots activists elsewhere.

Knowing where and how hawks and eagles migrate is an essential prerequisite for their protection. Therefore, in its initial phase, Hawks Aloft Worldwide will identify and compile the first directory and atlas of internationally important hawk and eagle migration sites. Inclusion in the atlas will confer special status to migration sites, thereby strengthening local conservation efforts and stimulating the development of economically viable and ecologically sustainable centers of ecotourism.

It is widely recognized that effective conservation requires the enthusiastic support of domestic conservation organizations and grass-roots activists, and that training for both basic scientists and local conservationists is sorely needed in many countries through which hawks and eagles migrate. Therefore, in its second phase, Hawks Aloft Worldwide will provide training to help local organizations generate competent and productive conservation programs, thereby forging the global grass-roots coalition needed to protect hawks and eagles and their essential habitats throughout their migratory journeys. Given the ambitious nature of this aspect of the project, initial efforts in this area will focus on Latin America.

For more information, write: Keith Bildstein, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, RR 2, Box 191, Kempton, PA 19529; Tel: (215) 756-6961.


A documentary, Biosphere Reserves in Tropical America, produced by UNESCO and Conservation International shows that the economic needs of people can be fulfilled while protecting the earth's ecosystems. The video can be purchased for $14.95 plus $3.50 for handling and shipping, through Conservation International, 1015 18th Street N.W., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036. Please make checks payable to Conservation International. Outside the U.S., please send a money order with an additional $2.00 for shipping.


The Association of Systematics Collections announces the much awaited Second Edition of Controlled Wildlife I: Federal Permit Procedures, 1992. This guide, revised and updated since the 1984 edition, summarizes in common language the statutes that control the use of wildlife, as well as information on general permit procedures, addresses of key federal agencies, and samples of U.S. and foreign permits. By noting this reference, the book can be purchased for the discount price of $35 (regular price $40), valid through March 31. The original editions of Volume II: Federally Controlled Species, a listing of federally controlled animals and plants and the laws that control their use, and Volume III: State Permit Procedures, state wildlife laws, are still available for $40 each. The whole set - Volumes I, II, and III - is available for $100. Prepay to: The Association of Systematics Collections, 730 11th Street, N.W., Second Floor, Washington, DC 20001-4521; Tel: (202) 347-2850.


The Coastal Resources Center at the University of Rhode Island will be sponsoring a Spanish-language training program, "Manejo de Areas Especiales en Zonas Costeras" April 25 - May 8 at Escuela Superior Politecna del Litoral in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The course will provide participants with practical skills to design and implement special area management plans for coastal areas and environments. Course fee: $1,900 (including food and lodging). For more information, contact: The Training Coordinator, Coastal Resources Center, The University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Bay Campus, Narragansett, RI 92882; Fax: (401) 789-4670.

The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) is offering two courses in 1993. The first, "An Intensive Field-oriented Introduction to Tropical Diversity in Rainforest, Seasonally Dry Forest and Cloud Forest Ecosystems", will be conducted August 2-26 in Costa Rica at OTS operated field stations in lowland rainforest (La Selva) and seasonally dry forest (Palo Verde) and at a mid-elevation site (Volcan Cacao in Guanacaste National Park). Enrollment is limited to 22. Applicants are selected on the basis of background and goals related to the objectives of the course. Priority is given to superior applicants who are enrolled in, or accepted for, graduate programs at OTS member institutions. Some slots (about 25%) may be available for students from non-OTS member institutions, as well as recent Ph.D.s who seek professional training in the tropics.

Application deadline: April 15, 1993. Announcement of selections: May 15th. For information on fees, write: OTS, P. O. Box DM, Duke Station, NC 27706.

The second course, "Tropical Diversity", is a collaborative effort involving the Smithsonian Institution, Brazil's Universidade Estadual de Campinas and OTS and is open to students from non-OTS institutions. To be held in Brazil August 4- September 3, the field course will emphasize the tropical ecology of Amazon rainforests, including the upland forests near Manaus and the flooded forests of Rio Amazonas and Rio Negro. Tuition and travel will be provided. Application deadline: March 1 (early); April 1 (final). For information and application materials, write: Prof. W.W. Benson, Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, 6109, 13.081, Campinas, SP, Brazil.


March 26-29. "Celebrating the Diversity of Life", sponsored by The Endangered Species Coalition, will be held at the Sheraton City Center Hotel, Washington, DC. The conference will bring together activists, environmental organization staff, scientists and legislators to discuss the Endangered Species Act's (ESA) achievements and what can be done to ensure a strong ESA for the future. Registration fee: $75. For more information, write: "Celebrating the Diversity of Life", National Aududon Society, 666 Pennsylvania Ave., S.E., Washington, DC 20003; Tel: (202) 547-9009.

April 20-22. The Center for Plant Conservation is hosting a conference on Plant Translocation at the Clarion Hotel in St. Louis, Missouri. The goal of the conference is production of a consensus policy document that can serve as a guide to all plant conservationists regarding reintroduction and translocation of plants for conservation purposes. For more information, contact, The Center for Plant Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299.


Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, the world's first refuge for birds of prey, is looking for a bilingual (Spanish-English) individual with at least a master's degree in conservation biology, wildlife management, or a related biological discipline to coordinate the project's activities in Central and South America. The incumbent will work closely with Hawk Mountain staff in Pennsylvania on the project.

Principal duties of the position include: 1) corresponding with Latin American ornithologists; 2) assembling and summarizing data contributed by scientists, conservationists, and wildlife activists from throughout Latin America; 3) producing descriptions of sites for the Hawks Aloft Worldwide atlas; and 4) developing bilingual training materials for the project participants in Latin America. Persons familiar with the Latin American ornithological and conservation communities, especially those who have traveled extensively in the region, are encouraged to apply. The 2-year temporary consultancy will begin in the Spring of 1993. For additional information, contact Keith L. Bildstein, Hawks Aloft Worldwide Director, Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, RR 2, Box 191, Kempton, PA 19529; Tel: (215) 756-6951; Fax: (215) 756-4468.


Anon. 1993. Conservation challenge in Brazil. Living Bird 12(1): 6. (More bird species are at risk in the dry habitats of the Sao Paulo interior than in the rain forest)

Anon. 1992. Fevers run high over rhino horns. Pacific Discovery 45(1): 5. (New technique to discern area of origin & species of rhino from horn samples may open regulated trade)

Anon. 1992. Helping improve Asia's parks and communities. Focus 14(6): 2. (Thailand)

Anon. 1992. New registry increases protection of Hammel Glade Preserve. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland 16(4): 6. (Maryland area harbors many rare species of plants & animals)

Anon. 1992. A rare kind of homecoming. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland 16(4): 3. (Canby's dropwort reintroduced to Delmarva Peninsula)

Anon. 1992. Rhinos maintain tenuous hold in the wild. Focus 14(6): 3.

Anon. 1992. Upsurge in poaching threatens black rhinos in Zimbabwe. Focus 14(6): 1,3.

Anon. 1992. WWF launches South Pacific Program. Focus 14(6): 1,4. (Conservation of biodiversity in the South Pacific)

Allan, D. and Flecker, A. 1992. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience 43(1): 32-43.

Alten, M. 1993. Antarctica. An uncertain future for the land of penguins. Living Bird 12(1): 20-23, 26-27.

Anderson, I. 1992. Pests in the post threaten crops in Hawaii. New Scientist 136(1848): 10. (Insect pests which arrive through the mail system are damaging native vegetation, including endangered species)

Aylward, B. and Barbier, E. 1992. What is Biodiversity Worth to a Developing Country? Capturing the Pharmaceutical Value of Species Information. London Environmental Economics Centre, London, England. 17 pp.

Barbour, M. and Whitworth, V. 1992. California's grassroots: native or European? Pacific Discovery 45(1): 8-15. (1250 higher plant species are native & restricted to California)

Beardsell, D. and Beardsell, C. 1992. A rare new Caladenia species from central Victoria, and its relationship with other recently described taxa in south-eastern Australia. Australian Syst. Bot. 5(5): 513-520. (Orchid, Caladenia xanthochila, on the verge of extinction)

Bechtel, H., Cribb, P. and Launert, E. 1992. The Manual of Cultivated Orchid Species. Third Edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 585 pp. (Lists of endangered orchids)

Beech, R. 1992. State license plate programs for endangered species and the environment. End. Species Update 10(1): 5- 8. (Maryland, Connecticut, Virginia, Florida, California, West Virginia)

Behler, D. 1993. Bad news for Sumatran rhinos. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 7. (One of the rarest and most threatened large mammals in the world)

Bhushan, B. 1992. Red data bird - Jerdon's courser. World Birdwatch 14(4): 12. (Andhra Pradesh)

Bibby, C., Collar, N., Crosby, M., Heath, M., Imboden, Ch., Johnson, T., Long, A., Stattersfiled, A. and Thirgood, S. 1992. Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Priority Areas for Global Conservation. International Council for Bird Preservation, Girton, England. 90 pp.

Blauert, J. and Guidi, M. 1992. Local initiatives in southern Mexico. Ecologist 22(6): 284-288. (Indigenous peoples vs. development)

Bonney, R. 1993. Taking charge. Living Bird 12(1): 8- 9. (Bird conservationists can save habitats)

Bourgeois, A. 1992. The clearcutting issues: it's not clear cut. Virginia Wildlife December: 8-11.

Brown, K. 1992. Medicinal Plants, Indigenous Medicine and Conservation of Biodiversity in Ghana. Centre for Economic and Social Research on the Global Environment, Norwich, England. (Working Paper, GEC 92-36)

Buchler, H. 1992. Population and conservation status of flamingos in Mar Chicita, Cordoba, Argentina. Colonial Waterbirds 15(2): 179-184.

Burgess, N. 1992. Tanzania - more than savanna. World Birdwatch 14(4): 10-11. (22 threatened species, second most important country in mainland Africa for bird conservation)

Callister, D. 1992. Illegal Tropical Timber Trade: Asia- Pacific. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, England. 83 pp.

Cassady, J. and Cornell, M. 1992. Managing and resolving conflict in national parks. Resolve 25: 1, 3-8.

Chao, N. 1993. Conservation of Rio Negro ornamental fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist January: 99-116. (Brazil)

Co, L. and Tan, B. 1992. XIII. Botanical exploration in Palanan Wilderness, Isabela Province, the Philippines: first report. Flora Malesiana Bull. 11(1): 49-53.

Coffman, D. 1992. Virginia's stewards of the forest. Virginia Wildlife December: 5.

Collar, N. 1992. A red data book for the Americas. World Birdwatch 14(4): 8-9.

Cooper, D., Vellve, R. and Hobbelink, H. (Eds.) 1992. Growing Diversity: Genetic Resources and Local Food Security. Intermediate Technology Publications, London, England. 166 pp.

Craig, R. 1992. Territoriality, habitat use and ecological distinctness of an endangered Pacific Island reed-warbler. J. Field Ornithology 63(4): 436-444.

Crouch, V. 1992. "Every species counts": U.S. Forest Service and Natural Heritage Network cooperation. Biodiversity Network News 5(3): 1-2, 7.

Davis, L. and Sherman, R. 1992. Ecological study of the rare Chorizanthe valida (Polygonaceae) at Point Reyes National Seashore. Madrono 19(4): 271-280.

de Lama, G. 1992. At the Presidio, a new environment. Washington Post December 27: A26. (Army base to be converted into a global environmental research center)

Diem, A. 1992. Clearcutting British Columbia. Ecologist 22(6): 261-266.

Dole, J. and Sun, M. 1992. Field and genetic survey of the endangered Butte County meadowfoam -Limnanthes floccosa subsp. californica (Limnanthaceae). Cons. Biology 6(4): 549-558.

Ehrenfeld, D. 1992. Conservation and economic unification. Cons. Biology 6(4): 483-484.

Eldredge, M. 1992. Draft zoning plan for Florida Keys announced. Sanctuary Currents Fall: 3.

Eldredge, M. 1992. Stellwagen Bank becomes a sanctuary! Sanctuary Currents Fall: 2. (Massachusetts)

Eldredge, N. (Ed.) 1992. Systematics, Ecology and the Biodiversity Crisis. Columbia University Press, New York, New York. 220 pp.

Gallegas, D. 1992. Asociacion Ornithologia del Plata. World Birdwatch 14(4): 13. (Protection of birds in Argentina)

Garelik, G. 1992. This continent of marvels. Int. Wildlife 23(1): 42-51. (Loren McIntyre's travels in South America)

Gliessman, S. 1992. Agroecology in the tropics - achieving a balance between land use and preservation. Environ. Management 16(6): 681-690.

Goodman, S. and Ghafoor, A. 1992. The ethnobotany of southern Balochistan, Pakistan, with particular reference to medicinal plants. Fieldiana Botany, New Series 31: 1-84.

Gunatilleke, N. 1992. Tourist hotels in environmentally sensitive areas. Loris 19(5): 162-165.

Hager, M. 1993. Deep in the flooded forest. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 52-63. (Brazilian Amazon)

Hancock, J., Kushlan, J. and Kahl, M. 1992. Storks, Ibises and Spoonbills of the World. Academic Press, Troy, Missouri. 385 pp. ( 49 species, 13 of which are globally threatened)

Hawkes, J. 1992. Gene banking strategies for botanic gardens. Opera Botanica 113: 15-18.

Heywood, V. 1992. Botanic gardens and conservation: new perspectives. Opera Botanica 113: 9-14.

Hoffman, T. 1992. Environment and tourism. Loris 19(5): 158-161.

Hyman, R. 1992. Check the fine print, mate. Int. Wildlife 23(1): 20-23. (Fingerprinting: strategy for saving koalas)

Imboden, C. and Won, P.-O. 1992. ICBP in Asia. World Birdwatch 14(4): 6-7. (Asia has 1/3 of the world's threatened birds)

Jacobson, S. and Robles, R. 1992. Ecotourism, sustainable development, and conservation education - development of a tour guide training program in Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Environ. Management 16(6): 701-714.

Johansen, B. and Rasmussen, H. 1992. Ex situ conservation of orchids. Opera Botanica 113: 43-44.

Kareiva, P., Kingsolver, J. and Huey, R. (Eds.) 1992. Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 560 pp.

Kartesz, J. 1992. Preliminary counts for native vascular plant species of U. S. states and Canadian provinces. Biodiversity Network News 5(3): 6.

Kattel, B. 1992. A review of conservation legislation in Nepal. Environ. Management 16(6): 723-734.

Keller, B. 1992. Africa thinks about making wildlife pay for its survival. New York Times December 27: E3. (Sustainable utilization)

Kenworthy, T. 1992. Endangered species rules streamlined. Washington Post December 16: A1, A10.

Kenyon, I. 1992. Forest stewardship. A gift that endures. Virginia Wildlife December: 1-3.

Kenyon, I. 1992. A forest never stands still. Virginia Wildlife December: 8-11. (Forest management, Virginia)

Kindscher, K. 1992. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 340 pp.

King, S. 1992. First in the ancient Americas. Pacific Discovery 45(1): 23-31. (Foods and medicines that changed the world)

Krogstrup, P., Baldursson, S. and Norgaard, J. 1992. Ex situ genetic conservation by use of tissue culture. Opera Botanica 113: 45-54.

Lamberson, R., McKelvey, R., Noon, B. and Voss, C. 1992. A dynamic analysis of northern spotted owl viability in a fragmented forest landscape. Cons. Biology 6(4): 505-512.

Lehmann, M. 1992. The TCD Program and student enrollment: a view to the past and a look into the future. TCD Newsletter 26: 1-3. (Tropical Conservation and Development Program at University of Florida)

Lindburg, D. and Gledhill, L. 1992. Captive breeding and conservation of lion-tailed macaques. End. Species Update 10(1): 1-4, 10.

MacKnight, J. and Frantz, V. 1992. The venus flytrap trade in North and South Carolina, USA. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(2): 68- 72.

Martin, P. 1992. Observations on wildlife trade in Viet Nam. TRAFFIC Bull. 13(2): 61-67.

McConahay, M. 1993. Sweet waist of America. Sierra 78(1): 50-53. (Central American parks)

McCoy, E. and Mushinsky, H. 1992. Rarity of organisms in the sand pine scrub habitat of Florida. Cons. Biology 6(4): 537-548.

Meagher, W. and Tonsor, S. 1992. Checklist of the vascular flora of the Augusta floodplain preserve. Michigan Botanist 31(3): 83-98. (Floodplain forest is rare in Michigan)

Morefield, J. 1992. Nevada rare plant law protects an endangered buckwheat. Biodiversity Network News 5(3): 4. (Eriogonum ovalifolium var. williamsiae)

Neil, W. 1992/93. New Jersey conservation report. New Jersey Audubon 18(4): 8-10.

Novacek, M. and Wheeler, Q. (Eds.) 1992. Extinction and Phylogeny. Columbia University Press, New York. 253 pp.

O'Donnell, F. 1993. Conservation, Inc. Nature Conservancy 43(1): 26-33. (Corporate America turns on to the environment

Ogden, J. 1992. The impact of Hurricane Andrew on the ecosystems of South Florida. Cons. Biology 6(4): 488-492.

Oli, M. 1993. Snow cats. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 38-42, 80. (Snow leopards declining in Nepal)

Oliver, J. 1993. Stalking the wild flora. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 14. (Flora of Pennsylvania project at Morris Arboretum)

Orr Jr., O. 1992. Saving American Birds: T. Gilbert Pearson and the Founding of the Audubon Movement. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 296 pp.

Pearce, D. and Puroshothaman, S. 1992. Protecting Biological Diversity: The Economic Value of Pharmaceutical Plants. Centre for Economic and Social Research on the Global Environment, Norwich, England. (Working Paper, GEC 92-27)

Peng, C.-I. (Ed.) 1992. The biological resources of Taiwan: a status report. Inst. Botany, Academia Sinica Monograph Series 11: 1-349.

Petrof, D. 1992. Siberian forests under threat. Ecologist 22(6): 267-270.

Pokras, M. 1993. Get the lead out. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 15. (Loons declining in New England & Canada from ingesting contaminants, such as lead fishing sinkers)

Pollock, S. 1992. Bureaucrats turn to bioregions. Pacific Discovery 45(1): 6-7. (Environmental protection plans for regions in California)

Sawhill, J. 1993. Building a sustainable future. Nature Conservancy 43(1): 5-9.

Schumacker, R. 1992. Endangered bryophytes in Europe: a critical approach. Revue de Botanique(New Series) 139: 1- 22.

Searle, R. 1993. North America's wildest river. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 8. (Tatshenshini River, British Columbia threatened by mining)

Segedi, R. 1992. Ecotourism and the environment. Explorer Fall: 12-14.

Shevcock, J., Ertter, B. and Taylor, D. 1992. Neviusia cliftonii (Rosaceae:Kerrieae), an intriguing new relict species from California. Novon 2(4): 285-289. (Rare endemic of Shasta Lake area threatened by mining)

Siegfried, W. 1992. Conservation status of South African endemic avifauna. South African J. Wildlife Research 22(2): 61-64.

Simberloff, D., Farr, J., Cox, J. and Mehlman, D. 1992. Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investments? Cons. Biology 6(4): 493-504.

Sobel, J. 1992. Congress authorizes marine sanctuary program for the next four years! Sanctuary Currents Fall: 1, 7.

Steinhart, P. 1993. Mud wrestling. Sierra 78(1): 60- 62. (US wetlands)

Strid, A. and Tan, K. 1992. Flora Hellenica and the threatened plants of Greece. Opera Botanica 113: 55-68.

Terwilliger, K. 1992. No land is an island. Virginia Wildlife December: 6-7. (Forest management, Virginia)

Thorbjarnarson, J. 1993. Crocodile comeback. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 10. (Orinoco crocodile, Venezuela)

Tscharntke, T. 1992. Fragmentation of Phragmites habitats, minimum viable population size, habitat suitability, and local extinction of moths, midges, flies, aphids, and birds. Cons. Biology 6(4): 530-536.

Valicenti, T. 1993. L'ours brun. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 10. (Only 9 brown bears left in the French Pyrenees)

van Sloten, D. and Reid, R. 1992. IBPGR's experience in ex situ conservation and the possible role of botanic gardens. Opera Botanica 113: 19-24.

Vaughan, D. and Chang, T.-T. 1992. In situ conservation of rice genetic resources. Econ. Bot. 46(4): 368-383.

Verde, T. 1993. Caribbean nightlight. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 72-73, 78. (Conservation efforts to save Mosquito Bay off Puerto Rican islands of Vieques)

Wallace, D. 1992. The Klamath surprise. Wilderness 56(199): 10-21, 31-33. (California/Oregon: area of high biodiversity)

Wells, P. and Bewers, J. 1992. Progress and trends in marine environmental protection: an introduction and tribute to Michael Waldichuk. Marine Pollution Bull. 25(1-4): 3-5.

Wharton, D. 1993. A plan for the snow leopard's survival. Wildlife Conservation 96(1): 43. (Snow Leopard Species Survival Plan established by the American Association of Zoological Parks & Aquariums)

White, M. 1993. Paradise restored? Replanting the "Great Swamp" of Arkansas. Living Bird 12(1): 10-15.

Wille, C. 1993. Riches from the rain forest. Nature Conservancy 43(1): 10-17. (Costa Rica)

Wille, C. 1992. Standing up for sitting ducks. Int. Wildlife 23(1): 30-37. (Whistling duck program, El Salvador)

Williamson, D. and Cheater, M. 1993. Winning the West. Nature Conservancy 43(1): 18-25. (Utah, Idaho, Montana)

Wind, P. 1992. Threatened plants in Denmark. Opera Botanica 113: 69-72.

Wright, L. 1992. A Beverly Hills big shot. Urban Forests 12(6): 21. (Torrey pine, rarest pine in USA)

Yoffe, E. 1992. Silence of the frogs. New York Times Magazine December 13(Section 6): 36-38, 64-66, 76.

Yoon, C. 1992. Alien species threaten Hawaii's environment. New York Times (The Environment) December 29: C4.

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