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Department ofBotany

No. 123
July 1993

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Despite over forty years of environmental damage due to central planning, the Czech and Slovak Republics host a remarkable variety of birdlife. Several private groups have diligently been working to preserve many bird species and their habitats. While the past three years of democratic governance have seen an increase in bird protection activities, and the passage of a general environmental law and a republic-level Nature Protection Act, environmental agencies in both republics have yet to demonstrate their commitment to enforcing these new acts. Non-governmental organizations therefore will continue to play a critical role in future bird protection efforts.

Following are several of the key organizations and their activities. The Czech Ornithological Society is the oldest and largest NGO for bird research and study in the Czech Republic. The Slovak Ornithological Society is the sister organization in Slovakia. Both organizations are oriented towards research into such issues as population dynamics, migration patterns, and ecology. They also focus on specific taxa or species and efforts to educate the public about birds.

The Moravian Ornithological Association serves both repub. lics and is involved in bird research and preservation. The "Green Hotline," which provides emergency or long-term care for injured animals, and the Aves Foundation, which supports projects to educate the public, conduct research, and protect endangered species and crucial habitat, are both creations of the Moravian Ornithological Association.

Project Falco (initiated by the Club for Protection of Owls and Birds of Prey) guards the nests of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Slovakia from bird traders who steal and sell the falcon's eggs and chicks. The project, initiated in 1990 with 100 volunteers, grew to more than 300 volunteers by 1992 and has received support from the World Wildlife Fund International.

The White Stork Specialist Group, established in 1981, is continuing a population study of the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) that began in 1934. A 50% decrease in the population in Slovakia over the last fifty years is thought to be linked to a decrease in the reproduction rate, and the destruction of the storks and their nests by electrocution or destruction by elec. tric companies when they try to nest on electric utility poles.

The above are only a few examples of the wide range of activities currently carried out within the Czech and Slovak Republics. Other projects include a project to reestablish White-tailed Eagles to southern Bohemia, Black Stork and Red- spotted Bluethroat research, and many other research and protection projects. Despite initial successes, many projects suffer from a lack of adequate financial resources and full-time professional staffs.


The Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research (ACCSTR) at the University of Florida has developed the "Sea Turtle Bibliographic Database" which can be accessed worldwide free of charge via Internet. This on-line bibliography includes all aspects of sea turtle biology, conservation and management. Citations are from recognized bibliographic sources, as well as the "gray literature." The database is continually being edited and updated. To help maintain a comprehensive library, reprints of any sea turtle publications will be appreciated.

The ACCSTR has also established CTURTLE--an electronic mail conference and bulletin board to improve communication among individuals around the world who are interested in sea turtle biology and conservation. CTURTLE is a LISTSERV managed e-mail list on BITNET. Participation in CTURTLE is free of charge and the possibilities for and benefits of information exchange are enormous. CTURTLE provides the opportuinty to respond to conservation issues when time is a critical factor.

For further information regarding the Sea Turtle Bibliographic Database and CTURTLE write or call: Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research, Bartram Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Fax: (904) 392-9166; E-mail (Internet):


Calvin R. Sperling, Ph.D., of the National Germplasm Resources Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Agriculture was named recipient of the Richard Evans Schultes Award for his outstanding contributions to the field of ethnobotany on June 14, 1993. The award honors Harvard Professor Emeritus Richard Evans Schultes, co-author ofThe Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia, and widely recognized as the Father of Ethnobotany. "Calvin Sperling," said Schultes, "is one of the foremost ethnobotanists today due to his consistent excellence in field research and to his extensive work to conserve biological diversity and to improve crop plants worldwide." Sperling was recognized for his comprehensive work as a field ethnobotanist in the preservation of genetic resources and the ethnobotany of economic plants.


The Papua New Guinea Conservation Needs Assessment Report, examines and explains the Conservation Needs Assessment (CNA) for Papua New Guinea requested by the government of Papua New Guinea and funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The CNA was implemented by the Biodiversity Support Program, a USAID-funded consortium of the World Wildlife Fund, World Resources Institute, and The Nature Conservancy, in collaboration with local and international NGOs, museums, and academic institutions. The assessment compiled an extensive body of the available scientific literature on the biodiversity of Papua New Guinea and assessed the present state of knowledge, conditions, trends, and environmental threats. A CNA workshop was then conducted in Papua New Guinea to discuss the findings, consider a range of recommendations for conservation initiatives, and develop a process for information sharing and concensus decision making. Volume 1 contains reports on conservation issues and opportunities in Papua New Guinea and includes assessments of information management needs. It also includes a summary of material presented and discussed at the CNA workshop and maps of biodiversity in Papua New Guinea, the points of agreement among participants, issues remaining to be resolved, and a detailed set of recommendations for action. Volume 2 presents the technical reports of the natural scientists on the biological diversity of Papua New Guinea, and includes extensive documentation of the available scientific literature on Papua New Guinea's biota. To receive more information about the full two volume report, contact: Janis B. Alcorn, Program Manager, Biodiversity Support Program, c/o World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20037. Tel: (202) 293-4800; Fax: (202) 293-9211.

The Fisheries Conservation Program of the Center for Marine Conservation has just put out a booklet entitled Fish for the Future: A Citizen's Guide to Federal Marine Fisheries Management. The guide is aimed at citizens who are concerned about maintaining the integrity of oceans and coastal communities; it encourages people to take an active role in the fishery management process. The Citizen's Guide provides people with the tools to advocate conservation through fishery management. This document is available through the Center for Marine Conservation for $7.95 per copy. For further information, or to request a copy, contact: David Allison, Director of the Fisheries Conservation Program, Center for Marine Conservation, 1725 DeSales St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Tel: (202) 429- 5609.


The Center for Field Research (CFR) invites proposals for conservation biology research to be conducted in 1994. CFR recommends projects to the funding organization Earthwatch. Earthwatch recruits nonspecialist, English-speaking volunteers to assist scientists with data collection. Field grants average $15,000 when 20 Earthwatch volunteers are utilized over the course of a field research session. Proposals should be received one year in advance of anticipated field dates. For more information contact Dee Robbins, Program Director, The Center for Field Research, 680 Mt. Auburn Street, Watertown, MA 02171. Tel: (617) 926-8200; Fax: (617) 926-8532.


A timely 35-minute video, Promising Approaches to Tropical Forest Management in Latin America, shows how natural forest management can provide a viable alternative to deforestation in the humid tropics. Through interviews with experts and footage of ongoing natural forest management projects in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador, the video describes how tropical forests can be sustainably managed for timber and other products. Such use can maintain a high level of biological diversity while providing a competitive economic return to those who would otherwise convert the forest to cropland or pasture. The video is a useful resource for organizations concerned with promoting forest conservation, and an ideal educational tool that introduces the many ways in which standing forests are valuable. The video, available in English and Spanish, is being distributed by the Tropical Forest Management Trust, at $18 each. Checks should be made to Tropical Forest Management Trust, Inc., 6124 SW 30th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32608. Tel. (904) 331-2007; Fax (904) 331-3284.

Video tapes on the colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) on Tanaxpillo Island in Lake Catemaco, Veracruz State, Mexico are available. The tapes document some of the logistics and methods used in a study on the social ecology of stumptail macaques and aspects of their behavior and ecology. Copies of the tape may be purchased for $18. Contact Larry Guss, Guss Adventure Travel Productions, 5319 Strathmore Avenue, Kensington, MD 20895. Tel: (301) 933-3337.


August 24-26. "Creating A Forestry for the 21 Century: A Landmark Symposium," sponsored by the Olympic Natural Resources Center at the University of Washington, will be held in Portland, Oregon. This landmark forestry symposium will bring together some of the best creative thinkers in the field to explore what kind of forestry we might create for this and the next century, based on what we have learned over the last few decades. The symposium will examine the state of our knowledge with respect to forest systems and explore the implications of that knowledge of forest management, planning, and policy. The event will include plenary sessions, displays, demonstrations, discussion sessions, and field trips and will culminate in the production of a book. Registration: $330. For more information, contact: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, AR-10, Continuing Education Program, Seattle, WA 98195. Tel: (206) 543-0867; Fax: (206) 685-0790.


The South American Regional Office of the IUCN (The World Conservation Union) is looking for a Programme Officer in the Species and Protected Areas. The post will be based at the Regional Office in Quito, Ecuador. The candidate will work closely with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) and Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA) to promote linkages and networks between these programmes, other IUCN programmes in the area, and governments and NGOs working on protected area and wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Other tasks include: promoting the production of appropriate publications in Spanish and Portuguese; promoting the implementation of recommendations arising from SSC and CNPPA; supporting the work of international conventions and agreements; and data management. Qualifications: advanced degree in biological sciences, field experience in biological diversity conservation and/or protected area management; minimum five years professional experience in South America; good command of Spanish, English, and preferably Portuguese; editing experience; and a willingness to travel. For more information, or to apply, send a curriculum vitae, a writing sample, and names and addresses of three references to: IUCN-Head of Personnel, 28 rue Mauverney, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland, before 15 August 1993. Fax: ++41-22/ 999.00.10.

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Unit of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is looking for a Principal Technical Advisor on Biodiversity Conservation. The post is based in New York. The candidate will provide technical guidance with developing and implementing UNDP's GEF biodiversity portfolio and conservation projects, and will work with developing country governments, UNDP Field Offices, the World Bank, NGOs and the private sector to ensure the excellence of the GEF biodiversity portfolio. Qualifications: post-graduate degree and leadership in biodiversity conservation; 10 years work experience in biodiversity conservation project design and implementation in developing countries; fluency in English and at least one other major language; familiarity with the Biodiversity Convention; and computer skills. For more information, or to apply, send a curriculum vitae and three professional references to: Virginia Ravndal, GEF Unit, United Nations Development Programme, 304 E. 45th Street, New York, NY 10017 no later than August 5. Fax: (212) 906-6998; e-mail via Internet:

The Association of Systematics Collections has received a grant from the MacArthur Foundation to support the exchange of library and archives resources in the field of systematics with Cuban institutions and scientists. ASC institutions in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico may participate, and ASC will serve as a resource for the Center for Marine Conservation, RARE Center for Tropical Conservation, and the New York Botanical Garden. ASC is looking for a half-time person to manage the project. Applicant must be familiar with natural history museums and their libraries and/or archives, and be knowledgable in the resource needs of systematic biology and related fields. Computer literacy required, Spanish skills preferable. For more information, or to apply, fax a resume to or contact immediately: Dr. K. Elaine Hoagland, Executive Director, ASC, 730 11th Street N.W., Second Floor, Washington, D.C. 20001. Tel: (202) 347-2850; Fax: (202) 347-0072. It is possible that ASC will be able to offer a full- time salary if another grant is funded in September.


Albert, D. 1993. Use of landscape ecosystems for species inventory and conservation. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 20-25.

Allmon, W., Rosenberg, G., Portell, R. and Schindler, K. 1993. Diversity of Atlantic Coastal Plain mollusks since the Pliocene. Science 260(5114): 1626-1628.

Anon. 1993. Ethiopia request endangered species assistance from IUCN. Int. Wildlife 23(4): 28. (Plan to save Ethiopian wolf and two antelope species)

Anon. 1993. Final listing rules. End. Species Techn. Bull. 18(1): 15. (Endangered Species Act protection given to Karner blue butterfly and 5 Idaho snails)

Anon. 1993. Historic management agreement reached with Baltimore Gas & Electric Company. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland 17(2): 3. (Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, home to several endangered beetles)

Anon. 1993. Listing proposals - December 1992. End. Species Techn. Bull. 18(1): 4-6. (38 plants and 3 fishes proposed to be listed as endangered or threatened in the USA)

Anon. 1993. Weeding program first step in restoration on Mauritius Island. Int. Wildlife 23(4): 28. (Round Island)

Anon. 1993. World data centres and international oceanographic data exchange. IMS Newsletter (66): 6.

Baard, E. 1992. Is legal protection of reptiles and amphibians in the Cape Province contributing to their conservation? Herpetological Association of Africa (41): 4-8.

Backstrand, N. and Lathrop, E. 1993. The Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. Fremontia 22(2): 18-22.

Barker, R. 1993. The wild, wild east. Buzzworm 5(3): 46-51. (Kamchatka, Russia's "Yellowstone")

Barnes, B. 1993. Landscape ecosystem approach and conservation of endangered spaces. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 13-19.

Boza, M. 1993. Conservation in action: past, present, and future of the national park system in Costa Rica. Conservation Biology 7(2): 239-247.

Carrascal, L., Bautista, L. and Lazaro, E. 1993. Geographical variation in the density of the white stork Ciconia ciconia in Spain: influence of habitat structure and climate. Biological Conservation 65(1): 83-87. (Endangered)

Daniel, J. 1993. A chance to do it right: the national parks of Alaska. Wilderness 56(201): 11-25, 30-33.

Datta, T. and Pal, B. 1993. The effect of human interference on the nesting of the openbill stork Anastomus oscitans at the Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Biological Conservation 64(2): 149-154.

Davis, D. and Recher, H. 1993. Notes on the breeding biology of the Regent Honeyeater. Corella 17(1): 1-4. (Endangered)

Devine, B. 1993. What's really out there? Int. Wildlife 23(4): 44-51. (Canada's Tatshenshini watershed threatened by proposed copper mine)

Ecological Society of America. 1993. Program and abstracts of the 78th Annual ESA meeting, "Ecology and Global Sustainability.". Bull. of the Ecological Soc. of America 74(2): 1-520. (Meeting held 31 July-4 Aug)

Fiedler, P., Leidy, R., Laven, R., Gershenz, N. and Saul, L. 1993. Contemporary paradigm in ecology and its implications for endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 7-12.

Franklin, J. 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3(2): 202-205.

Frith, C. and Frith, D. 1993. Results of a preliminary highland bird banding study at Tari Gap, Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea. Corella 17(1): 5-21.

Fritz, R. and Merriam, G. 1993. Fencerow habitats for plants moving between farmland forests. Biological Conservation 64(2): 141-148.

Galindo-Leal, C., Morales, A. and Weber, M. 1993. Distribution and abundance of Coves deer and cattle in Michilia Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 38(2): 127-135.

Gershenz, N. and Saul, L. 1993. Ecosystem survival plan: zoo visitors save wild places. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 61.

Gillis, A. 1993. Keeping traditions on the menu. BioScience 43(7): 425-431.

Glazer, M. 1993. Protecting California's white sharks. Marine Conservation News 5(2): 15.

Glitzenstein, E. 1993. On the USFWS settlement regarding federal listing of endangered species. End. Species UPDATE 10(5): 1-3.

Gomez-Campo, C. and Herranz-Sanz, J.M. 1993. Conservation of Iberian endemic plants: the botanical reserve of La Encantada. Biological Conservation 64(2): 155-160. (Villarrobledo, Albacete, Spain)

Graff, M. 1993. Conservation front: the draft recovery plan for the desert tortoise. Tortuga Gazette 29(5): 5. (Mohave population)

Griffin, C. and French, T. 1993. A status review of state threatened and endangered species programs and the Massachusetts initiative. End. Species UPDATE 10(5): 4,7-10.

Griggs, F., Morris, V. and Denny, E. 1993. Five years of valley oak riparian forest reforestation. Fremontia 22(2): 13-17.

Haig, S., Belthoff, J. and Allen, D. 1993. Population viability analysis for a small population of red-cockaded woodpeckers and an evaluation of enhancement strategies. Conservation Biology 7(2): 289-301.

Halse, S., Williams, M., Jaensch, R. and Lane, J. 1993. Wetland characteristics and waterbird use of wetlands in south- western Australia. Wildlife Research 20(1): 103-126. (Important habitats for waterbirds)

Hayes, D. 1993. Mountain cloud forest. Orchid Review 101(1191): 138-143. (Sitio Bacchus, Rio De Janiero, Brazil; Orchid conservation project)

Heinen, J. 1993. Population viability and management recommendations for buffalo Bubalus bubalus in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Biological Conservation 65(1): 29-34.

Hirth, H., Kasu, J. and Mala, T. 1993. Observations on a leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea nesting population near Piguwa, Papua, New Guinea. Biological Conservation 65(1): 77-82. (Endangered)

Holloway, M. 1993. Sustaining the Amazon. Scientific American 269(1): 90-99.

Holloway, M. 1993. The variable breeding success of the little tern Sterna albifrons in south-east India and protective measures needed for its conservation. Biological Conservation 65(1): 1-8.

Irwin, L. and Wigley, T. 1993. Toward an experimental basis for protecting forest wildlife. Ecological Applications 3(2): 213-217.

Jackson, J., Jung, P., Coates, A. and Collins, L. 1993. Diversity and extinction of tropical American mollusks and emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. Science 260(5114): 1624-1625.

LaRoe, E. 1993. Implementation of an ecosystem approach to endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 3-6.

Lesica, P. 1993. Using plant community diversity in reserve design for pothole prairie on the Blackfeet India Reservation, Montana, USA. Biological Conservation 65(1): 69-76.

Levin, S. 1993. Preserving biodiversity. Ecological Applications 3(2): 201.

Lewin, R. 1993. Genes from a disappearing world. New Scientist 1875: 25-29. (International project to collect DNA fingerprints from ethnic groups on the verge of extinction)

Lieberman, S. 1993. 1992 CITES amendments strengthen protection for wildlife and plants. End. Species Techn. Bull. 18(1): 7-9.

Lode, T. 1993. The decline of otter Lutra lutra populations in the region of the Pays de Loire, western France. Biological Conservation 65(1): 9-14.

MacKenzie 1993. Great Lakes intergovernmental cooperation: a framework for endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 48-51.

McKibben, B. 1993. The Adirondacks. Nature Conservancy 43(4): 24-28. (New York)

Mech, L. 1993. Eastern timber wolf recovery progresses in the Lake Superior region. End. Species Techn. Bull. 18(1): 3.

Merow, A. 1993. Coral reefs: symbols of global decline. Sanctuary Currents Winter/Spring: 5, 7.

Meslow, E. 1993. Spotted owl protection: unintentional evolution toward ecosystem management. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 34-38.

Meyers, J. and Vilella, F. and Barrow Jr., W. 1993. Positive effects of Hurricane Hugo: record years for Puerto Rican parrots nesting in the wild. End. Species Techn. Bull. 18(1): 1, 10-11.

Morton, S., Brennan, K. and Armstrong, M. 1993. Distribution and abundance of herons, egrets, ibises and spoonbills in the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory. Wildlife Research 20(1): 23-44. (Management to ensure existence of birds)

Ogawa, R. and Schloesser, D. 1993. Community action called to "rescue the riffleshell.". End. Species UPDATE 10(5): 5.

Orians, G. 1993. Endangered at what level? Ecological Applications 3(2): 206-208.

Panou, A., Jacobs, J. and Panos, D. 1993. The endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus in the Ionian Sea, Greece. Biological Conservation 64(2): 129-140.

Pashley, D. and Creasman, L. 1993. Application of landsccape-level conservation biology principles to the lower Mississippi River valley. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 42-47.

Plucknett, D. 1993. International agricultural research for the next century. BioScience 43(7): 432-440.

Quigley, T. and McDonald, S. 1993. Ecosystem management in the Forest Service: linkage to endangered species management. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 30-33.

Raloff, J. 1993. An otter tragedy. Science News 143(13): 200-202. (Valdez oil spill and rehabilitating the otters)

Ravenscroft, N., Bourn, N. and Young, M. 1993. Initial responses of the New Forest Burnet moth, Zygaena viciae ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), to recovery attempts in Scotland. Entomologist's Gazette 44(2): 101-106.

Redford, K. and Stearman, A. 1993. Forest-dwelling native Amazonians and the conservation of biodiversity: interests in common or in collision? Conservation Biology 7(2): 248- 255.

Reed, J., Walters, J., Emigh, T. and Seaman, D. 1993. Effective population size in red-cockaded woodpeckers: population and model differences. Conservation Biology 7(2): 302-308.

Robinson, D. 1993. Vale Toolern Vale: the loss of our woodland birds. Wingspan 9: 1-13, 20-21.

Robinson, G. and Handel, S. 1993. Forest restoration on a closed landfill: rapid addition of new species by bird dispersal. Conservation Biology 7(2): 271-278.

Robinson, M. 1993. Biodiversity, bioparks, and saving ecosystems. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 52-56.

Rudnicky, T. and Hunter Jr., M. 1993. Reversing the fragmentation perspective: effects of clearcut size on bird species ichness in Maine. Ecological Applications 3(2): 357.

Safina, C. 1993. Bluefin tuna in the west Atlantic: negligent management and the making of an endangered species. Conservation Biology 7(2): 229-238.

Schmidt, K. 1993. Ecosystem education. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 58-60.

Schroeter, S., Dixon, J., Kastendiek, J., Smith, R. and Bence, J. 1993. Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts: a case study of kelp forest invertebrates. Ecological Applications 3(2): 331.

Stolzenburg, W. 1993. Magic mesas. Venezuela's tepuys. Nature Conservancy 43(4): 10-15.

Taylor, S. 1993. Practical ecosystem management for plants and animals. End. Species UPDATE 10(3 & 4): 26-29.

Trail, P. and Baptista, L. 1993. The impact of brown-headed cowbird parasitism on populations of the Nuttall's white-crowned sparrow. Conservation Biology 7(2): 309-315.

Varadarajan, G., Varadarajan, U. and Locy, R. 1993. Application of tissue culture techniques to maintain a rare species, Puya tuberosa. J. Bromeliad Society 43(3): 112-118. (Bolivia)

Vernon, R. 1993. Behind the scenes: how policymaking in the European Community, Japan, and the United States affects global negotiations. Environment 35(5): 12-20. (UN Conference on Environment and Development)

Vilella, F. and Zwank, P. 1993. Ecology of the small Indian mongoose in a coastal dry forest of Puerto Rico where sympatric with the Puerto Rican Nightjar. Caribbean Journal of Science 29(1 & 2): 24-29. (Nightjar endangered)

Wilcove, D. 1993. Getting ahead of the extinction curve. Ecological Applications 3(2): 218-220.

Young, R. 1993. Sampling to detect rare species. Ecological Applications 3(2): 351.

Zatz, D. 1993. Last favor for a missing tiger. Int. Wildlife 23(4): 18-23.

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