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Department ofBotany

No. 126
October/November 1993

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Hudsonia Ltd. is a non-membership, non-advocacy, public interest institute for research and education in the environmental sciences. The organization is currently active in land use planning, and its base of operations is the Bard College Field Station located on a Hudson River wetland. Hudsonia scientists collect and analyze data and recommend project design, environmental planning and management that reduce or mitigate environmental impacts and harmonize economic development with the local environment. Projects are funded by diverse public and private sources including landowners, foundations, businesses, nonprofit organizations, citizens' groups, and government agencies. All projects contribute to the education of the public on environmental matters and generate scientific data used in a variety of ongoing studies.

The Hudson River Valley and neighboring regions of New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Connecticut are the focus of much of Hudsonia's project work. Other projects exist farther afield in the U.S., Canada and South America. Final project reports (and proposals, if appropriate) are shared with interested agencies and other involved parties. An illustrated educational newsletter, News from Hudsonia, is distributed free three times/year. For more information, write or call Hudsonia Ltd., Bard College Field Station, Annandale, NY 12504; Tel.: (914) 758-1881.


A coastal management program sponsored by the University of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Center (CRC) received the "Blue Planet Award" for outstanding work in environmental protection and conservation in Ecuador.

Since 1986, CRC has operated the International Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP) to help developing nations establish programs to protect and manage coastal areas and their resources.

In Ecuador, the CRMP has helped the government develop its own coastal management program and has chosen five small coastal areas of the country in which to conduct "special area management" (SAM) projects. These SAM projects focus on the creation of coastal management plans that are developed by local and national governments with participation of the local communities.

A community development group in Muisne, Esmeraldas province -one of the special management areas - nominated CRMP for the national Blue Planet Award. The award is sponsored by the Fundacion Natura, a national environmental organization, and the National Press of Ecuador as part of an effort to promote and reward environmental leadership. The $5,000 prize will be used to support projects in the five local special management areas. MARINE MAMMAL E-MAIL LIST

A marine mammal research and conservation discussion e-mail list has been established, using the listserver at the University of Victoria, to facilitate discussion regarding research and conservation of marine mammals. In addition the list will post conference and meeting announcements, volunteer opportunities, new techniques or equipment, new publications, etc.

There is no cost for subscribing, and messages sent to the list (MARMAM) will be forwarded to all members. To subscribe, send a message to the listserver ( or listserv@uvic.bitnet), with a message in the text saying: "subscribe MARMAM your name". The subject line in the message should be left blank. Questions regarding the list can be sent to David Duffus ( or Robin Baird (


The Foundation for Primary Forest Protection is calling for papers from specialists, organizations and people interested in ecology, environment and related fields for the International Conference on Ecology and Environment. The goals of the conference, which will be held June 20-24, 1994 in Drake Bay, Peninsula de Osa, Costa Rica, are to share experiences, to discuss problems and obtain different perspectives related to ecology and environment, and to join individuals and institutions interested in these topics. The conference will also provide opportunities to enjoy Peninsula de Osa, one of the most beautiful places of Costa Rica, and to discuss the ecological problems of the area and possible solutions.

The main topics to be considered at the conference include: models for development and planning; Pacific uses of nuclear energy and environment; sustainable development of forest goods and services; community and ecology; ecology and education; native cultures and ecology; and ecological experiences. The deadline for paper abstracts is January 15, 1994. Summaries should not exceed 200 words, and abstracts should be written in English or Spanish. For more information, contact Elizabeth Arnaez, Department of Biology, Costa Rica Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 159, Cartago, Costa Rica. Fax: (506) 51 53 48; e-mail: earnaez@ucrvm2 or Guillermo Guzman, e- mail:gguzman@ucrmv2 (BITNET) or (INTERNET).


The Garden Club of America will award two $5,000 scholarships to assist doctoral candidates working in tropical botany. U.S. citizenship is not required, however, students must be enrolled in a U.S. university Ph.D. program to be eligible. There is no formal application. Graduate students should submit the following: 1) curriculum vitae, including graduate transcripts; 2) evidence of foreign language capability, if necessary for research; 3) a two-page statement of the proposed research, including its relevance to conservation; and 4) a letter of recommendation from student's graduate advisor including evaluation of progress to date. A personal letter describing plans for the future and commitment to conservation of tropical forests may add merit in support of the application. Deadline: December 31, 1993. Mail applications to: Lori Michaelson, WWF/Garden Club of America, Scholarships in Tropical Botany, 1250 24th St. NW, Washington, DC 20037: Tel.: (202) 293- 4800.

The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund was established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the world's threatened wildlife. Each year grants up to $1,000 are awarded to individuals for projects and programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain ecosystems. Field studies, environmental education programs, development of techniques that can be used in a natural environment and captive propagation programs that stress an integrative and/or multi-disciplinary approach to conservation are considered. Deadline: May 1, 1994. Grants are awarded in July, 1994. For further information contact: Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Elmwood Ave., Providence, RI 02905; Tel.: (401) 785-3510, Fax: (401) 941-3988, e-mail:

The University of Connecticut seeks outstanding Ph.D. candidates in ecology, evolutionary biology, animal behavior, systematics, and conservation biology to participate in a new program in biodiversity. NSF Graduate Research Training fellowships provide a $14,000 annual stipend, plus up to $7,500 as a cost of education allowance. For complete information contact: Burma Stelmark, Tel.: (203) 486-4323, Fax: (203) 486- 6364 or write: Biodiversity Graduate Fellowships, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology U-43, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3043.


ACCESS: A Directory of Contacts, Environmental Data Bases, and Scientific Infrastructures on 175 Biosphere Reserves in 32 Countries is available on computer diskette. This directory, the product of extensive international collaboration of the MAB Programs of Europe and North America (EuroMAB) for the past 1.5 years is now available. Because of the size of the directory (250 pp.), scientists and policy makers may wish to order it in the convenient form of computer disk, which contains the information in Lotus 1-2-3, Microsoft Excel, and D-base file formats. Be sure to specify either MS DOS or Macintosh compatible diskette. The diskettes are available at the minimal cost of reproduction from either: UNESCO MAB Secretariat, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France; Tel.: (33)(1) 4568-4068, Fax: (33)(1) 4065-9535 or CIESIN Customer Services Dept. by e-mail:

The proceedings from the First World Congress on Tourism and the Environment, held April 27-May 2, 1992 in Belize, are now available. During this congress, people from 30 countries gathered to debate the future of ecotourism as a conservation tool and to share practical knowledge and techniques. Highlighting the congress were field seminars in which participants met with local communities throughout Belize to address universal issues on a local scale. Copies are available for $35.00 plus shipping ($5 (USA), $10 (other countries) from: SYNC Productions, P.O. Box 271068, Fort Collins, CO 80527.

Revista Forestal Centroamericana is a triannual magazine that focuses on natural resource issues in Central America, with an emphasis on forestry. The magazine is edited by staff at CATIE in Costa Rica. Articles center on practical, technical, social, and economic aspects of national and regional projects and programs and their relationship to broader, international resource concerns. Articles, written in Spanish, contain English summaries, as well as key words and literature citations. Regular departments include calendar of regional and international workshops and courses, new publications, bibliographies, and letters to the editor. Annual subscription rates are US$20 for those in Central America; US$25 for the Caribbean, South America, Africa, and Asia: and US$35 for other countries. Send checks, drawn on any U.S. bank payable to CATIE, to: Revista Forestal Centroamericana, CATIE 7170, Turrialba, Costa Rica: Tel.: (506) 56-0858, Fax (506) 56-6282.


The National Wildlife Federation's award-winning NatureScope is a creative activity series designed to help kindergarten to 8th grade educators incorporate science and environmental education into their teaching. The 18-issue series addresses topics such as endangered species, tropical rain forest, insects and geology. Each issue includes about 70 pages of information and activities, stressing knowledge of science, analytical and problem solving skills, and the development of an environmental ethic. The series costs $99.00 plus $4.25 shipping (request item #75908), which includes a free video. Individual issues can be purchased for $7.95 plus $3.25 shipping. Contact National Wildlife Federation, 1400 16th St. NW, Washington, DC 20036-2266; Tel.: (800) 432-6564.


The American Museum of Natural History seeks a Director for its new Center for Biodiversity and Conservation. The Director will establish program priorities and directions for the Center that connects the Museum's powerful research program in biodiversity and related environmental science to important issues concerning global environmental change and conservation.

Candidates should have a Ph.D. or comparable qualifications in an area related to environmental biology (e.g., systematics, ecology, forestry, wildlife biology) as well as a demonstrated record of leadership and effectiveness in relating research to conservation issues of public concern. Candidates are sought who have knowledge and experience concerning global activities of various conservation organizations as well as governmental environmental policy.

Applicants should submit a brief cover letter stating their qualifications for the directorship, curriculum vitae, a statement of activities, and the names and addresses for three letters of recommendation. Send to: Dr. Michael Novacek, Dean of Science, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192. Deadline: December 31, 1993.

The California State University, Stanislaus Foundation anticipates hiring several temporary part-time and full-time biologists for the Endangered Species Recovery Planning Program in the next several months, contingent upon execution of contacts with government agencies. Duration of positions will range from 2 months to 3 years. Primary work sites will be the San Joaquin and Sacramento River valleys. Official applications are being solicited at this time, however, individuals may send resumes and letters of interest, including information on availability and willingness to relocate to project sites. Send material to: Dr. Daniel F. Williams, Director, Endangered Species Recovery Planning Program, 2727 N. Grove Industrial Dr., #125, Fresno, CA 93727.


I would like to thank two volunteers, Ninia Wagner and Dylan Fuller, who have helped produce the newsletter the past several months. With several book deadlines this Fall, I have been unable to devote much time to the newsletter, so am most grateful to these two energetic and talented people for providing the latest news. -- Jane Villa-Lobos


Ackerman, J. 1993. Oklahoma's tallgrass prairie. New York Times October 3: 8-9, 20. (Osage Hills)

Agarwai, M., Shukla, A., and Pal, V. 1993. Grazing of forested grassland and its conservation. Ecol. Modelling 69(1 & 2): 57-62.

Anon. 1993. Black-headed lion tamarin added to Brazilian threatened species list. Neotropical Primates 1(1): 8.

Anon. 1993. Legal protection for Brazil's Atlantic coastal forest. Neotropical Primates 1(2): 7-9.

Anon. 1993. Modern Noah's ark in the making. Trinidad Guardian October 12(Sect. 2): 1. (Threatened Plants of the World book)

Anon. 1993. A small group with a big agenda influences global biodiversity: RAFI. DIVERSITY 9(3): 47-48. (Rural Advancement Foundation International, Canada)

Anon. 1993. A symposium on lion tamarin conservation and ecology. Neotropical Primates 1(2): 10-12. ((May 1993)

Arita, H. 1993. Conservation biology of the cave bats of Mexico. J. Mammalogy 74(3): 693-702.

Armbruster, P. and Lande, R. 1993. A population viability analysis for African elephant (Loxodonta africana): how big should the reserves be? Cons. Biology 7(3): 602-610.

Bartley, D. 1993. International community takes action on aquatic genetic resources. DIVERSITY 9(3): 37-39.

Bateman Hutte, M. 1993. Bird protection in Barbados: save the migrating shorebirds. Ornitologia Caribena 3: 1-3.

Bean, M. 1993. Invertebrates and the Endangered Species Act. Wings 17(2): 12-15.

Beardsley, K. and Stoms, D. 1993. Compiling a digital map of areas managed for biodiversity in California. Nat. Areas Journal 13(3): 177-190.

Benkman, C. 1993. Logging, conifers, and the conservation of crossbills. Cons. Biology 7(3): 473-479. (North America)

Bootsma, H. and Hecky, R. 1993. Conservation of the African Great Lakes: a limnological perspective. Cons. Biology 7(3): 644-656.

Brouha, P. 1993. Emulating Canada: recognizing existing aquatic and fish habitat areas as invaluable. Fisheries 18(10): 4-35.

Chiarello, A. and Passamani, M. 1993. A reintroduction program for Geoffroy's marmoset, Callithrix geoffroyi. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 6-7. (Brazil)

Cody, M., Elswick, L., and Jensen, T. 1993. World food days link biodiversity and nutrition. DIVERSITY 9(3): 46-47.

Cohen, A., Bills, R., Cocquyt, C., and Caljon, A. 1993. The impact of sediment pollution on biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika. Cons. Biology 7(3): 667-677.

Cohn, J. 1993. Madagascar's mysterious aye-ayes. BioScience 43(10): 668-671. (Habitat degradation)

Coimbra-Filho, A., Dietz, L., Mallinson, J., and Santos, I. 1993. Land purchase for the Una Biological Reserve, refuge of the golden-lion tamarin. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 7-10. (Brazil)

Coulter, G., and Mubamba, R. 1993. Conservation in Lake Tanganyika, with special reference to underwater parks. Cons. Biology 7(3): 678-685.

DeMarais, B. and Minckley, W. 1993. Genetics and morphology of Yaqui chub (Gila purpurea), an endangered cyprinid fish subject to recovery efforts. Biol. Cons. 66(3): 195-206.

DeMauro, M. 1993. Relationship of breeding system to rarity in the Lakeside daisy (Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra). Cons. Biology 7(3): 542-550. (Illinois)

Dobson, F. and Yu, J. 1993. Rarity in neotropical forest mammals revisted. Cons. Biology 7(3): 586-591.

Dowdeswell, E. 1993. The Convention on Biological Diversity: ensuring a genetic reservoir for future generations. DIVERSITY 9(3): 7-9.

Egler, S. 1993. First field study of the pied tamarin, Saguinus bicolor bicolor. Neotropical Primates 1(2): 13-14. (Most endangered Amazonian callitrichid)

Embury, A. 1993. Primate TAG of the Australasian species management plan. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 3-5.

Encarnacion, F. and Aquino, R. 1993. Official list of threatened Peruvian primates. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 5-6. (32 species in 12 genera)

Farnsworth, E. and Rosovsky, J. 1993. The ethics of ecological field experimentation. Cons. Biology 7(3): 463- 472.

Ferrari, S. 1993. Rethinking the status of Callithrix flaviceps. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 2-3. (Reported in Minas Gerais)

Franklin, S. 1993. Chaparral management techniques: an environmental perspective. Fremontia 21(4): 21-22. (California)

Giacometti, D. 1993. The management of genetic resources as a component of biological diversity. DIVERSITY 9(3): 10- 13.

Goldschmidt, T., Witte, F., and Wanink, J. 1993. Cascading effects of the introduced Nile perch on the detritivorous/phytoplanktivorous species in the sublittoral areas of Lake Victoria. Cons. Biology 7(3): 686-700.

Grayson, D. and Livingston, S. 1993. Missing mammals on Great Basin Mountains: Holocene extinctions and inadequate knowledge. Cons. Biology 7(3): 527-532.

Griffiths, M. and Van Schaik, C. 1993. The impact of human traffic on the abundance and activity periods of Sumatran rain forest wildlife. Cons. Biology 7(3): 623-626.

Gusmao Camara, I. 1993. Action plan for the black-faced lion tamarin. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 10-11. (Brazil)

Hammer, R. 1993. Orchids in the wake of Hurricane Andrew. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 62(10): 1018-1023. (Native US orchids threatened)

Hammond, K. 1993. Why conserve animal genetic reources? DIVERSITY 9(3): 30-33.

Hansen-Kuhn, K. 1993. Sapping the economy: structural adjustment in Costa Rica. Ecologist 23(5): 179-184. (Environmental degradation)

Hecht, S. 1993. The logic of livestock and deforestation in Amazonia. BioScience 43(10): 687-696. (Brazil)

Hori, M., Gashagaza, M., Nshombo, M., and Kawanabe, H. 1993. Littoral fish communities in Lake Tanganyika: irreplaceable diversity supported by intricate interactions among species. Cons. Biology 7(3): 657-666.

Kaufman, L. and Ochumba, P. 1993. Evolutionary and conservation biology of cichlid fishes as revealed by faunal remnants in Northern Lake Victoria. Cons. Biology 7(3): 719-730.

Kindler, J. and Lindner, S. 1993. An action to clean up the Baltic. Environment 35(8): 6-15.

Laikre, L., Ryman, N., and Thompson, E. 1993. Hereditary blindness in a captive wolf (Canis lupus) population: frequency reduction of a deleterious allele in relation to gene conservation. Cons. Biology 7(3): 592-601.

Leader-Williams, N. and Milner-Gulland, E. 1993. Policies for the enforcement of wildlife laws: the balance between detection and penalties in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Cons. Biology 7(3): 611-617.

Lindenmayer, D., Cunningham, R., and Donnelly, C. 1993. The conservation of arboreal marsupials in the montane ash forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria, south-east Australia, IV. The presence and abundance of arboreal marsupials in retained linear habitats (wildlife corridors) within logged forests. Biol. Cons. 66(3): 207-221.

Lindenmeyer, D. and Nix, H. 1993. Ecological principles for the design of wildlife corridors. Cons. Biology 7(3): 627- 631.

Loftus, R. 1993. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity released by FAO and UNEP provides "early warning system". DIVERSITY 9(3): 34-36. (Breeds at risk)

Lowe-McConnell, R. 1993. Fish faunas of the African Great Lakes: origins, diversity, and vulnerability. Cons. Biology 7(3): 634-656.

Majendie, P. 1993. Practical schemes to preserve planet. Trinidad Guardian October 12(Sect. 2): 1.

Malecki, R., Blossey, B., Hight, S., Schroeder, D., Kok, L., and Coulson, J. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43(10): 680-686. (Exotic wetland perennial threatens wetland habitats in USA and Canada)

Maurer, B. and Heywood, G. 1993. Geographic range fragmentation and abundance in neotropical migratory birds. Cons. Biology 7(3): 501-509.

Mendes, S. and Chiarello, A. 1993. A proposal for the conservation of the muriqui in the state of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Neotropical Primates 1(2): 2-3.

Mittermeier, R., Stuart, S., and Groombridge, B. 1993. A revision of the 1990 IUCN List of Threatened Animals. Neotropical Primates 1(2): 1-2.

Nabhan, G. and Fleming, T. 1993. The conservation of New World mutualisms. Cons. Biology 7(3): 457-462.

Nelson, R. 1993. Overfishing and the 602 guidelines: can the Magnuson Act work? Fisheries 18(10): 36-37.

Norse, E. and Gerber, L. 1993. A global strategy for conserving biological diversity in the sea. DIVERSITY 9(3): 40-43.

Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. 1993. The effects of predation by Nile perch, Lates niloticus L., on the fish of Lake Nabugabo, with suggestions for conservation of endangered endemic cichlids. Cons. Biology 7(3): 701-712.

Okarma, H. 1993. Status and management of the wolf in Poland. Biol. Cons. 66(3): 153-158.

Oliver, I. and Beattie, A. 1993. A possible method for the rapid assessment of biodiversity. Cons. Biology 7(3): 562- 568.

Palmberg-Lerche, C. 1993. The conservation of forest genetic resources. DIVERSITY 9(3): 26-29.

Pavlik, B., Nickrent, D., and Howald, A. 1993. The recovery of an endangered plant. I. Creating a new population of Amsinckia grandiflora. Cons. Biology 7(3): 510-526. (California)

Pearce, F. 1993. Road to ruin for Britain's wildlife. New Scientist 139(1890): 35-38.

Podesta, D. 1993. Efforts to save rain forests raise suspicions in Brazil. Washington Post October 11: A1, A23.

Porneluzi, P., Bednarz, J., Goodrich, L., Zawada, N., and Hoover, J. 1993. Reproductive performance of territorial ovenbirds occupying forest fragments and a contiguous forest in Pennsylvania. Cons. Biology 7(3): 618-622.

Ratcliffe, D., Birks, H.J. B., and Birks, H.H. 1993. The ecology and conservation of the Killarney fern Trichomanes speciosum Willd. in Britain and Ireland. Biol. Cons. 66(3): 231-248.

Raymond, R. 1993. Conserving nature's biodiversity: the role of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. DIVERSITY 9(3): 17-21.

Reading, R. and Kellert, S. 1993. Attitudes toward a proposed reintroduction of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Cons. Biology 7(3): 569-580.

Reinthal, P. 1993. Evaluating biodiversity and conserving Lake Malawi's cichlid fish fauna. Cons. Biology 7(3): 712- 718.

Rodriguez Luna, E. 1993. Avance en la elaboracion del plan de accion para los primates de Mesoamerica. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 11-13. (Brazil)

Rustem, R. 1993. A new focus for learning. Michigan Nat. Resources 63(4): 8-15. (Environmental education)

Ryan, M., Root, B., and Mayer, P. 1993. Status of piping plovers in the Great Plains of North America: a demographic simulation model. Cons. Biology 7(3): 581-585.

Santos, I. and Lernould, J.-M. 1993. A conservation program for the yellow-breasted capuchin, Cebus apella xanthosternos. Neotropical Primates 1(1): 4-5. (Brazil)

Savage, B. 1993. Deer hunting and the conservation of deer. The Linnean 9(3): 25-27.

Schwartz, M. and Hermann, S. 1993. The continuing population decline of Torreya taxifolia Arn. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120(3): 275-286. (Endangered endemic of Florida & Georgia)

Sigg, J. 1993. Habitat conservation on San Bruno Mountain: it isn't working. Fremontia 21(4): 11-14. (California)

Skagen, S. and Knopf, F. 1993. Toward conservation of midcontinental shorebird migrations. Cons. Biology 7(3): 533-541.

Smith, B. 1993. 1990 status and conservation of the Ganges river dolphin Platanista gangetica in the Karnali River, Nepal. Biol. Cons. 66(3): 159-169.

Soberon, J. and Llorente, J. 1993. The use of species accumulation functions for the prediction of species richness. Cons. Biology 7(3): 480-488.

Stoms, D. and Esters, J. 1993. A remote sensing research agenda for mapping and monitoring biodiversity. Int. J. Remote Sensing 14: 1839-1860.

Strier, K. 1993. Conservation of the muriqui in the state of Espirito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Neotropical Primates 1(3): 1-2.

Sturgess, P. and Atkinson, D. 1993. The clear-felling of sand-dune plantations: soil and vegetational processes in habitat restoration. Biol. Cons. 66(3): 171-188.

Suarez, T. 1993. Censo e distribucion del marimono, Ateles paniscus, en la Estacion Biologica Beni, Bolivia. Neotropical Primates 1(2): 12-13.

Taylor, B., and Gerrodette, T. 1993. The uses of statistical power in conservation biology: the vaquita and northern spotted owl. Cons. Biology 7(3): 489-500.

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