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Department ofBotany

No. 127
December 1993

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


As a result of a meeting in Washington, DC, the Association for Parrot Conservation (APC) was formed to promote the conservation of wild parrot populations and their habitats through scientific research, policy recommendations and education. Initial emphasis will be placed on New World parrots. APC was founded to 1) scientifically evaluate conservation alternatives for maintaining wild populations and their habitats as well as their application on a case by case basis to parrots; 2) educate scientists, decision-makers, and the public about the potentials and limitations of conservation alternatives; 3) create a communication network for those concerned with the conservation of wild parrot populations; and 4) facilitate local and regional conservation projects. The guiding principle of the association is to promote techniques and strategies that maximize the conservation of biological diversity.

An Executive Council of 17 members was elected. The President, Dr. Enrique Bucher (Argentina), is well known for his studies of New World parrots and the sustainable use of biological resources. For further information, contact: Dr. Rosemarie Gnam, Executive Director, Tel: (703) 739-9803; Fax: (703) 358-2268; e-mail: NZPCRC08@SIVM.SI.EDU.


The Xerces Society is the only conservation organization solely devoted to the protection of invertebrates. Invertebrates eclipse all other forms of life on Earth by their sheer numbers and diversity. Whether measured in terms of biomass or species, invertebrates constitute 90-95% of all animal life on the planet. The Xerces Society is named after the Xerces blue butterfly (Glaucopsyche xerces), the first butterfly in North America known to become extinct as a result of human interference. Its mission is to strengthen the basis of conservation policies with scientific knowledge about "the little things that run the world."

The interactions of insects and other invertebrates form the biological foundation of all ecosystems: invertebrates cycle nutrients, pollinate crops and other plants, disperse seeds, maintain soil structure and fertility, exert control over populations of other organisms, and provide a major food source. All these ecological services are vital to the human population.

Xerces' two integrated programs--conservation science and public education--focus on endangered ecosystems and global biodiversity hot spots. Three recent conservation projects concentrate on Pacific Coast old-growth forest destuction, Madagascar species habitat destruction, and the endangered Jamaican Homerus Swallowtail butterfly.

The Xerces Society feels that human life is materially, aesthetically, and spiritually enhanced by an increased understanding and appreciation of invertebrate species. To join the society or for more information, write or call The Xerces Society, 10 Southwest Ash Street, Portland, OR, 97204, USA. Tel: (503) 222-2788. FAX: (503) 222-2763.


Dr. Mark Collins, previously director of programmes, has been appointed the new director of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) effective January 1, 1994. WCMC, located in Cambridge, England, provides information on the status, security, management and utilization of the world's biological diversity to support conservation and sustainable development. Dr. Collins has authored or edited many books, including The Last Rain Forests, The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests, The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book, and Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. He joined the Centre in 1982 after ten years of research in the rain forests of Malaysia and the savannas of West and East Africa. One of his highest priorities is to align the Centre's activities with the needs of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.


The Coastal Resources Center at The University of Rhode Island will be sponsoring a Spanish-language training program April 18-29, 1994, "Manejo Integrado de Zonas Costeras", at Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral in San Pedro, Ecuador. The purpose of this course is to provide participants with practical skills to design and implement integrated management plans for coastal areas and environments. It is directed at resource management professionals and environmental planners in the Latin American and Caribbean regions, and will be offered in Spanish. The course is being jointly organized by The Coastal Resources Center at The University of Rhode Island and the Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral. The course fee is US $1,900 and covers all costs of the course including food and lodging.

For further information, contact: The Training Coordinator, Coastal Resources Center, The University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Bay Campus, Narragansett, RI 02882 (Fax: 401-789- 4670), or Director de Capacitacion, Centro de Recursos Costeros - Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Casilla de Correos 09- 01-5863, Guayaquil, Ecuador (Fax: 5934-354629).


Joseph Henry Vogel has recently published Genes For Sale, a book that elaborates how intellectual property rights over biodiversity would achieve conservation. The book has already received much acclaim as a valuable contribution to the conservation debate. Dr. Vogel has planned a book tour including about 25 American universities for this coming school year. The presentation normally runs one hour with an additional half hour of questions and answers. To find out more about the book or the tour, contact Joseph Henry Vogel, 2 Wellington Downs, Scotch Plain, NJ, 07076, USA. Tel: (908) 754-7731. FAX: (908) 561-1907.

The World Wildlife Fund International has published Ethics, Ethnobiological Research, and Biodiversity. This document, intended for policy makers in government, research institutes, botanical gardens, herbaria, universities and industry outlines some of the dilemmas facing ethnobotanists, anthropologists, and phytochemists in developing new natural products from biological materials.

The bulk of the world's biological and cultural diversity occurs in developing countries rich in potential new natural products. However, much of the technology and expertise required to develop new industrial products from biological materials is centered in the industrialized countries of the temperate zone. For researchers, industrial companies, corporations, and governments involved with recording indigenous knowledge and identifying potentially valuable biological resources, this situation raises ethical, legal, and political issues. Ethics, Ethnobiological Research, and Biodiversity discusses these issues and provides a recommended code of practice. The specific objectives of the paper are: 1) to present the background to the ethical and conservation issues that arise in the development of new natural products and to outline the need to create equitable partnerships and recognize the value of indigenous knowledge which will lead to the payment of fair compensation to source regions; 2) to facilitate international cooperation in the collection, conservation, use, and development of new natural products; 3) to ensure that any collecting for export and use outside of a country has the full approval of the competent authorities, and is carried out with the cooperation of the host country and representatives of the local communities involved; also to ensure that these collections comply with conservation and quarantine regulations in the countries of origin and destination; and 4) to outline the general principles that will facilitate development of national regulations by governments or agreements between organizations. For more information, contact WWF International, Avenue du Mont-Blanc, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland. Tel: 41 (22) 364 91 11; Fax: 41 (22) 364 53 58.


The Department of Environmental Science at Allegheny College seeks a tenure-track teacher/scholar in environmental, institutional, sustainable or ecological economics. The candidate must be an excellent teacher whose work explores concepts of sustainability and economics. The candidate will be expected to teach introductory environmental science courses and advanced courses in sustainable economics.

The selection process begins January 31, 1994. Send letter of application, curriculum vitae, statement of teaching philosophy in an undergraduate liberal arts setting, and three letters of reference to: Dr. Eric Pallant, Chair, Dept. of Environmental Science, Allegheny College, Meadville, PA 16335. Tel: (814) 332-2870.

The Nature Conservancy has two positions open: Bioreserve Manager and Assistant Director of Science and Stewardship. The Bioreserve Manager for the mid-Appalachians is responsible for the development, implementation, and support of the Conservancy's conservation programs at the Sideling Hill Creek watershed in Maryland and Pennsylvania and the Smoke Hole bioreserve in West Virginia. This includes strategic planning, agency relations, landowner contact, community relations, land protection, and fundraising. For more information, contact: Wayne Klockner, Director, The Nature Conservancy, 2 Wisconsin Circle, Suite 600, Chevy Chase, MD 20815.

The Assistant Director of Science and Stewardship shares responsibility for ensuring the long-term viability of rare species and exceptional natural communities in Nature Conservancy preserves and other protected areas in eastern Pennsylvania. The candidate will aid the Director in development and implementation of biological monitoring and management and will ensure landowner and lessee compliance with conservation easements, leased and transferred lands. For more information, contact: James Thorne, Eastern Pennsylvania Chapter, The Nature Conservancy, 1211 Chestnut Street, 12th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107.


January 17-26. The 19th Session of the IUCN General Assembly will be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The theme of the assembly is "Caring for the Earth and Its People".


Abate, T. 1993. Big computers tackle the job of saving little birds. BioScience 43(8): 514-516. (California gnatcatcher)

Ackerman, J. 1993. Carrying the torch. Nature Conservancy 43(5): 16-23. (Burning as a means to restore tallgrass prairies)

Alberch, P. 1993. Museums, collections and biodiversity inventories. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(10): 372- 374.

Anderson, T. 1993. DBG botanists collect rare Texas plant specimens. Sonoran Quarterly 47(4): 9. (Desert Botanical Garden, Arizona)

Anon. 1992. Conservation in action: biological monitoring matters. Nature Conservancy of Maryland 17(3): 3.

Anon. 1993. Conservacion de la biodiversidad de Puerto Rico: el plan de la Fundacion Puertorriquena de Conservacion. Verde Luz 3(1): 1-2.

Anon. 1993. Guatemala's Maya reserve under seige. The Canopy Fall: 1,3.

Anon. 1993. Honduran shrimp boom threatened coastal mangroves. The Canopy Fall: 3. (Committee for the Defense and Development of the Gulf of Fonseca)

Anon. 1993. Huge jetty threatened India's population of endangered turtles. Int. Wildlife 23(5): 32. (Olive ridley sea turtles)

Anon. 1993. Incidental take of marine mammals in commercial fishing operations: the problems, the solutions. Marine Conservation News 5(3): 11.

Anon. 1993. IUCN and Saudi Arabia form wetlands program to aid migratory birds. Int. Wildlife 23(5): 32.

Anon. 1993. Joint initiative protects Russia's biological diversity. FOCUS 15(5): 1,4.

Anon. 1993. Mapping Central America's imperiled environment. The Canopy Fall: 6. (Map of indigenous peoples and the natural environment available from National Geographic Society)

Anon. 1993. Pressure prompts Korea to join CITES. FOCUS 15(5): 1,4.

Anon. 1993. Project Tamar celebrates sea turtle protection. FOCUS 15(5): 7. (Brazil)

Anon. 1992. Rare plant thrives on adversity. Nature Conservancy of Maryland 17(3): 5. (Ptilimnium nodosum)

Anon. 1993. Research of the past leads to conservation efforts of today. Quest 2(4): 4-6. (Bats, Panama)

Anon. 1993. Tamarin protection plan gets boost in Brazil from local involvement. Int. Wildlife 23(5): 32. (Morro de Diabo State Park, Sao Paulo)

Anon. 1992. Vietnam: policy suggestions to encourage effective use of forestland and sustainable development of upland and coastal areas. Asia-Pacific Community Forestry Newsletter 6(2): 1-3.

Anon. 1993. WWF opens national office in Mexico. FOCUS 15(5): 3.

Balistrietri, C. 1993. CITES at 20. II. Historical genesis. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 62(8): 819-821.

Beardsley, K. and Stoms, D. 1993. Compiling a digital map of areas managed for biodiversity in California. Nat. Areas J. 13(3): 177-190.

Bezdek, R. 1993. Environment and economy: what's the bottom line? Environment 35(7): 6-11.

Bowles, M., Flackne, R., McEachern, K., and Pavlovic, N. 1993. Recovery planning and reintroduction of the federally threatened pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Illinois. Nat. Areas J. 13(3): 164-176.

Bowman, S.-J. 1993. All wet in region. Nature Conservancy 43(5): 10-15. (Wetlands of Eugene, Oregon)

Breining, G. 1993. The case of the missing ecosystem. Nature Conservancy 43(6): 10-15. (Midwest oak savanna, Illinois)

Campos Arce, J. 1993. Conserving forests and helping people: the BOSCOSA model. Farm Forestry 6: 3-4. (Preserve forest cover by promoting production methods to improve local communities, Costa Rica)

Carr, T., Pedersen, H., and Ramaswamy, S. 1993. Rain forest entrepreneurs: cashing in on conservation. Environment 35(7): 12-15. (Central and South America)

Clausen, D. 1993. A survey of protected areas management by state and provincial fish and wildlife agencies in western states and provinces. Nat. Areas J. 13(3): 204-214.

Cohn, J. 1993. The National Biological Survey. BioScience 43(8): 521-522.

Cohn, J. 1993. Wild lands without boundaries: a fresh start for conservation in Central and Eastern Europe. Zoogoer 22(4): 12-17.

Conway, K. 1993. State expenditures on federally listed threatened and endangered species. End. Species Update 10(8): 5-8.

Dees, M., Field, R., and Simpson, R. 1993. Plants in peril, 19. Sarracenia oreophila. Kew Magazine 10(3): 144- 148. (USA)

Delannoy, C. 1993. Aves rapaces diurnas en peligro de extincion en Puerto Rico: el Halcon de Sierra y el Guaraguao de Bosque. Verde Luz 3(1): 7.

Douglis, C. 1993. Images of home. Wilderness 57(202): 11-22. (Effects of overpopulation)

Eltringham, S. and Malpas, R. 1993. The conservation status of Uganda's game and forest preserves in 1982 and 1983. African J. Ecology 31(2): 91-105.

Fairweather, P. 1993. Links between ecology and ecophilosophy, ethics and the requirements of environmental management. Australian J. Ecology 18(1): 3-20.

Fields, P., Graham, J., Rosenblatt, R., and Somero, G. 1993. Effects of expected global climate change on marine faunas. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(10): 361-366.

Finch, D. and Ruggiero, L. 1993. Wildlife habitats and biological diversity in the Rocky Mountains and Northern Great Plains. Nat. Areas J. 13(3): 191-203.

Green, R. 1993. Application of repeated measures designs in environmental impact and monitoring studies. Australian J. Ecology 18(1): 81-98.

Harrison, P. 1993. Wildlife and people: scrambling for space. People & the Planet 2(3): 6-9.

Hay, D. 1993. Let the spirits move you. Wildlife Conserv. 96(3): 18-19. (Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru)

Hedges, S. and Woods, C. 1993. Caribbean hot spot. Nature 364: 375. (Haiti's forests: most severely depleted ecosytem on Earth with less than 1% left)

Hequn, W., Zhaoran, X., Villa-Lobos, J., and Skog, L. 1993. A list of threatened limestone plants in South China. Guihaia 13(2): 110-127. (288 species from Guangxi and Yunnan)

Ishwaran, N. 1993. Ecology of the Asian elephant in lowland dry zone habitats of the Mahaweli River Basin, Sri Lanka. J. Trop. Ecology 9(2): 169-182. (Sri Lankan elephant threatened)

Jukofsky, D. 1993. Mystical messenger. Nature Conservancy 43(6): 24-29. (Central America's quetzal)

Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1993. Conservation & the media. The Canopy Fall: 4-5. (Costa Rica)

Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1993. The conservation media center: an environmental news agency. The Canopy Fall: 5. (Costa Rica)

Kendall, S. 1993. Learning from the dolphins. People & the Planet 2(3): 22-23. (Amazon river dolphin)

Kenworthy, T. 1993. China and Taiwan warned on endangered species. Washington Post Sept. 8: A1, A25. (Illegal trade in rhinoceros and tiger parts)

Lawson, P. 1993. Cycles in ocean productivity, trends in habitat quality, and the restoration of salmon runs in Oregon. Fisheries 18(8): 6-10.

Lawton, J. 1993. Range, population abundance and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(11): 409- 412.

Line, L. 1993/94. Curse of the cowbird. Nat. Wildlife 32(1): 40-45. (Cause of decline of North American songbirds)

Lipske, M. 1993/94. Animal, heal thyself. Nat. Wildlife 32(1): 46-49. (Zoopharmacognosy)

Lipske, M. 1993. Fast cat in a marathon. Int. Wildlife 23(5): 20-27. (Cheetahs)

McNeely, J. 1993. Diverse nature, diverse cultures. People & the Planet 2(3): 11-13. (Indigenous knowledge)

Meadows, R. 1993. A haven among the reeds. Zoogoer 22(4): 18-26. (Wetland restoration in Mekong Delta)

Merow, A. 1993. CMC opens conservation center in Florida Keys. Marine Conservation News 5(4): 1. (Center for Marine Conservation)

Moses, S. 1993. Down Brazil's river of doubt. Int. Wildlife 23(5): 12-19. (Mahogany, vulnerable)

Munguira, M. and Martin, J. 1993. The conservation of endangered lycaenid butterflies in Spain. Biol. Conserv. 66(1): 17-22.

Nash, N. 1993. Bolivia's rain forest falls to relentless exploiters. New York Times June 21(Int.): A1, A8. (Logging mahogany in Bolivian Amazon jungle)

Nelson, J. 1993. Conservation and use of the Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong. Nat. Areas J. 13(3): 215-219.

Nietschmann, B. 1993. Nicaragua's new environmental alliance for Indian Latin America. Research & Exploration 9(3): 270-271.

Papier, D. 1993. Splendor in the grasslands. Nature Conservancy 43(5): 31. (Venezuela savanna added to Aguaro Guaraquito National Park)

Papier, D. 1993. What good is a pothole? Nature Conservancy 43(5): 31. (Comertown Pothole Prairie, Montana preserved)

Petersen, D. 1993. Ghost grizzlies. Wilderness 57(202): 23-28. (Colorado grizzly project)

Phillips, O. 1993. Librarians of the Peruvian forest. People & the Planet 2(3): 18-19. (Indigenous knowledge)

Podesta, D. 1993. Efforts to save rain forests raise suspicions in Brazil. Washington Post Oct. 11: A1, A23.

Pringle, C., Vellidis, G., Heliotis, F., Bandacu, D., and Cristofor, S. 1993. Environmental problems of the Danube Delta. Am. Scientist 81(4): 350-361.

Rebelo, A. and Tansley, S. 1993. Using rare plant species to identify priority conservation areas in the Cape Floristic Region: the need to standarize for total species richness. South African J. Science 89: 156-161.

Rensberger, B. 1993. A budding work about native flora. Washington Post Oct. 4: A3. (Flora of North America)

Rensberger, B. 1993. Environment: tropical deforestation's other side. Washington Post Sept. 20: A2.

Seidensticker, J. and McDougal, C. 1993. Tiger predatory behaviour, ecology and conservation. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 65: 105-125.

Simmons, N. 1993. A win for the woodpecker. Wildlife Conserv. 96(3): 16. (Red-cockaded woodpecker)

Smith, A. 1993. Exploitation of marine mammals by prehistoric Cape herders. South African J. Science 89: 162-164.

Smith, F., May, R., Pellew, R., Johnson, T., and Walter, K. 1993. How much do we know about the current extinction rate? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(10): 375-377.

Steinhart, P. 1993. Life on the border. Nature Conservancy 43(5): 24-29. (USA/Mexico border contains more endangered species than anywhere else in the United States)

Stolzenburg, W. 1993. Busting plant poachers. Nature Conservancy 43(6): 16-23.

Stolzenburg, W. 1993. Florida's plumbing problems. Nature Conservancy 43(6): 8-9. (Everglades)

Stolzenburg, W. 1993. From the "hoods to the woods". Nature Conservancy 43(6): 6. (Urban Corps of San Diego, conservation corps for restoration projects)

Sunquist, F. 1993. Should we put them all back? Int. Wildlife 23(5): 34-40. (Reintroduction of endangered species)

Thorbjarnarson, J. 1993. Park in peril. Wildlife Conserv. 96(3): 16. (Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador)

Tonkyn, D. 1993. Optimization techniques for the genetic management of endangered species. End. Species UPDATE 10(8): 1-4, 9.

Vanclay, J. 1993. Saving the tropical forest: needs and prognosis. Ambio 22(4): 225-231.

Velez-Rodriguez, L. 1993. Mapas de uso del terreno en el Bosque Seco de Guanica. Verde Luz 3(1): 5. (Biosphere reserve)

Warwick, R. 1993. Environmental impact studies on marine communities: pragmatic considerations. Australian J. Ecology 18(1): 63-80.

Williams, H. 1993. Batman III - saving a bat cave. Nature Conservancy 43(5): 32. (Atkins Cave, Pennsylvania, home to several threatened bat species)

Williams, H. 1993. Oases in the high desert. Nature Conservancy 43(5): 30. (High desert of southeast Oregon under protection)

Yoon, C. 1993. Rain forests seen as shaped by human hand. New York Times July 27: C1, C10. (Costa Rica)

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