Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 128
January 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


In late October 1993 the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, announced the creation of the Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Gopher Server. With over 120 million collections and 135 professional scientists, the NMNH is one of the world's largest museums devoted to natural history and anthropology. This new server will provide access to data associated with the collections, and information and tools for the study of the natural world.

Initial offerings on the server are from the departments of Botany and Vertebrate Zoology and the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics. Other departments will be joining the server shortly.

The Department of Botany menu includes the Type Specimen Register of the U.S. National Herbarium (88,000 records), an index to the historical collections represented in the U.S. National Herbarium (1600 records as of 1965), recent issues of the Biological Conservation Newsletter and the ASPT Newsletter, a biological conservation bibliography (over 6000 records), and a copy of the Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas.

The Department of Vertebrate Zoology is making available a checklist of the mammal species of the world. The checklist contains the names of 4629 currently-recognized species arranged in a taxonomic hierarchy. The information is abstracted from Mammal Species of the World (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993).

The Laboratory of Molecular Systematics is providing an FTP server to the PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony) program and related software for phylogenetic analysis. This can be accessed from the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics menu on the new Gopher Server.

The server's name is: Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Gopher. The Hostname is: (currently at The Port Number is: 70. For further information, please contact: Don Gourley, Gopher Administrator (e-mail: don or Ellen Farr, Department of Botany (e-mail:


The Center for the Study of Neotropical Biodiversity (BIOCENTRO) is a new facility of the National Experimental University of the Western Llanos "Esquiel Zamora" (UNELLEZ). BIOCENTRO is located near the main entrance of the university campus at Mesa de Cavacas in Guanare, Venezuela and when completed will contain a museum building and an exhibits and education building. Since its establishment in 1977, UNELLEZ has placed a strong emphasis on biological inventories and ecological studies. In 1983 the Natural History Museum was officially founded to include the Museum of Zoology, the Herbarium, and the Earth Science Museum with its Cartography and Satellite Imagery Lab.

As a center of higher learning, UNELLEZ has campuses in each of the four states that comprise the Western Llanos: Apure, Barinas, Cojedes and Portuguesa. The university has developed academic programs with both curricular and extra-curricular courses; a research program in both basic and applied sciences; and extension services to promote community involvement and the application of new technologies to the solution of local problems. Research at the Guanare campus is currently underway in three departments: Agronomy, Animal Science, and Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources. The latter department in particular has a wide scope of research, whose priority is the rational development of the country. In the Department of Renewable Natural Resources the Museum of Zoology and the Herbarium have played a fundamental role in furthering research related to the collection, identification, and conservation of the fauna and flora of the entire country, and in particular the western llanos and the Amazon territory. The Museum of Zoology has over 34,000 catalogued entries of vertebrates and the herbarium has over 60,000 mounted plant specimens, with many more to be processed. Since current space is insufficient for these expanding collections, the construction of BIOCENTRO has been a priority for the university and for the development of the study of the natural sciences in Venezuela.

The principal objective of the BIOCENTRO is to permit investigators and students to work in a specifically designed facility that will be more conducive to productivity and to attract more visiting scientists from Venezuela and international centers for the study of neotropical biodiversity. Another goal is to accommodate community involvement and environmental education through museum exhibits, special courses and workshops, and an intrepretive ecological trail on the wooded grounds. Thus the new center will provide areas for all three of the university's main activities: investigation, teaching and community extension.

The BIOCENTRO is currently under construction with contributions from several different national and international institutions. Only one tenth of the total budget has been raised and the university welcomes contributions to make this center a reality. This project will create a regional, national and international center for the study of tropical biodiversity, and significantly promote biological research in Venezuela. For more information, contact: Dr. Donald C. Taphorn, BIOCENTRO-UNELLEZ, Mesa de Cavacas, Guanare, Estado Portuguesa 3310, Venezuela; Tel: 057-68006 or 68008; Fax: 057-511690, 68130 or 68156.


A new research tool is available for policy makers, managers, educators and field officers who seek information about the conservation and sustainable development of tropical forests. Tropical Forest Conservation and Development: A Bibliography by Jean Albrecht is a 250-page reference on various subjects, including forest resources; deforestation; indigenous peoples; management, policy and planning; trade and industrial development; non-timber forest products; research, education and training; and history. Arranged by subject, with an author index, the 1,757 publications are from the collections of the University of Minnesota libraries. Loans or photocopies are available through the Interlibrary Loan Office, St. Paul Campus Libraries, 1984 Buford Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108. The bibliography is accessible electronically through the Internet, using Gopher software, with periodic updates available at this address: 70).

Another electronic information service, Bioline Publications, has been established on Internet, to make information from journals, newsletters and technical reports more accessible to biologists. Bioline Publications is collaborating with the Tropical Data Base in Brazil, and working closely with publishers of journals, newsletters and authors of papers and reports worldwide. Using the Internet network, through gopher software, readers may browse and search, without cost, through large quantities of references using simple menus, keywords or phrases to search the system.

To access Bioline Publications using gopher choose the Bioline Publications option from the menu of the Base de Dados Tropical at (IP address, in Campinas, Brasil. All information and instructions for use are available online from the main menu. For more information contact: Bioline Publications, Stainfield House, Stainfield, Bourne, Lincs PE10 0RS, England; (Tel: 44-778-570618; Fax: 44 778 570175) or by e- mail:


February 11-19. A course on the evaluation and monitoring of plant diversity in tropical forest areas, jointly sponsored by UNELLEZ's Program on Renewable Natural Resources and the Smithsonian Institution's Man and the Biosphere Program, will be held at UNELLEZ, Mesa de Cavacas campus, Venezuela. For more information, contact: Dr. Basil Stergios, UNELLEZ-Guanare, Programa de R.N.R., Herbario Universitario (PORT), Mesa de Cavacas, Edo. Portuguesa, Venezuela 3323; Tel: 057-68006-08 Ext. 239-240; Fax: 057-68130.

February 20-26. The 2nd Venezuelan Congress of Ecology will be held at UNELLEZ, Mesa de Cavacas, Venezuela. For more information, write: II Congreso Venezolano de Ecologia, UNELLEZ, Guanare, Estado Portuguesa 3310, Venezuela.

April 25-May 13. The Tropical Science Center is offering a course, Life Zone Ecology, in Spanish at several locations in Costa Rica. The course is open to professionals in forestry, biology, agronomy, ecology, nature preservation, geography, rural development and other areas in the natural resources field. The course will be an intensive instruction in the practical and theoretical use of the World Life Zone System of Ecological Classification developed by Dr. L. R. Holdridge. Cost will be US$2,700 which includes materials, lodging, meals, insurance, and course-related local transport. Interested parties will receive information regarding possible financing sources.

For additional information, write: Dr. Humberto Jimenez Saa, Program Coordinator, Tropical Science Center, P. O. Box 8-38700- 1000, San Jose, Costa Rica; Tel.: (506) 252649 or 533267; Fax: (506) 534963.


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Barbour, M., Pavlik, B., Lindstrom, S. and Drysdale, F. 1993. California's Changing Landscapes: Diversity and Conservation of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California. 224 pp.

Bauer, A. and Sadlier, R. 1993. Systematics, biogeography and conservation of the lizards of New Caledonia. Biodiversity Letters 1(3/4): 107-122.

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Bodmer, R. 1993. The Reserva Comunal Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo: conserving Amazonian forest with local communities. TCD News. letter 28: 8-9.

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Boonstra, T. 1993. Commercialization of the Tucurui reser. voir fishery in the Brazilian Amazon. TCD Newsletter 28: 1-4.

Brown, W. 1993. Biology, Status, and Management of the Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus): A Guide for Conser. vation. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 78 pp. (Herpetological Circular No. 22)

Burkey, T. 1993. Edge effects in seed and egg predation at two neotropical rainforest sites. Biol. Conserv. 66: 139- 143.

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Clugston, M. 1993. Algonquin Park. Canadian Geographic 113(6): 20-34.

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DiSilvestro, R. 1994. Rescue from the twilight zone. Int. Wildlife 24(1): 4-13. (IUCN's Species Survival Commission)

Duckworth, D., Genoways, H. and Rose, C. 1993. Preserving Natural Science Collections: Chronicle of Our Environmental Heritage. National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property, Washington, DC.

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Elsol, J. 1993. Aspects of rarity in the Australian flora. Austrobaileya 4(1): 1-6.

Fitzpatrick, N. 1993. Assessing the health of streams. Audubon Naturalist 19(10): 17-18.

Forster, P. 1993. A taxonomic revision of Neisosperma Raf. (Apocynaceae) in Australia, together with a key to Australian genera of Apocynaceae. Austrobaileya 4(1): 13- 20. (Endangered species listed)

Framarin, F. 1993. The uncertain future of Stelvio National Park, the largest in the Alps. Biol. Conserv. 67(1): 85- 87.

Frid, A. 1993. Observations on habitat use and social organization of a huemel Hippocamelus bisulcus coastal population in Chile. Biol. Conserv. 67(1): 13-20.

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Gup, T. 1994. Giant on earth. Int. Wildlife 24(1): 44-51. (African elephant)

Hatcher, P. and Alexander, K. 1993. The status and conservation of the netted carpet Eustroma reticulatum (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a threatened moth species in Britain. Biol. Conserv. 67(1): 41-48.

Holt, A. 1994. Management and The Nature Conservancy. Nature Conservancy 44(1): 27.

Huston, M. 1993. Biological Diversity. The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 600 pp.

Jensen, D. 1994. Protection and The Nature Conservancy. Nature Conservancy 44(1): 21.

Katz, L., Orrick, S. and Honig, R. 1993. Environmental Profiles: A Global Guide to Projects and People. Garland Publishing, New York, NY. 1,083 pp. (Describes 3,000 people and 7,000 organizations working on environmental issues in 140 countries)

Kemp, R., Namkoong, G. and Wadsworth, F. 1993. Conservation of Genetic Resources in Tropical Forest Management: Principles and Concepts. FAO, Rome, Italy. 105 pp. (Ghana, Brazil, and India)

Koppel, T. 1993. Preserving the fruits of yesteryear. Canadian Geographic 113(6): 54-62.

Kotov, V. and Nikitina, E. 1993. Russia in transition: obstacles to environmental protection. Environment 35(10): 10-20.

Kuznik, F. 1994. Healing on the plain of reeds. Int. Wildlife 24(1): 14-17. (Saving Eastern Sarus cranes, Mekong River Valley, Vietnam)

Lovejoy, T. 1994. People and biodiversity. Nature Conservancy 44(1): 28-33.

MacQuarrie, K. 1992. Peru's Amazonian Eden: Manu National Park and Biosphere Reserve. Francis O. Patthey, Barcelona, Spain. 320 pp.

Maddock, A. and Mills, M. 1993. Population characteristics of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus in the Eastern Transvaal Lowveld, South Africa, as revealed through photographic records. Biol. Conserv. 67(1): 57-62.

McEuen, A. 1993. The wildlife corridor controversy: a review. End. Species UPDATE 10(11 & 12): 1-6, 12.

McKibben, B. 1993. The wild wild East. New York Times Magazine December 26: 28-31. (Old growth forest in the East, USA)

Meyer, T. 1993. Update of conservation programs at Red Butte Gardens and Arboretum. Plant Conservation 7(3): 6-7. (Utah)

Morin, M. and Conant, S. 1993. Variables influencing population estimates of an endangered passerine. Biol. Conserv. 67(1): 73-84. (Hawaiian honeycreeper)

Myers, N. 1993. The 6 'biggies'. People & the Planet 2(4): 31. (Six developing nations with the largest population in mid-1993)

Myers, N. 1993. Ultimate Security: the Environmental Basis of Political Stability. W.W. Norton, New York and London.

Neldner, V. 1993. The distribution and habitats of three presumed rare species from Cape York Peninsula. Austrobaileya 4(1): 121-128.

North, S., Bullock, D. and Dulloo, M. 1993. Changes in the vegetation and reptile populations on Round Island, Mauritius, fol.lowing eradication of rabbits. Biol. Conserv. 67(1): 21-28.

Okie, S. 1993. Too much a big thing. Washington Post December 27: A3. (Elephant antipoaching efforts in Kenya)

Olney, P., Mace, G. and Feistner, A. 1993. Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive Animals. Chapman and Hall, London, England. 400 pp.

Olwell, P. 1993. 'Restoring diversity: strategies for rare plant reintroductions. Plant Conservation 7(3): 1-3. (Conference held April 20-22, 1993)

Parker, T. III, Foster, R., Emmons, L., Freed, P., Forsyth, A., Hoffmann, B. and Gill, B. 1993. A Biological Assessment of the Kanuku Mountain Region of Southwestern Guyana. Conservation International, Washington, DC. (RAP Working Papers 5)

Potter, C., Cohen, J. and Janczewski, D. 1993. The Potential of Biodiversity: Case Studies in Genetic Resource Conservation and Development. AAAS Press Books, Waldorf, Maryland.

Prescott-Allen, R. 1993. Sustaining life in frontier land. People & the Planet 2(4): 23-25. (Plains of Tortuguero, Costa Rica)

Prescott-Allen, R. 1993. Where loggers and tree huggers play. People & the Planet 2(4): 25-28. (Green Plan, sustainable development strategy for Clayoquot Sound, Canada)

Primack, R. 1993. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 564 pp.

Ramakrishna, K. and Woodwell, G. 1993. World Forests for the Future: Their Use and Conservation. Yale University Press, Hartford, Connecticut. 156 pp.

Raven, P. 1994. Defining biodiversity. Nature Conservancy 44(1): 10-15.

Redford, K. 1994. Science and The Nature Conservancy. Nature Conservancy 44(1): 15.

Rensberger, B. 1994. Medicine: plant shows promise as AIDS drug. Washington Post January 3: A2. (Ancistrocladus korupensis, Cameroon)

Robinson, J. 1994. Carving up tomorrow's planet. Int. Wildlife 24(1): 30-37. (Sustainable use)

Rowley, J. and Raunier, B. 1993. Bhorletar: the sustainable village. People & the Planet 2(4): 14-19. (Nepal)

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Sakya, K. 1993. 'These virgin peaks must be kept inviolate'. People & the Planet 2(4): 20-22. (Sustainable tourism, Nepal)

Salleh, K. 1991. Rafflesia. Magnificent Flower of Sabah. Borneo Publishing Co., Kota Kinbalu, Borneo. 48 pp. (Threatened species)

Sauer, J. 1993. Historical Geography of Crop Plants. A Select Roster. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 309 pp.

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Shrader-Frechette, K. and McCoy, E. 1993. Method in Ecology. Strategies for Conservation. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 350 pp.

Sitwell, N. 1993. The grub and the Galapagos. New Scientist 140(1903): 32-35. (Sea cucumbers threatened)

Skinner, M. and Pavlik, B. 1993. CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California. 264 pp. (5th Edition)

Stearman, A. 1994. Losing game. Nat. History 103(1): 6-10. (Yuqui, Bolivia)

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Timberlake, L. 1993. Business and the environment. People & the Planet 2(4): 30.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. American Hart's- tongue Recovery Plan. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. 33 pp. (Asplenium scolopendrium L. var. americanum [Fernald] Kartesz and Gandhi))

Warner, R. 1993. Operating as a network. Biodiversity Network News 6(1): 1-3, 7. (The Nature Conservancy's Natural Heritage Program)

Watson, G. 1994. Sustainable development and The Nature Conservancy. Nature Conservancy 44(1): 33.

Wood, K. and Perlman, S. 1993. Rare and endangered flora of the Kalalau and Pohakuao Valleys. Bull. Nat. Trop. Bot. Gard. 24(3): 41-50. (Hawaii)

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Yong, P. and Pei-Gen, X. 1993. A review of the resource utilization of Chinese medicinal plants. J. Plant Resources and Environment 2(1): 49-55. (In Chinese)

Young, S. 1993. Reauthorization of the Marine Mammal Protection Act: the impact on fisheries and endangered marine mammals. End. Species UPDATE 10(11 & 12): 13-14.

Ypsilantis, J. 1993. Protected Areas and Demographic Change: Planning for the Future. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. (Policy options in Madagascar)

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