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Department ofBotany

No. 129
February 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Peruvian Primatology Project began in 1976 as a joint project between the government of Peru and the Pan American Health Organization to halt the depletion of Peru's wild primate population. The project extends over 75 million hectares of jungle. The Center for Primate Reproduction and Conservation is located in the city of Iquitos. The main objectives of the project are: the development of programs designed to conserve nonhuman primates as a renewable natural resource and to assess their current population dynamics; and the conservation of these species by the rational production of a limited number of high quality, fully conditioned animals for repopulation or to make them available for the benefit of public health.

Two distinct primate populations are maintained: (1) free- roaming natural populations located in national parks and on nearby islands that serve as model populations for ecological, reproductive and ethological studies conducted under natural conditions and (2) colony-reared populations raised under controlled conditions to ensure a continuous supply of well socialized, high quality animals of known health status. Six shelters house the breeding colonies consisting of 750 animals, two shelters are allocated for the quarantine of primates and one shelter has been dedicated to preserve a collection of Peru's rare and endangered primate species.

The Peruvian Primatology Project has contributed to wildlife conservation and socioeconomic development by providing precise knowledge of taxonomy, biodiversity, geographical distribution and population density of the 32 nonhuman primate species indigenous to Peru as well as the development of guidelines for the protection and conservation of nonhuman primates in colony- reared facilities and in the wild. The awareness for the need of primate conservation and population management is gaining important ground within the community. Nonhuman primates, once regarded as a food source, are being recognized as a valuable and renewable natural resource.

For more information, write: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 525 Twenty-third Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037, or call: (202) 861-3200.


Save our Coral Reefs. A Coral Reef Care Manual for the Philippines and Neighbouring Seas by Don McAllister and Alejandro Ansula is available through Ocean Voice International. The manual focuses on coral reefs in the seas around the Philippines, but much of the information and conservation principles apply to other regions. It contains technical drawings, photos, and lists of publications and resource organizations for coral reef conservation. To order write: Ocean Voice International, 2883 Otterson Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1V 7B2 Canada. Cost: US $20 plus $2.50 postage for surface or $5 for air mail.

The Illinois 1993 Endangered and Threatened Plant Status report contains updates on species numbers, research findings, recovery progress and flood impacts of the 10 federally listed and 18 candidates for federal listing. The Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board has prepared a revised list of plants that are candidates for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act. The list reflects the changes published in the Federal Register of September 30, 1993. Both publications are available by writing to Illinoensis , the newsletter of the Illinois Native Plant Conservation Program, Illinois Department of Conservation, Division of Natural Heritage, 524 South 2nd Street, Springfield, Illinois 62710-1787.

The new U.S. List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants, updated through August 23, 1993, is now available. For a copy, write the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Publications Unit, 130 WEBB, Washington, DC 20240.

The Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) has published the report, Guidelines for Institutional Database Policies, the result of its two-year study and workshop on data sharing and database ethics. The report contains guidelines for natural history institutions housing specimen-based databases which address legal ownership, responsibilities of owners and users, and financial support. In addition it contains examples of data sharing agreements, presentations from the data sharing workshop, the ASC position on collections use agreements, and references on data sharing and transfer policies. Copies are available for $12 (includes postage) from ASC, 730 11th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001-4521; (202) 347-2850.

Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly is a new journal which aims to be a vehicle for the communication of ideas, research results, and practical solutions among the key stakeholders of crises: communities, corporations and government agencies. Articles report on crises that are caused by technological, economic, social or political factors and that lead to large-scale damage. Recent examples include the Bhopal disaster, Chernobyl nuclear accident and the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Subscription prices: academic library ($195); corporate ($295); personal ($50); Third World non-profit organizations ($50). To order, write: Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837; Tel.: (717) 524-1337 or 524-1821.


March 25-27. The University of Arizona is convening an international conference on "Biological Diversity: Exploring the Complexities". The conference aims to explore current national and transnational solutions to the problems stemming from the loss of biodiversity around the globe. It will bring together economists, government officials, scientists, activists, corporate representatives, lawyers, philosophers and environmentalists from different regions and countries. Conference fee: $350 which includes all sessions, reception, dinners on Friday and Saturday, two continental breakfasts and three lunches. For more information, write: Biodiversity Conference, University of Arizona, Biosciences West 516, Tucson, Arizona 85721; Tel: (602) 621-7961; Fax: (601) 621-9288, e-mail:


The Bishop Museum and the University of Hawaii are offering a Hymenoptera training course June 1-10 at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. The intense ten-day course in taxonomy and biology of Hymenoptera will be taught by an international team of specialists. The course will be similar to the very popular summer workshops sponsored by the Maryland Center for Systematic Entomology, but expanded to cover all Hymenoptera, with an emphasis on biological control. Lecture and laboratory sessions will take place at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, where low-cost dormitory accomodations will also be available. The class will be limited to 25. The course fee has not been determined, but will be approximately $500 per participant. Course credit may be available for an additional fee.

For registration forms and information, contact the Department of Natural Sciences (Entomology), Bishop Museum, Box 19000-A, Honolulu, Hawaii 96817 (808-847-8204).

The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) is offering a course on tropical diversity and conservation in Costa Rica August 1-23. The course will study the diversity of plants, animals and biotic interactions found in three types of tropical forest: rainforest, seasonally dry forest and cloud forest. Participants will learn about these tropical environments and their conservation via orientation walks, faculty-led field research projects, discussions and lectures. The course will be conducted in Costa Rica at the OTS operated field stations in lowland rainforest (La Selva) and seasonally dry forest (Palo Verde) and at the mid-elevation site, Volcan Cacao, in Guanacaste National Park.

Enrollment is limited to 22. Prerequisites: graduate coursework in biology, or approval of the course coordinator. Three graduate semester hours will be given. Participants are selected on the basis of background and goals related to the course. Motivation and seriousness of purpose, as well as the capacity to work collaboratively in a group under field conditions which often lack many familiar comforts including privacy, escape from biting insects, shelter from weather, are important factors. Priority is given to applicants who are enrolled in, or accepted for, graduate programs at OTS member institutions.

Application fee: $25; course fee: $1,550 (OTS members), $2,600 (non-OTS members); plus transportation to Costa Rica and personal expenses. Application deadline: April 15, 1994. For an application, write: Organization for Tropical Studies, Box 90630, Durham, NC 27708-0630; Tel: (919) 684-5774; Fax: (919) 684-5661.

The University for Peace in Colon, Costa Rica is offering several courses this year in natural resource conservation and management. They include: June 6-24 - Buffer Zone Management for Protected Areas; July 4-22 - Ecotourism; August 15-September 2 - Enhancing the Value of Tropical Natural Forests through Non- timber Products and Services; September 19-October 7 - Conflict Resolution in Natural Resources Management. All courses are $2,300 (all inclusive, except air fare). A limited number of partial or complete fellowships is available. For more information, contact Mr. Felipe Matos, Natural Resources Program, University for Peace, Apdo. 138, 6100 Ciudad Colon, Costa Rica; Tel.: (506) 49 15 11/12/13; Fax: (506) 49 19 29/53 42 27.


The Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Manager, Conservation Programs. The position is based at the National Office of the Center which is headquartered at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. The CPC is a national organization which coordinates the plant activities of 25 participating gardens and numerous cooperators throughout the United States and is dedicated to the preservation of America's rare plants.

This position manages the CPC's conservation program in its national network of Participating Institutions, supervises the National Collection of Endangered Plants, and manages the Priority Regions and Integrated Conservation Programs. The manager develops action plans and supervises support staff, drafts annual budgets, seeks and manages grants, and participates in plant conservation activities at the regional, national and international levels.

The successful candidate will have a Master's degree in botany, horticulture, or a related field. A Ph.D. is preferred. Three to five years' experience in botanic gardens, plant conservation management, and/or research are required, as are knowledge of the plant conservation community and experience working with governmental agencies and NGOs. Excellent communication and writing skills, computer literacy, and a willingness to travel are also essential.

Applications will be accepted until position is filled. However, interested individuals with the specified position qualifications should apply immediately and submit a resume and three references to: Manager, Conservation Programs, #108-L20.K, Center for Plant Conservation, Human Resource Management, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166.


Alcover, J. and McMinn, M. 1994. Predators of vertebrates on islands. BioScience 44(1): 12-19. (Many islands are likely to have had predators which are now extinct)

Allen, W. 1994. Reintroduction of endangered plants. BioScience 44(2): 65-69.

Allison, A., Samuelson, G. and Miller, S. 1993. Patterns of beetle species diversity in New Guinea rain forest as revealed by canopy fogging: preliminary findings. Selbyana 14: 16-20.

Alpert, P. 1993. The professional biologist: support for biodiversity research from the US Agency for International Development. BioScience 43(9): 628-631. (Support for conservation of biodiversity in lower-income countries)

Angel, M. 1993. Biodiversity of the Pelagic Ocean. Conservation Biology 7(4): 760-772.

Anon. 1994. Amazon Indians seek to reclaim rainforest homeland. EDF Letter 24(1): 1, 5. (Parana, Brazil)

Anon. 1994. Before the fall. Sierra 79(1): 44-49. (British Columbia forests threatened by loggers)

Anon. 1993. California condors moved to new breeding facility in Idaho. End. Species Tech. Bull. 18(4): 18.

Anon. 1993. Following steady recovery, the Arctic peregrine falcon is proposed for removal from the list of threatened species. End. Species Tech. Bull. 18(4): 1-2.

Anon. 1993. Louisiana pearlshell reclassified as threatened. End. Species Tech. Bull. 18(4): 20. (Margaritifera hembeli)

Anon. 1993. Turtles in trouble. Kambul 3(4): 3. (Sea turtles, Mexico)

Appasamy, P. 1993. Role of non-timber forest products in a subsistence economy: the case of a joint forestry project in India. Econ. Botany 47(3): 258-267.

Ashworth, J., Corlett, R., Dudgeon, D., Melville, D. and Tang, W. S. M. 1993. Hong Kong Flora and Fauna: Computing Conservation. World Wide Fund for Nature, Hong Kong. (A GIS database for conservation planning in Hong Kong)

Association of Systematics Collections. 1993. Guidelines for Institutional Database Policies. Association for Systematics Collections, Washington, DC. 76 pp.

Baskin, Y. 1993. Blue behemoth bounds back. BioScience 43(9): 603-605. (Blue whales)

Berger, J., Cunningham, C., Gawuseb, A. and Lindeque, M. 1993. "Costs" and short-term survivorship of hornless black rhinos. Conservation Biology 7(4): 920-924.

Birstein, V. 1993. Sturgeons and paddlefishes: threatened fishes in need of conservation. Conservation Biology 7(4): 773-787.

Bjorndal, K., Bolten, A. and Lagueux, C. 1993. Decline of the nesting population of hawksbill turtles at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Conservation Biology 7(4): 925-927.

Bowen, B., Avise, J., Richardson, J., Meylan, A., Margatitoulis, D. and Hopkins-Murray, S. 1993. Population structure ofloggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Conservation Biology 7(4): 834-844.

Bradford, D., Tabatabai, F. and Graber, D. 1993. Isolation of remaining populations of the native frog, Rana muscosa, by introduced fishes in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. Conservation Biology 7(4): 882-888.

Cairns, M. and Meganck, R. 1994. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: integrated forest management. Environ. Management 18(1): 13-22.

Carrino, W. 1994. Palm in peril. Am. Forests 100(1 & 2): 39-41. (Sabal palm, Florida)

Caughley, G. 1993. Elephants and economics. Conservation Biology 7(4): 943.

Chopra, K. 1993. The value of non-timber forest products: an estimation for tropical deciduous forests in India. Econ. Botany 47(3): 251-257.

Cohen, S. 1994. The collectors. Washington Post Magazine January 9: 8-11, 24-26, 29. (Ted Parker and Alwyn Gentry)

Cohn, J. 1994. Indonesian treasure has a Jurassic appeal. BioScience 44(1): 4-7. (Komodo dragons at zoos)

Congdon, J., Dunham, A. and Van Loben Sels, R. 1993. Delayed sexual maturity and demographics of Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii): implications for conservation and management of long-lived organisms. Conservation Biology 7(4): 826-833.

Davis, N. 1994. Healing hurting lands. Am. Forests 100(1 & 2): 22-25. (Restoration of damaged lands)

Devine, R. 1994. Botanical barbarians. Sierra 79(1): 50-57. (Invasive plant species)

Dillon, M. 1993. Analisis floristico del bosque monteseco (Cajamarca, Peru) e implicacias para su conservacion. Arnaldoa 1(3): 45-64.

DiSilvestro, R. 1994. Rescue from the twilight zone. Int. Wildlife 24(1): 4-14. (Threatened wildlife)

Dodd, J. 1994. Desertification and degradation in sub- Saharan Africa. BioScience 44(1): 28-34. (Role of livestock)

Eisner, T. and Beiring, E. 1994. Roundtable: Biotic Exploration Fund - protecting biodiversity through chemical prospecting. BioScience 44(2): 95-98.

Frankenberger, T. 1993. Promoting sustainable livelihoods in areas prone to recurrent drought. Arid Lands Newsletter 34: 30-36. (Africa)

Ganesan, B. 1993. Extraction of non-timber forest products, including fodder and fuelwood, in Mudumalai, India. Econ. Botany 47(3): 268-274.

Garrott, R., White, P. and White, C. 1993. Overabundance: an issue for conservation biologists? Conservation Biology 7(4): 944-949.

Gibbs, K. E. 1993. Life history, status, and conservation of the mayfly, Siphlonisca aerodromia Needham. Maine Naturalist 1(3): 121-130.

Godoy, R. and Bawa, K. 1993. The economic value and sustainable harvest of plants and animals from the tropical forest: assumptions, hypotheses, and methods. Econ. Botany 47(3): 215-219.

Godoy, R., Lubowski, R. and Markandaya, A. 1993. A method for the economic valuation of non-timber tropical forest products. Econ. Botany 47(3): 220-233.

Gonzalez-Elizondo, S., Gonzalez-Elizondo, M. and Cortis- Ortiz, A. 1993. Vegetacion de la reserva de la biosfera "La Michilia", Durango, Mexico. Acta Botanica Mexicana 22: 1- 104.

Gunatilake, H., Senaratne, M. and Abeygunawardena, P. 1993. Role of non-timber forest products in the economy of peripheral communities of Knuckles National Wilderness Area of Sri Lanka: a farming systems approach. Econ. Botany 47(3): 275-281.

Haapoja, M. 1994. Conservation easements. Are they for you? Am. Forests 100(1 & 2): 29-31, 38.

Hall, P. and Bawa, K. 1993. Methods to assess the impact of extraction of non-timber tropical forest products on plant populations. Econ. Botany 47(3): 234-247.

Hall, S. and Ruane, J. 1993. Livestock breeds and their conservation: a global overview. Conservation Biology 7(4): 815-825.

Harrison, S., Stahl, A. and Doak, D. 1993. Spatial models and spotted owls: exploring some biological issues behind events. Conservation Biology 7(4): 950-953.

Heyer, R., Donnelly, M., McDiarmid, R., Hayek, L. A. and Foster, M. (Eds). 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 320 pp.

Huston, M. 1993. Biological diversity, soils, and economics. Science 263: 1676-1679.

Johnson, D. and Schwartz, M. 1993. The conservation reserve program and grassland birds. Conservation Biology 7(4): 934-937.

Jones, L. and Kotin, I. 1994. Ecotourism: entering the terrible twos. Earth Journal 6(2): 18-19.

Jones, M. 1994. Frog endangerment. Science 263: 13.

Kremen, C., Colwell, R., Erwin, T., Murphy, D., Noss, R. and Sanjayan, M. 1993. Terrestrial arthropod assemblages: their use in conservation planning. Conservation Biology 7(4): 796- 808.

Kuznik, F. 1994. Healing on the plain of reeds. Int. Wildlife 24(1): 14-17. (Vietnam's Mekong River Valley)

Leary, R., Allendorf, F. and Forbes, S. 1993. Conservation genetics of bull trout in the Columbia and Klamath River drainages. Conservation Biology 7(4): 856-865.

Licht, D. 1993. Young North Dakotans get tubs full of endangered species education. End. Species Tech. Bull. 18(4): 19.

Lindberg, K. and Hawkins, D. 1993. Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers. The Ecotourism Society, North Bennington, Vermont.

Martin, D. 1993. The Lake Wales Ridge National Wildlife Refuge: preserving a treasure trove of biodiversity. End. Species Tech. Bull. 18(4): 3-4. (Florida)

McAllister, D. and Ansula, A. 1993. Save Our Coral Reefs. A Coral Reef Care Manual for the Philippines and Neighbouring Seas. Ocean Voice International, Ottawa, Canada. 126 pp.

Milton, S., Dean, W., Du Plessis, M. and Siegfried, W. 1994. A conceptual model of arid rangeland degradation. BioScience 44(2): 70-76.

Momatiuk, Y. and Eastcott, J. 1994. The decline and fall of northern cod. Nature Canada 23(1): 16-25.

Morris, M., Bryson, C. and Warren, R. 1993. Rare vascular plants and associate plant communities from the Small Creek Chalk Bluffs, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi. Castanea 58(4): 250-259.

Munn, C. 1994. Winged rainbows: macaws. Nat. Geographic 185(1): 118-140. (Peru)

Nowak, R. 1993. Court upholds controls on imports of Argali trophies. End. Species Tech. Bull. 18(4): 11-12.

Olwell, P. 1993. Restoring diversity: strategies for rare plant reintroductions. Plant Conservation 7(3): 1-2.

Parnell, J. 1993. Plant taxonomic research, with special reference to the tropics: problems and potential solutions. Conservation Biology 7(4): 809-814.

Peterson, B. 1993. California - Vanishing Habitats and Wildlife. Beautiful America Publishing Co., Wilsonville, Oregon. 144 pp.

Plotkin, M. 1993. Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice. Viking Penguin, New York. 319 pp.

Pomeroy, D. 1993. Centers of high biodiversity in Africa. Conservation Biology 7(4): 901-907.

Poulsen, A. 1993. Note on the rare terrestrial orchid Apostasia elliptica found in Borneo. Blumea 38(1): 129-130.

Rich, B. 1994. Mortgaging the Earth. Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

Rodda, G. 1993. How to lie with biodiversity. Conservation Biology 7(4): 959-960.

Salafsky, N. 1993. Mammalian use of a buffer zone agroforestry system bordering Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conservation Biology 7(4): 928-933.

Scheffer, V. 1993. The Olympic goat controversy: a perspective. Conservation Biology 7(4): 916-919.

Simberloff, D. and Tebo, M. 1994. Corridors for conservation. Living Birds 13(1): 8-14.

Sladen, W. 1994. Habitat use by North American landbird migrants on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. El Pitirre 7(1): 3.

Slocombe, S. 1993. Implementing ecosystem-based management. BioScience 43(9): 612-623.

Speart, J. 1994. The rhino chainsaw massacre. Earth Journal 6(2): 26-31, 83, 86-87.

Stevens, D. and Goodson, N. 1993. Assessing effects of removals for transplanting on a high-elevation bighorn sheep population. Conservation Biology 7(4): 908-915.

Sweeney, S. and Ogilvie, R. 1993. The conservation of coastal plain flora in Nova Scotia. Maine Naturalist 1(3): 131-144.

U.S. Department of the Interior. 1993. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 40 pp.

Vidal, O. 1993. Aquatic mammal conservation in Latin America: problems and perspectives. Conservation Biology 7(4): 788-795.

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