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Department ofBotany

No. 130
March 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) is developing a program to exchange scientific information between North American institutions and institutions in Cuba. The exchange of materials between scholarly institutions in the United States and Cuba has been greatly curtailed for thirty years. Thus, Cuba has become isolated from much of the world's scientific discourse. Though the United States still has an official embargo against Cuba, in 1988 U.S. legislation was passed that allows for the import and export of informational materials.

As a tropical island nation with intense pressures of agricultural and human economic development, Cuba has an immediate, pressing need to develop local understanding of its iotic resources, beginning with fundamental systematic biology and biogeographic studies. This research can only be accomplished in a museum environment with access to international collections and a full range of information resources, including library, archives and databases. Presently, Cuba's information resources are beginning to be rebulit but are still extremely weak. ASC, acting as a cooperating partner with the Cuban Academy of Sciences and the National Museum of Natural History in Cuba, seeks to restore regular exchange of publications and archival materials and to strengthen the natural history libraries with reference texts and complete sets of scientific journals. The first stage of this project includes shipping back isues and facilitating current subscriptions of scientific journals to Cuba. The scientific work fostered through this project and related efforts will allow the potential for conservation in Cuba through the understanding and sustainable use of biotic resources.

If anyone is interested in donating scientific materials, please contact Elizabeth Hathway, ASC, 730 11th Street, N.W., Second Floor, Washington, DC 20001-4521. Tel: (202) 347-2850; Fax: (202) 347-0072.


The Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) and the National Biological Survey (NBS) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding which will bring the substantial resources of U.S. museums and botanical gardens into partnership with the National Biological Survey. The agreement recognizes common interests in four areas: biological collections resources, scientific expertise in taxonomy and related sciences, biodiversity information, and education. Under the agreement, a working group will be formed to explore such issues as the role of natural history institutions in the use of voucher specimens to support the work of the Survey, and facilitation of exchange of specimen- based data and other scientific information between the Nation's biological research collections and the Survey.

The National Biological Survey, begun in November 11, 1993, will gather, analyze, and disseminate the biological information necessary for the sound stewardship of the United States' natural resources, and foster understanding of biological systems and the benefits they provide to society. The NBS will perform research in support of biological resources management; inventory, monitor and report on the status and trends of the Nation's biotic resources; and develop the ability and resources to transfer information gained in research and monitoring to resource managers and to others concerned with the care, use and conservation of the country's natural resources.


Fading Forests. North American Trees and the Threat of Exotic Pests documents the extensive impact that exotic organisms have had on North American forests by using examples of affected tree species, such as the American chestnut, American elm, conifers, larch, American beech, and dogwoods. Forest ecosystems have been seriously affected by exotic pests over the years, but the impact has been largely ignored. This publication presents the economic and ecological consequences exotic organisms have on North American forests and suggests mechanisms for prevention of pests entering the United States. The report also relates the current challenges and problems of importing pest-free wood materials, particularly from Siberia, New Zealand and Chile. An increase in raw wood importations will raise the probability of new, exotic pest infestations.

Due to the growing number of exotic pests and the corresponding damage to forest ecosystems, the authors suggest that a comprehensive national pest management program needs to be developed within the framework of the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and the Forest Service.

Copies of the report can be purchased for $7.50 plus $1.45 shipping and handling from NRDC Publications, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011. Please make checks payable to NRDC in U.S. dollars only.


The Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Manager, Conservation Programs. The position is based at the National Office of the Center which is headquartered at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. The CPC is a national organization which coordinates the endangered plant activities of 25 participating gardens and numerous cooperators throughout the United States and is dedicated to the preservation of America's rare plants.

This position manages the CPC's conservation program in its national network of Participating Institutions, supervises the National Collection of Endangered Plants, and manages the Priority Regions and Integrated Conservation Programs. The manager develops action plans and supervises support staff, drafts annual budgets, seeks and manages grants, and participates in plant conservation activities at the regional, national and international levels.

The successful candidate will have a Master's degree in botany, horticulture, or a related field. A Ph.D. is preferred. Three to five years' experience in botanic gardens, plant conservation management, and/or research are required, as are knowledge of the plant conservation community and experience working with governmental agencies and NGOs. Excellent communication and writing skills, computer literacy, and a willingness to travel are also essential.

Applications will be accepted until position is filled. However, interested individuals with the specified position qualifications should apply immediately and submit a resume and three references to: Manager, Conservation Programs, #108-L20.K, Center for Plant Conservation, Human Resource Management, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166.

The Florida Division of Forestry is accepting applications for the position of Biological Scientist II, Botanist/Plant Ecologist. The individual selected will be responsible for designing and implementing permanent, long-term monitoring and management plans for occurrences of federally-listed plants at Lake Arbuckle State Forest and other public lands in Highlands and Polk counties; determining population trends for these species; and evaluating effects of management activities on reproduction, recruitment and survival. The position will be located in central Florida.

Minimum requirements are: a bachelor's degree with a major in botany or ecology and one year of professional experience related to the tasks above; or a master's degree in one of the biological sciences. Preference will be given to holders of a master's degree with research/professional experience in plant ecology, demography, statistical analysis and experimental design. This position will require extensive field work under the sometimes harsh conditions of Florida scrub vegetation.

The position is a full-time position funded under a federal grant; although a long-term project is anticipated, funding is on a year-to-year basis. The salary range is $840.68 - $936.81 biweekly; $1,821.47 - $2,029.76 monthly.

State of Florida employment applications must be submitted to Shelly Hatton, Florida Division of Forestry, 3125 Conner Blvd., Tallahassee, Florida 32399-1650. Tel: (904) 488-7617. The selection process will begin April 1, 1994.

Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) is seeking applicants for the post of Program Officer, to be based at BGCI's offices in the U.K. at Kew, Richmond. The major responsibilities will be to work as part of a small but energetic team fostering the development of a worldwide network of botanic gardens for plant conservation. The candidate appointed will work on a broad program, but especially to help strengthen networks of botanic gardens in developing countries and to enhance the ability of individual botanic garden institutions to undertake the conservation of biodiversity of their own regions.

The successful candidate will hold a minimum of a relevant science degree, together with an advanced degree and/or some post qualification experience. Good communication and editing skills will also be essential. Candidates should have a broad knowledge and interest in biodiversity conservation issues internationally, and although experience of botanic gardens and their operations will be an advantage, this is not essential. Fluency in English and other languages, especially French, are highly desirable, as well as some knowledge and experience of computer databases.

The salary for this position will be 16,000-18,000 pounds sterling, depending on the candidate's skill, experience and qualifications. The job is offered initially for a three year contract.

Candidates who would like to be considered for the post should send a curriculum vitae as soon as possible, plus the names and addresses of three references, in confidence, to: The Secretary General, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Descanso House, 199 Kew Road, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3BW, U.K. Tel: (81) 332-5943/4/5; Fax: (81) 332-5956. There is no closing date for applications but the position will be filled when a suitable candidate is identified.


May 24-28. The International Congress of Medicinal Plants: Biodiversity of Medicinal Plants in Ethnobotany and Traditional Medicine will be held at the American Museum of Natural History. The aims of the conference is to bring together traditional and ethnobotanical researchers internationally from Asia and the Americas to: exchange methodologies and establish criteria for informational collection; develop methodologies to preserve medicinal cultures that will become a model for application in indigenous communities; and stregthen the network of traditional and ethnobotanical researchers worldwide.

June 7-11. The 8th Annual Meeting of the Society of Conservation Biology will be held jointly with the Association for Tropical Biology at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. For registration fee and more information, contact: SCB/ATB Joint Meeting, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706; Tel: (608) 262- 2671; Fax: (608) 262-6099.

June 19-22. The International Arid Lands Consortium announces a workshop, "Arid Lands Management - Towards Ecological Sustainability" to be held in Jerusalem and the Negev, Israel. The workshop will record the state-of-the knowledge of arid and semiarid lands processes; identify knowledge gaps; and provide arid land managers with potential implementation mechanisms so they can better apply accumulated knowledge. For more information, contact: Dr. Jim Chamie, Managing Director, International Arid Lands Consortium, 845 N. Park Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719-4896; Tel: (602) 621-3024; Fax: (602) 621-3816.

June 19-23. The International Society for Ecosystem Health and Medicine is sponsoring the "1st International Symposium on Ecosystem Health and Medicine, Integrating Science, Policy and Management" in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. For further information, contact: Office of Continuing Education, 159 Johnston Hall, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1; Tel: (519) 767-5000; Fax: (519) 767-0758; Internet:

June 20-26. The 35th annual meeting of the Society of Economic Botany will be held in Mexico City, Mexico. The main symposium will feature "collection and management of wild useful plants in Mexico" focusing on non-cultivated economic plants in arid, temperate, dry tropical and humid tropical zones with emphasis on their diversity, collection, management, processing and commercialization. Registration fee due by May 15: members (US$100); non-members (US$120); student members (US$40); student non-members (US$45). For more information, contact Robert Bye, Jardin Botanico, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Post. 70-614, 04510 Mexico, DF, Mexico; Tel: (525) 616-1297; 622-9046; Fax: (525) 622-9046; 616-2326.


Anon. 1994. Alliance program spotlights natural resources & rights. The Canopy Winter: 1, 4-5. (Rainforest Alliance's project on biodiversity prospecting)

Anon. 1994. Amazon catfish mystery solved. The Canopy Winter: 1. (Scientist discovers spawning habits of economically important catfish)

Anon. 1993. Deforestation in three Brazilian states. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 23. (Espirito Santo, Santa Catarina, Parana)

Anon. 1994. Smart Wood Program now includes 25 participants. The Canopy Winter: 3. (Program to promote well-managed and sustainable sources of timber)

Anon. 1994. Victory at sea - commission acts to conserve bluefin tuna. FOCUS 16(1): 1, 7.

Aparecida Lopes, M. and Ferrari, S. 1993. Primate conservation in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 8-9.

Aymard, G. and Comiskey, J. 1994. Kwakwani: a new project in Guyana. Biodiversity News 3: 12. (SI/MAB plots)

Banuri, T. and Marglin, F. (Eds.). 1993. Who Will Save the Forests: Knowledge, Power, and Environmental Destruction. Zed Books.

Batisse, M. 1994. Mending the Med. People & the Planet 3(1): 17-18. (Increase in population threatens the environment of Mediterranean countries)

Bell, S. 1994. The role of Kew's living collection in orchid conservation. Kew Magazine 32-37.

Bortone, S. and Davis, W. 1994. Fish intersexuality as indicator of environmental stress. BioScience 44(3): 165- 172.

Broad, W. 1993. Too rich a soil: scientists find the flaw that undid the biosphere. New York Times (Environment) October 5: C1, C10. (Biosphere 2 project)

Brouwer, K., Stevenson, M. and Schmidt, C. 1993. European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) primate tag. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 17-18.

Bruenderman, S. and Terwilliger, K. 1994. Swimming beyond boundaries. The uncertain future of Virginia's marine mammals and sea turtles. VA Wildlife 55(1): 10-127.

Burns, B. 1993. The battle for the treasure of the Sierra Madre. Seedhead News 43: 1-2. (World Bank's Sierra Madre forestry project in Mexico)

Campbell, F. and Schlarbaum, S. 1994. Fading Forests. North American Trees and the Threat of Exotic Pests. Natural Resources Defense Council Inc., New York, New York. 47 pp.

Carey, J. 1994. The fox nobody knows. Int. Wildlife 24(2): 4-9. (Fennec, Algerian Sahara)

Cohn, J. 1994. Elephants. Zoogoer 23(1): 9-23.

Comiskey, J. 1994. BioMon: SI/MAB biodiversity monitoring database. Biodiversity News 3: 8-9.

Cordero, G. 1994. Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia. Biodiversity News 3: 14. (SI/MAB plots)

Dallmeier, F. 1994. A report from SI/MAB's director, Francisco Dallmeier. Biodiversity News 3: 3. (SI/MAB Program)

De Bois, H. and Van Elsacker, L. 1993. Research on golden- headed lion tamarins at Antwerp Zoo. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 18-19.

Dennis, N. 1994. Does CEQA protect rare plants? Fremontia 22(1): 3-13. (California Environmental Quality Act)

Eckstrom, C. 1994. Up Borneo's tropical tower. Int. Wildlife 24(2): 52-59. (Mount Kinabalu)

Edwards, V. 1994. Developing America's natural areas market. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 17-21.

Falkenberg, D. and Voltolini, J. 1993. The montane cloud forest in southern Brazil. pp. 86-93. In Hamilton, L., Juvik, J., and Scatena, F. (Eds.) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Ferrari, S. 1993. An update on the black-headed marmoset, Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari and Lopes 1992. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 11-13. (Brazil)

Foster, R. and Kabel, M. 1994. Manu: a haven of biodiversity. Biodiversity News 3: 11. (SI/MAB plots, Pakitsa area, Peru)

Garcia, A. and Leal, M. 1994. Bisley: post-hurricane rainforest. Biodiversity News 3: 14. (SI/MAB plots, Luquillo Mtns., Puerto Rico)

Gaston, K. 1994. Estimating extinction rates: Joseph Bank's legacy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9(3): 80-82.

Gibson, D. 1994. The wild Adirondacks: a singular legacy, diverse landscape, and infinite opportunites. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 38-43. (New York)

Glick, D. 1994. Windows on the world. Nat. Wildlife 32(2): 4-13. (Shuttles and satellites record data on environment)

Gnam, R. 1994. Parrot in a hole. Int. Wildlife 24(2): 48-51. (Bahama parrot, endangered)

Gordon, D. 1994. Translocation of species into conservation areas: a key for natural resource managers. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 31-37.

Gruchow, P. 1994. Rite of spring. Nature Conservancy 44(2): 24-29. (Sandhill cranes, Nebraska's Platte River)

Guohui, K. 1994. SI/MAB in China. Biodiversity News 3: 4-5. (Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve)

Hammerson, G. 1994. Beaver (Castor canadensis): ecosystem alterations, management, and monitoring. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 44-57.

Heymann, E. 1993. Field studies on tamarins, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis, in northeastern Peru. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 10-11.

Hinrichsen, D. 1994. Coasts under pressure. People & the Planet 3(1): 6-9.

Hinrichsen, D. 1994. Where women take control. People & the Planet 3(1): 22-23. (Women take charge of environmental resources in the Philippines)

Holdgate, M. 1993. The sustainable use of tropical coastal resources - a key conservation issue. AMBIO 22(7): 481- 482.

Horwitz, S. 1994. How to make taxol from scratch. Nature 367(6464): 593-594. (Anti-cancer drug)

INPARQUES/EcoNatura. 1994. Guatopo National Park: the first census. Biodiversity News 3: 10. (SI/MAB plots, Venezuela)

Jepson, P. 1993. Secrets of Sumba. World Birdwatch 15(4): 6-8. (Indonesia)

Kemf, E. (Ed.). 1993. The Law of the Mother. Earthscan and Sierra Club Books, London and San Francisco, California. (Indigenous peoples and protected areas)

Kuleshova, L. 1994. Ornithological research in reserves of the former Soviet Union. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 12-16.

Leiva, A. and Pena, E. 1993. Jardines botanicos y conservacion: un enfoque para America Latina y el Caribe. Boletin de los Jardines Botanicos de America Latina 3: 21- 22. (Mexico)

Lipske, M. 1994. Cutting down Canada. Int. Wildlife 24(2): 10-17.

Loker, W., Carter, S., Jones, P. and Robison, D. 1993. Identification of areas of land degradation in the Peruvian Amazon using a geographic information system. Interciencia 18(3): 133-141.

Lundin, C. and Linden, O. 1993. Coastal ecosystems: attempts to manage a threatened resource. AMBIO 22(7): 468-473.

Malcolm, S. and Zalucki, M. (Eds.). 1993. Monarch Butterfly. Natural History Museum, Los Angeles, California. 419 pp.

Maramorosch, K. 1993. The threat of cadang-cadang disease. Principes 37(4): 187-196. (Fatal disease of palms in the Philippines and Guam)

McDade, L., Bawa, K., Hespenheide, H. and Hartshorn, G. (Eds.). 1994. La Selva. Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 465 pp. (Costa Rica)

Meine, C. 1993. The calling of cranes. World Birdwatch 15(4): 14-17. (International Crane Foundation)

Mora Osejo, L. 1993. La conservacion de especies vegetales de los Bosques Andinos de Colombia en el Jardin Botanico "Jose Celestino Mutis". Boletin de los Jardines Botanicos de America Latina 3: 14-15.

Mortimer, J., Ahmad, Z. and Kaslan, S. 1993. The status of the hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata and green turtle Chelonia mydas of Melaka and Negeri Sembilan. Malayan Nature J. 46(3 & 4): 243-254.

Nabhan, G. 1994. Portraits in sand. Nature Conservancy 44(2): 10-15. (California's Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes Preserve)

Neves, R. 1994. Brooding over mussels. VA Wildlife 55(1): 4-11. (Virginia's conservation efforts)

Ngoile, M. and Horrill, C. 1993. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: coastal ecosystem management. AMBIO 22(7): 461-467.

Ohman, M., Rajasuriya, A., and Linden, O. 1993. Human disturbance on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: a case study. AMBIO 22(7): 474-480.

Olsen, S. and Hale, L. 1994. Coasts: the ethical dimension. People & the Planet 3(1): 29-31. (Threatened resource)

Raver, A. 1994. Seed by seed, row by row: hope for ancient plants. New York Times (Home Sect.) : C1, C6. (Preserving heirloom seeds of economic value)

Ray, G. 1994. St. John: dry evergreen tropical scrubland. Biodiversity News 3: 13. (SI/MAB plots)

Reid, T. and Peterson, T. 1994. Laws for rare plant conservation. Fremontia 22(1): 20-26. (California)

Reis, G., Evangelista Ramos, A., Fatima Pereira da Silva, M. and Beraldo Ribeiro, S. 1993. Situacao atual dos jardins botanicos brasileiros. Boletin de los Jardines Botanicos de America Latina 3: 27-29. (Mexico)

Rittenhouse, B. and Rosentreter, R. 1994. The autecology of challis milkvetch, an endemic of east-central Idaho. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 22-30. (Conservation strategy for sensitive plants)

Roman, A. and Tassara, L. 1994. Front Royal international course. Biodiversity News 3: 6-7. (Training course in measuring and monitoring biodiversity, July/August 1994)

Rylands, A., Encarnacion, F. and Mittermeier, R. 1993. South American primates and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 1-2.

Salm, R. 1994. Coral's hidden riches. People & the Planet 3(1): 19-21. (Threatened by human activities)

Sanchez-Sanchez, O. 1993. El Jardin Botanico del Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo (CIQRO) "Dr Alfredo Barrera Marin". Boletin de los Jardines Botanicos de America Latina 3: 16-21. (Mexico)

Sarmiento, F. 1993. Human impacts on the cloud forests of the Upper Guayllabamba River Basin, Ecuador, and suggested management responses. pp. 183-190. In Hamilton, L., Juvik, J. and Scatena, F. (Eds.), Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Schmidt-Lynch, C. 1994. Jungle dolphins. Nature Conservancy 44(2): 16-23. (River dolphins, Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru)

Scott, D. (Ed.). 1993. A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania. International Waterfowl & Wetlands Research Bureau and Asian Wetland Bureau, Slimbridge, England and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 444 pp.

Shah, N. 1993. Not to be missed. World Birdwatch 15(4): 10-13. (Seychelles)

Siaffe, D. 1993. The Conservation Society of Sierra Leone. World Birdwatch 15(4): 20.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: A Natural History. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 703 pp. (Conservation)

Silva-Lopez, G., Jimenez-Huerta, J. and Benitez-Rodriguez, J. 1993. Availability of resources to primates and humans in a forest fragment of Sierra de Santa Martha, Mexico. Neotropical Primates 1(4): 3-6.

Solbrig, O. 1993. Biodiversity and economics. Interciencia 18(3): 118-119.

Speart, J. 1994. The case of the wandering bull. Nat. Wildlife 32(2): 14-17. (Woodland caribou, scarce in old- growth forests of Idaho)

Stevens, W. 1994. Rapid change seen in tropic forests. New York Times February 18: A1. (Effects of carbon dioxide on mature forests)

Stevens, W. 1994. Study bolsters value of species diversity. New York Times (Environment) February 1: C4. (Species richness and survival)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. Ashes to flowers. Nature Conservancy 44(2): 6. (Peter's Mountain, Virginia home to endangered mallow)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. The fall of the tree snails. Nature Conservancy 44(2): 8-9. (Hawaii)

Strong-Aufhauser, L. 1994. From the front lines of the rhino wars. Zoogoer 23(1): 6-7. (Rhinos of Africa)

Turner, M., Romme, W. and Gardner, R. 1994. Landscape disturbance models and the long-term dynamics of natural areas. Natural Areas J. 14(1): 3-11. (Yellowstone National Park)

Wheeler, T. 1994. Saving the Bay. People & the Planet 3(1): 24-25. (Chesapeake Bay, Maryland)

Whigham, D., Dykyjova, D. and Hejny, S. (Eds.). 1993. Wetlands of the World: Inventory, Ecology and Management, Vol. 1. Africa, Australia, Canada and Greenland, Mediterranean, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, South Asia, Tropical South America, United States. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts. 768 pp.

Wilcox, E. 1994. Haiti fisherman plan a marine park. People & the Planet 3(1): 28-29. (Les Arcadins Bank)

Wofford, B. and Kral, R. 1993. Checklist of the vascular plants of Tennessee. Sida, Bot. Miscellany 10: 1-66. (400 threatened taxa)

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