Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 131
April 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The National Museum of the Philippines, through a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, established the Biodiversity Information Center - Plants Unit in January.

The center serves as an information resource on plant conservation in the Philippines for scientists, environmental planners, conservation organizations, government agencies, students, teachers and the general public. The Plants Unit maintains a comprehensive database and library on plant conservation, rare and endangered Philippine plants, biodiversity, taxonomy, systematics and related subjects. Training seminars on practical plant conservation techniques are also offered.

Any inquiries can be addressed to Dr. Madulid, Head, Biodiversity Information Center-Plants Unit, National Museum, P. Burgos St., P.O. Box 2659, Manila, Philippines.


The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund supports field research in conservation biology throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The fund emphasizes support of graduate students and other young researchers, particularly those from Latin America. Since 1986, the fund has awarded over 45 grants in 13 countries. Between five and 15 projects are supported each year. Awards are seldom greater than $7,500 (US), with most awards ranging between $3,000 and $5,000. Initial support is for up to 12 months from the date of the award; maximum duration of support is two years. Deadline for receipt of proposals is September 1, 1994. For additional information and application procedures, write: Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund, c/o Director of Conservation and Science, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, Chicago, IL 60614-3895.


Rainforest Remedies. One Hundred Healing Herbs of Belize by Rosita Arvigo and Michael Balick document the ethnobotany of rainforest medicinal plants as well as the little-known practices of healers. The 255-page book can be ordered for $9.95 (plus $1.50 for shipping) from Lotus Press, P. O. Box 325, Twin Lakes, WI 53181; Tel. (414) 889-8561, Fax: (414) 889-8591.

A new publication on migratory birds is now available in Spanish. Aves Migratorias Nearticas en los Neotropicos by J.H. Rappole, E. S. Morton, T. E. Lovejoy, and J. R. Ruos includes information on ecology, behavior, habitat and food use, distribution and taxonomy of Nearctic migrant birds. A bibliography of 4,500 titles in English is provided, of which 1,000 entries are annotated. There are also maps for 335 species. The book can be ordered for $20.00 (includes shipping) by writing Sharon Leathery, Conservation & Research Center, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA 22630.

A report containing recommendations for the design and implementation of the National Biological Survey (NBS) was recently prepared by the National Research Council. The Survey will act as a central repository of scientific information on the state of the flora and fauna of the United States. The committee that produced the report concluded that NBS cannot achieve the goal of organizing existing information on biodiversity on its own, but must establish a network of cooperating agencies, universities, and nongovernmental agencies that will share biodiversity information across the national telecommunications network.

The report, "A National Biological Survey for the Nation" is available for $26 plus $4 shipping/handling by ordering report #93 85920 from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; Tel: (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313.


The Florida Division of Forestry is accepting applications for the position of Biological Scientist II, Botanist/Plant Ecologist. The individual selected will be responsible for designing and implementing permanent, long-term monitoring and management plans for occurrences of federally listed plants at Lake Arbuckle State Forest and other public lands in Highland and Polk counties; determining population trends for these species; and evaluating effects of management activities on reproduction, recruitment and survival. The position will be located in central Florida.

Minimum requirements are: a bachelor's degree with a major in botany or ecology and one year of professional experience related to the tasks above; or a master's degree in one of the biological sciences. Preference will be given to holders of a master's degree with research/professional experience in plant ecology, demography, statistical analysis and experimental design. This position will require extensive field work under the sometimes harsh condition of Florida scrub vegetation.

The position is full-time, funded under a federal grant and renewed on a year-to-year basis. The salary range is $10.51/hr. - $11.71/hr. 40 hours per week.

The State of Florida employment applications must be submitted to Shelly Hatton, Florida Division of Forestry, 3125 Conner Blvd., Tallahassee, FL 32399-1650; Tel. (904) 488-7617. The selection process will begin May 15, 1994.


June 20-24. The International Conference on Ecology and Environment will be held in Costa Rica. For more information, contact: Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 159, Cartago, Costa Rica; Fax: (506) 513 348.

July 6-9. The Second International Congress of Chelonian Conservation will be held in Gonfaron, France. Topics to be addressed include conservation regulations and laws, research methods and techniques, sources for funding, and the establishment of conservation priorities and action plans. For further details, contact: Secretariat-SOPTOM, B.p. 24, 83590 Gonfaron, France; Tel. (33) 94 78 26 41; Fax (33) 94 78 24 27.

July 9-11. Reef Science, Management and Sustainability of Reef Habitats in the 21st Century will be held in Townsville, Australia. For more information, contact: Pat Hutchings, The Australian Musem, P.O. Box A285, Sydney South, NSW 2000 Australia.


Angelstam, P. and Mikusinski, G. 1994. Woodpecker assemblages in natural and managed boreal and hemiboreal forests. Ann. Zool. Fennici 31(1): 157-172.

Anon. 1994. Cures from the rain forest of Suriname. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 82(2): 15.

Anon. 1994. Eaton's pond preserve expands. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland News 18(1): 3. (Maryland)

Anon. 1994. New species discovered at two Maryland preserves. The Nature Conservancy of Maryland News 18(1): 1. (Pseudanophthalmus, beetle)

Anon. 1994. Protection sought for box turtles. Notes from Noah 21(6): 1. (US Fish and Wildlife Service considering the submission of the genus Terrapene (box turtles) for listing on CITES Appendix II)

Arvigo, R. and Balick, M. 1993. Rainforest Remedies. One Hundred Healing Herbs of Belize. Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, WI. 255 pp.

Balick, M., Arvigo, R. and Romero, L. 1994. The development of an ethnobiomedical forest reserve in Belize: its role in the preservation of biological and cultural diversity. Conservation Biology 8(1): 316-317.

Balzar, J. 1994. Wild salmon - symbol of Northwest's bounty - face extinction. Washington Post April 3: A17. (Pacific Northwest)

Belleville, B. 1994. Can marine sanctuary planning save Margaritaville? Florida Naturalist 67(1): 4-7.

Bessonova, V. 1994. Effect of environmental pollution with heavy metals on hormonal and trophic factors in buds of shrub plants. Russian Ecology 24(2): 91-95.

Biswas, A. 1993. Land resources for sustainable agricultural development in Egypt. Ambio 22(8): 556-560. (Egypt)

Blaustein, A., Wake, D. and Sousa, W. 1994. Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinction. Conservation Biology 8(1): 60-71.

Blennow, K. and Hammarlund, K. 1993. From heath to forest: land-use transformation in Halland, Sweden. Ambio 22(8): 561-567.

Bootsma, A. 1994. Long-term (100 year) climatic trends for agriculture at selected locations in Canada. Climatic Change 26(1): 65-88.

Bratton, S. 1994. Logging and fragmentation of broadleaved deciduous forests: are we asking the right ecological questions? Conservation Biology 8(1): 295-297.

Britten, H., Brussard, P. and Murphy, D. 1994. The pending extinction of the Uncompahgre fritillary butterfly. Conservation Biology 8(1): 86-94.

Brooke, J. 1994. Brazil waters a desert. The desert is still smiling. New York Times (Int.) March 25.

Brown, A. 1993. The status of golden plover Pluvialis apricaria in the south Pennines. Bird Study 40(3): 196-202. (Red data species)

Bryant, R. 1994. The rise and fall of taungya forestry. The Ecologist 24(1): 21-26. (Burma)

Busch, L. 1994. Caving beneath the Tongass. BioScience 44(4): 215-218. (Alaskan forestry management)

Cheverud, J., Routman, E., Jaquish, C., Tardif, S., Peterson, G., Belfiore, N. and Forman, L. 1994. Quantitative and molecular variation in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus). Conservation Biology 8(1): 95-105.

Clinton-Eitniear, J. 1993. In jeopardy: return to wild of confiscated parrots. Bird World 15(4): 50. (Double yellowheaded Amazon parrots protected in Mexico)

Cohn, J. 1993. Return of the native. Zoogoer 22(6): 12-20. (California Condor)

Colchester, M. 1994. The new sultans: Asian loggers move in on Guyana's forests. The Ecologist 24(2): 45-52.

Conner, D. 1994. Fish stocks in Puget Sound "have seriously declined". Washington Post April 3: A17. (Pacific Northwest)

Crawford, D., Stuessy, T., Cosner, M., Haines, D., Wiens, D. and Penaillo, P. 1994. Lactoris fernandeziana (Lactoridaceae) on the Juan Fernandez Islands: allozyme uniformity and field observations. Conservation Biology 8(1): 277-280.

Dale, V., O'Neill, R., Southworth, F. and Pedlowski, M. 1994. Modeling effects of land management in the Brazilan Amazonian settlement of Rondonia. Conservation Biology 8(1): 196-206.

Engels, T. and Sexton, C. 1994. Negative correlation of blue jays and golden-cheeked warblers near an urbanizing area. Conservation Biology 8(1): 286-290.

Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1994. Conservation of fragmented populations. Conservation Biology 8(1): 50-59.

Fearnside, P. 1993. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: the effect of population and land tenure. Ambio 22(8): 537- 545.

Fimbel, C. 1994. Ecological correlates of species success in modified habitats may be disturbance- and site-specific: the primates of Tiwai Island. Conservation Biology 8(1): 106- 113.

Fitzgerald, L. 1994. Tupinambis lizards and people: a sustainable use approach to conservation and development. Conservation Biology 8(1): 12-16.

Foley, P. 1994. Predicting extinction times from environmental stochasticity and carrying capacity. Conservation Biology 8(1): 124-137.

Garlock, M. 1994. Crocodile comeback at Turkey Point. Florida Naturalist 67(1): 13-15.

Ginsberg, J. and Milner-Gulland, E. 1994. Sex-biased harvesting and population dynamics in ungulates: implications for conservation and sustainable use. Conservation Biology 8(1): 157-166.

Gordon, D. 1994. Intertidal ecology and potential power impacts, Bay of Fundy, Canada. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 51(1,2): 17-23.

Grumbine, R. 1994. What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8(1): 27-38.

Gustafsson, L. 1994. A comparison of biological characteristics and distribution between Swedish threatened and non-threatened forest vascular plants. Ecography 17(1): 39-49.

Haila, Y., Hanski, I., Niemela, J., Punttila, P., Raivio, S. and Tukia, H. 1994. Forestry and the boreal fauna: matching management with natural forest dynamics. Ann. Zool. Fennici 31(1): 187-202.

Hamilton, M. 1994. Ex-situ conservation of wild plant species: time to reassess the genetic assumptions and implications of seed banks. Conservation Biology 8(1): 39- 49.

Hamilton, M. 1994. Ex-situ conservation of wild plant species: time to reassess the genetic assumptions and implications of seed banks. Conservation Biology 8(1): 39- 49.

Harlow, T. 1993. The National Biological Survey: Bruce Babbitt's tool for ecosystem management. Endangered Species UPDATE 11(1 & 2): 1-4.

Hartl, G. and Pucek, Z. 1994. Genetic depletion in the European bison (Bison bonasus) and the significance of electrophoretic heterozygosity for conservation. Conservation Biology 8(1): 167-174.

Hess, G. 1994. Conservation corridors and contagious disease: a cautionary note. Conservation Biology 8(1): 256-262.

Hill, D. 1994. Hawaii Audubon Society (HAS) conservation efforts in 1993 - the year in review. Elepaio 54(2): 7-8.

Hughes, S. 1994. Let's apply geology to ecosystem management. Geotimes 39(3): 4.

Illg, C. and Illg, G. 1994. The ponderosa and the flammulated. American Forests 100(3 & 4): 36-37. (Old growth ponderosa forests and owls)

Jarvinen, A. 1994. Global warming and egg size of birds. Ecography 17(1): 108-110.

Jefferson, T. and Curry, B. 1994. A global review of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) mortality in gillnets. Biol. Conserv. 67(2): 167-183.

Jordan, A. 1994. Financing the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) agenda: the controversy over additionality. Environment 36(3): 16-20. (To help avert climate change, ozone depletion and biodiversity loss, developing countries need more financial aid.)

Karliner, J. 1994. The environment industry: profiting from pollution. The Ecologist 24(2): 59-63.

Kattan, G., Alvarez-Lopez, H. and Giraldo, M. 1994. Forest fragmentation and bird extinctions: San Antonio eighty years later. Conservation Biology 8(1): 138-146.

Kirby, J. and Mitchell, C. 1993. Distribution and status of wintering shovelers Anas clypeata in Great Britain. Bird Study 40(3): 170-180.

Kirkpatrick, J. and Brown, M. 1994. A comparison of direct and environmental domain approaches to planning reservation of forest higher plant communities and species in Tasmania. Conservation Biology 8(1): 217-224.

Kress, W., Maddox, G. and Roesel, C. 1994. Genetic variation and protection priorities in Ptilimnium nodosum (Apiaceae), an endangered plant of the eastern United States. Conservation Biology 8(1): 271-276.

Lamberson, R., Noon, B., Voss, C. and McKelvey, K. 1994. Reserve design for territorial species: the effects of patch size and spacing on the viability of the northern spotted owl. Conservation Biology 8(1): 185-195.

Lentz, D. 1993. Medicinal and other economic plants of the Paya of Honduras. Econ. Bot. 47(4): 358-370.

Lesica, P. 1993. Loss of fitness resulting from pollinator exclusion in Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae). Madrono 40(4): 193-201. (Endangered grassland plant in northwest Montana)

Loope, L., Duever, M. Herndon, A. and et al. 1994. Hurricane impact on uplands and freshwater swamp forest. BioScience 44(4): 238-246.

Maikhuri, R. and Gangwar, A. 1993. Ethnobiological notes on the Khasi and Garo tribes of Meghalaya, northeast India. Econ. Bot. 47(4): 345-357.

Mairson, A. 1994. The Everglades: dying for help. Nat. Geographic 185(4): 2-35. (Can the National Park survive the continuing diversion of its freshwater?)

Manser, R. 1994. Going west: market reform and the environment in Eastern Europe. The Ecologist 24(1): 27-32.

Marty, S. 1994. Ghosts of the rain forests. Canadian Geographic 114(1): 18-31. (Rare white bears of Princess Royal Island, British Columbia)

McIntosh, A., Wightman, A. and Morgan, D. 1994. Reclaiming the Scottish Highlands: clearance, conflict and crofting. The Ecologist 24(2): 64-70.

Meadows, R. 1993. Frogs with a poisonous potential. Zoogoer 22(6): 6-11. (Pharmaceutical potentials)

Muona, J. and Rutanen, I. 1994. The short-term impact of fire on the beetle fauna in boreal coniferous forest. Ann. Zool. Fennici 31(1): 109-122.

Murphy, D., Wilcove, D., Noss, R., Harte, J., Safina, C., Lubchenco, J., Root, T., Sher, V., Kaufman, L., Bean, M. and Pimm, S. 1994. On reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 8(1): 1-5.

National Research Council. 1994. A National Biological Survey for the Nation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Newcott, W. 1992. Tatshenshini-Alsek Wilderness Park. Nat. Geographic February: 123-134. (Canada)

Newmark, W. 1993. The role and design of wildlife corridors with examples from Tanzania. Ambio 22(8): 500-504.

Newmark, W., Manyanza, D., Gamassa, D. and Sariko, H. 1994. The conflict between wildlife and local people living adjacent to protected areas in Tanzania: human density as a predictor. Conservation Biology 8(1): 249-255.

Nunney, L. and Elam, D. 1994. Estimating the effective population size of conserved populations. Conservation Biology 8(1): 175-184.

O'Connell, M. 1994. Preserving scrub habitat. Florida Naturalist 67(1): 9-12.

Panella, L., Kami, J. and Gepts, P. 1993. Vignin diversity in wild and cultivated taxa of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae). Econ. Bot. 47(4): 371-386.

Parr, S. 1994. Changes in the population size and nest sites of merlins (Falco columbarius) in Wales between 1970 and 1991. Bird Study 41(1): 42-47. (Species of special concern in Red Data Birds in Britain)

Perciasepe, R. 1994. EPA's watershed approach to ecosystem management. Fisheries 19(4): 4-23.

Petersen, C. 1994. The extent of anthropogenic disturbance on the aquatic assemblages of the east branch of the DuPage River, Illinois, as evaluated using stream arthropods. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 87(1,2): 29-36.

Phillips, O., Gentry, A., Reynel, C., Wilkin, P. and Galvez- Durand, C. 1994. Quantitative ethnobotany and Amazonian conservation. Conservation Biology 8(1): 225-248.

Pimm, S., Davis, G. and et al. 1994. Hurricane Andrew. BioScience 44(4): 224-229.

Plotkin, M. 1994. An earthly paradise regained. Americas 46(1): 14-19. (American ethnobotanist unlocks shaman's secrets in Suriname's rain forests)

Pounds, J. and Crump, M. 1994. Amphibian declines and climate disturbance: the case of the golden toad and the harlequin frog. Conservation Biology 8(1): 72-85.

Retiere, C. 1994. Tidal power and the aquatic environment of La Rance. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 51(1,2): 25-36. (France)

Riede, K. 1993. Monitoring biodiversity: analysis of Amazonian rainforest sounds. Ambio 22(8): 546-548. (Brazil)

Roman, C., Aumen, N., Trexler, J. et al. 1994. Hurricane Andrew's impact on freshwater resources. BioScience 44 (4): 247-255.

Roseberry, J. and David, L. 1994. The conservation reserve program and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population trends in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 87(1,2): 61-70.

Rudloe, A. and Rudloe, J. 1994. Sea turtles: in a race for survival. Nat. Geographic February: 94-121. (All 8 species endangered or threatened)

Russell, W., Thorne, E., Oakleaf, R. and Ballou, J. 1994. The genetic basis of black-footed ferret reintroduction. Conservation Biology 8(1): 263-266.

Sampson, R., Adams, D., Hamilton, S., Mealey, S., Steele, R. and Van de Graaff, D. 1994. Assessing forest ecosystem health in the inland west. American Forests 100(3 & 4): 13-16.

Selbert, P. 1994. Lookout for bats. American Forests 100(3 & 4): 45-48.

Shupp, B. 1994. Issues facing traditional fisheries management. Fisheries 19(4): 24-25.

Sjogren, P. and Wyoni, P. 1994. Conservation genetics and detection of rare alleles in finite populations. Conservation Biology 8(1): 267-270.

Smith, T., Robblee, M., Wanless, H. and Doyle, T. 1994. Mangroves, hurricanes and lightning strikes. BioScience 44(4): 256-262.

Sorley, C. and Andersen, D. 1994. Raptor abundance in south- central Kenya in relation to land use patterns. African J. Ecology 32(1): 30-38.

Stahl, M. 1993. Land degradation in East Africa. Ambio 22(8): 505-508.

Stanhill, G. and Moreshet, S. 1994. Global radiation climate change at seven sites remote from surface sources of pollution. Climatic Change 26(1): 89-104.

Svensson, B. and Ericson, S. 1993. Does hydroelectric power increase global warming? Ambio 22(8): 569-570.

Taylor, C., Burr, B. and Cook, K. 1994. Status and distribution of three rare Illinois fishes: blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta), northern starhead topminnow (Fundulus dispar) and cypress darter (Etheostoma proeliare). Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 87(1,2): 71-82. (All species of concern in Illinois)

Thirgood, S., Nefdt, R., Jeffery, R. and Kamweneshe, B. 1994. Population trends and current status of black lechwe (Kobus: Bovidae) in Zambia. African J. Ecology 32(1): 1-8. (Population declining in Zambia due to poaching)

Tilmant, J., Curry, R., Jones, R. and et al. 1994. Hurricane Andrew's effects on marine resources. BioScience 44(4): 230-237.

Vaisanen, R., Kuussaari, M., Nieminen, M. and Somerma, P. 1994. Conservation biology of Pseudophilotes baton in Finland. Ann. Zool. Fennici 31(1): 145-156. (Endangered butterfly)

Virkkala, R., Rajasarkka, A., Vaisanen, R., Vickholm, M. and Virolainen, E. 1994. Conservation value of nature reserves: do hole-nesting birds prefer protected forests in southern Finland? Ann. Zool. Fennici 31(1): 173-186.

Warner, R. 1994. Agricultural land use and grassland habitat in Illinois: future shock for midwestern birds? Conservation Biology 8(1): 147-156.

Wilkinson, P. and Spinks, M. 1994. Winter distribution and habitat utilization of piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in South Carolina. The Chat 58(2): 33-37. (Piping plover protected under Endangered Species Act since 1985)

Williams, D. 1993. Lycianthes moziniana (Solanaceae): an underutilized Mexican food plant with "new" crop potential. Econ. Bot. 47(4): 387-400.

Wilson, E. 1994. Biodiversity: challenge, science, opportunity. American Zoologist 34(1): 5-11.

Wilson, M., Kepler, C., Snyder, N., Derrickson, S., Dein, F., Wiley, J., Wunderle, J., Lugo, A., Graham, D. and Toone, W. 1994. Puerto Rican parrots and potential limitations of metapopulation approach to species conservation. Conservation Biology 8(1): 114-123.

Wright, R., MacCracken, J. and Hall, J. 1994. An ecological evaluation of proposed new conservation areas in Idaho: evaluating proposed Idaho national parks. Conservation Biology 8(1): 207-216.

Yosef, R. 1994. The effects of fencelines on the reproductive success of loggerhead shrikes. Conservation Biology 8(1): 282-285.

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