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Department ofBotany

No. 132
May 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


In 1993, a 6,000 acre area of rain forest in Belize was set aside as a reserve, with the aim of ensuring that rare medicinal plants and the threatened traditional Mayan art of healing should flourish. The Terra Nova Rain Forest Reserve, a forest thick with rare medicinal vines and herbs and many different types of animals, will be operated by the recently formed Belize Association of Traditional Healers.

Loss of forest in Belize through logging has already caused some species of medicinal plants to become scarce, but the main threat is that most of Belize's 500 traditional healers are over eighty years old and have few apprentices. Increasing western influence has resulted in young people losing interest in becoming healers.

Terra Nova will be managed by the Healers' Association, which will operate three main programs, the first involving the activities of healers, apprentices and students. Healers will be permitted either to harvest plants themselves, accompanied by a warden who will record the weight and species taken, or to place orders for plants. Healers and guides will use the forest as a living classroom to teach apprentices and other students.

The reserve will also serve as a nursery for propagated plants and as a research laboratory. Dr. Rosita Arvigo, a doctor of naprapathy who has been apprenticed to a healer for ten years, and Dr. Michael J. Balick, director of the New York Botanical Garden's Institute of Economic Botany, are working with the healers to identify useful plants. The reserve will also be used to promote ecological tourism. When visitor facilities have been established, tourists will be invited to participate in nature walks and classes with traditional healers in a forest setting.


The Australian Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN) has available a new, improved World Wide Web Server. The server includes information on Australia's environment, such as: weather and climate; terrestrial and inland aquatic landscapes; humans and the environment; state of the environment reporting; and general environmental information. The new features include: links to ERIN's ORACLE database to produce, for example, species distribution maps on request; links between traditional floras and interactive plant distribution maps; modelling of species distributions; as well as links to environmental information systems around the world.

For more information, contact: Arthur D. Chapman, Scientific Coordinator, Biogeographic Information, Environmental Resources Information Network, GPO Box 636, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; Tel: 61-6-2500 376; Fax: 61-6-2500 360; Internet:


As a result of a meeting in November, 1993 at Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, the governments of Mexico, the United States of America, and Dominion of Canada passed a resolution to protect migratory birds and their habitats. As a result of the decline in populations of migratory birds and the degradation of the environment in all three countries, it was agreed that each government will protect natural habitats to a degree sufficient to protect their biodiversity. This should be a minimum of 12% of each habitat as recommended by the Brundtland Commission by the year 2000. It was also agreed that each government improve communication on social, economic, political and environmental issues to facilitate the maintenance of biodiversity.

For additional information, contact Geoff Holroyd, Canadian Wildlife Service, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Tel: (403) 468-8922; Fax: (403) 495-2615.


Due to the present economic situation in Argentina, the University of Mar del Plata is in need of any reprints, books, journals, or any publications to build a library. All donations will be properly acknowledged by the university. Please send publications to: Oscar Iribarne, Departamento de Biologia, Facultad Ciencias Exactas Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3250, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina.


The right of indigenous societies to control their access and use of their cultural knowledge is a timely issue among indigenous leaders around the world. This issue has been debated in the United Nations, in the biodiversity and human rights movements, within the pharmaceutical industry, in government and private corporations among the social and applied scientists and ethicists, and most importantly, among indigenous leaders. The Society of Applied Anthropology has published Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples, A Sourcebook . The book contains 15 chapters, various appended documents, the names and addresses of organizations and sources related to indigenous intellectual property rights, extensive bibliographies, and an index. The sourcebook offers cases where indigenous groups have asserted intellectual property rights, and also analyses of the legal and political context for these rights. It is intended to be useful to indigenous leaders reviewing their options; advocacy groups for indigenous rights, human rights and biodiversity preservation; policy specialists; and scholars.

The sourcebook is available for $10.25 plus $1.75 shipping within the U.S. and Canada and $2.75 to other addresses. Payment by credit card is available. Inquiries and orders should be addressed to: The Sourcebook, The Society for Applied Anthropology, P.O. Box 24083, Oklahoma City, OK 73124-0083; Fax: (405) 843-4863.

A new multimedia computer database that provides general information, and physical, mechanical and woodworking properties for 800+ species of timber and wood composite materials is offered by Tree Talk, Inc., a Vermont-based non-profit educational organization focused on wood and forest issues.

Woods of the World is intended for anyone who works with wood, from the academician, to the businessperson, to the hobbyist. It is the most accessible and complete compilation of wood species data available. Woods of the World includes information on the environmental status of these wood species, making it ideal for architects, builders, manufacturers and others who purchase or specify wood products and need information to identify susbstitutes for species that may be endangered or unavailable.

Woods of the World allows users to access information for up to 85 categories of data, including: common names, uses, color, texture, odor, luster, grain, static blending, compression strength, sawing properties, planing properties, and much more. The database runs on Mac and IBM-compatible computers and costs $250 for both CD-ROM and full floppy diskette versions. A condensed floppy version is also available for $150.

For more information, or to order, call 1-800-858-6230 (in the US and Canada) or (802) 863-6789. Orders can also be faxed to: (802) 863-4344, or mailed to: Tree Talk, P.O. Box 426, Burlington, VT 05402-0426. Demo disks are available upon request.


The Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Manager, Conservation Programs. The position is based at the National Office of the Center which is headquartered at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. The CPC is a national organization which coordinates the endangered plant activities of 25 participating gardens and numerous cooperators throughout the United States and is dedicated to the preservation of America's rare plants.

This position manages the CPC's conservation program in its national network of Participating Institutions, supervises the National Collection of Endangered Plants, and manages the Priority Regions and Integrated Conservation Programs. The manager develops action plans and supervises support staff, drafts annual budgets, seeks and manages grants, and participates in plant conservation activities at the regional, national and international levels.

The successful candidate will have a Master's degree in botany, horticulture, or a related field. A Ph.D. is preferred. Three to five years' experience in botanic gardens, plant conservation management, and/or research are required, as are knowledge of the plant conservation community and experience working with governmental agencies and NGOs. Excellent communication and writing skills, computer literacy, and a willingness to travel are also essential.

Applications will be accepted until position is filled. However, interested individuals with the specified position qualifications should apply immediately and submit a resume and three references to: Manager, Conservation Programs, #108-L20.K, Center for Plant Conservation, Human Resource Management, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166.


July 6-16. The Smithsonian Institution's National Musem of Natural History, the government of Belize and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation are sponsoring workshops for high school teachers on Blackbird Cay, Turneffe Atoll, Belize. Begun in 1992 with a pilot study, the workshops consist of curriculum-based lectures and field trips to educate the Belizean public on the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to the delicate coastal balance. For more information contact Dr. Ilka Candy Feller by e-mail:
August 1-23. Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) is offering a three-week field course, "Tropical Diversity and Conservation", an introduction to the ecology of tropical ecosystems, which will be held in Costa Rica. To apply, contact OTS, Box 90633, Durham, NC 27708-0633; Tel: (919) 684-5774.
August 7-11. The Ecological Society of America's annual meeting focusing on "Science and Public Policy" will be held at the Knoxville Convention Center, Tennessee. For further information, contact Nadine Cavender, Annual Meeting Press Coordinator, Ecological Society of America, 2010 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite #420, Washington, DC 20036; Tel: (202) 833-8773; Fax: (202) 833-8775; e-mail:
August 9-14. The Sixth Annual Society for Ecological Restoration Conference, "Saving All the Pieces" will be held at Lansing Community College, Michigan. Four symposia will focus on: Great Lakes Basin restoration, wetland restoration, technology in restoration, and horticulture restoration techniques. For more information, contact: Robert Welch, Lansing Community College, 422 North Washington Square, Lansing MI 48901; Tel: (517) 483- 9675.


Adams, J. and Caine, S. 1993/1994. World's leading Latin American plant expert dies on mission. In memoriam: Alwyn Gentry, Ph.D., 1945-1993. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 30-31.

Adler, H. and Peter, W. 1993. New conservation strategies for endangered primates in Vietnam - a memorandum of agreement and an open letter to the Ministry of Forestry. Primate Report 37: 69-73. (Several primate taxa confined to Vietnam are threatened with extinction)

Alpert, P. and Maron, J. 1994. The M.S./Ph.D. in natural resources and biology: a graduate program to link basic science and practical management. Bull. Ecol. Soc. America 75(1): 42-43.

Anon. 1994. Biodiversity of lower plants at Wakehurst Place. Kew Scientist 5: 4. (Sandstone outcrops at Wakehurst one of top ten sites for bryophyte conservation in the UK)

Anon. 1994. Buffer zone management in Thailand: experiences and prospects. Asia Pacific Community Forestry Newsletter 7(1): 1-4.

Anon. 1994. Burrowing tortoise may find safety in grasslands. BioScience 44(4): 286. (Mexico)

Anon. 1993/1994. Donors rally to rescue Eastern Europe's threatened genetic resources. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/11): 8-10, 12.

Anon. 1993/1994. Edward O. Wilson makes the case for saving biodiversity to Capitol Hill lawmakers. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 53-55.

Anon. 1994. Improved status leads to reclassification proposals for two plant species. End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(1): 1,20. (Small whorled pogonia and Loch Lomond coyote thistle may be reclassified as threatened, USA)

Anon. 1994. Listing proposals - October/November 1993. End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(1): 14-15. (Eleven species - seven plants and four animals - were proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service during October and November 1993 for listing as threatened or endangered)

Anon. 1993/1994. Multi-nation in situ project will conserve crop diversity in Mediterranean region. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 24-25.

Anon. 1994. New approaches to seed desiccation research. Kew Scientist 5: 4-5. (Wakehurst Place, UK)

Anon. 1993/1994. Pfizer and NYBG join forces on biodiversity prospecting and development of U.S. plants. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 76-77.

Anon. 1994. A stick to save the tigers. Time 143(16): 68. (US trade sanctions on Taiwan)

Archibald, G. 1994. The fading call of the Siberian crane. Nat. Geographic 185(5): 124-136. (Endangered species)

Barrett, B. 1994. Medicinal plants of Nicaragua's Atlantic coast. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 8-20.

Boyd, R. and Hilton, C. 1994. Ecologic studies of the endangered species Clematis socialis Kral. Castanea 59(1): 31-40.

Chang, T. 1993/1994. World experts gather in Taiwan to inaugurate national plant germplasm center. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 25-26.

Cohn, J. 1993/1994. National Biological Survey makes progress. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 59-61.

Copper, P. 1994. Ancient reef ecosystem expansion and collapse. Coral Reefs 13(1): 3-12.

Cox, P. and Balick, M. 1994. The ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery. Scientific American 270(6): 82-87.

De Roy, T. 1994. Welcome to the lizard show. Int. Wildlife 24(3): 16-24. (Marine iguanas of the Galapagos)

Dunning Jr., J. 1994. Tropical mass extinctions and the scientific method. Bull. Ecol. Soc. America 75(1): 44.

Edson, J. and Wenny, D. 1994. Micropropagation of endangered plants of the American Interior Northwest. Bot. Gard. Micro. propagation News 1(7): 91-92.

Filippini, R., Caniato, R., Cappelletti, E., Piovan, A., Innocenti, G. and Cassina, G. 1994. In vitro regeneration of Haplophyllum patavinum (L) G. Don. fil., a rare and endangered plant. Bot. Gard. Micropropagation News 1(7): 87-89. (Italy)

Forero, E. 1993/1994. World experts convene at NYBG on conserving neotropical montane forests. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 39-41.

Fox, A. and Cham, S. 1994. Status, habitat use and conservation of the scarce blue-tailed damselfly Ischnura pumilo (Charpentier) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) in Britain and Ireland. Biol. Conserv. 68(2): 115-122.

Gandini, P., Boersma, D., Frere, E., Gandini, M., Holik, T. and Lichtschein, V. 1994. Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) affected by chronic petroleum pollution along coast of Chubut, Argentina. The Auk 111(1): 20-27.

Godbey, J. and Biggins, D. 1994. Recovery of the black- footed ferret: looking back, looking forward. End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(1): 10,13.

Goldblatt, P. 1993. Biological Relationships between Africa and South America. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT. 630 pp.

Gonzalez-Benito, M. and Perez, C. 1994. Studies on the cryopreservation of nodal explants of Centaurium rigualli Esteve, an endemic threatened species, through vitrification. Bot. Gard. Micropropagation News 1(7): 82-83.

Gray, W. 1993. Coral Reefs & Islands: The Natural History of a Threatened Paradise. David & Charles, Newton Abbott, Devon, England. 192 pp.

Greaves, T. (Ed.) 1994. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples, A Sourcebook. Society for Applied Anthropology, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 270 pp.

Grigg, R. W. 1994. Science management of the world's fragile coral reefs. Coral Reefs 13(1): 1-2.

Grunenfelder, H. 1993/1994. Saving the Turopolje pig: an international pilot project in Croatia. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 11.

Haas, A. 1994. Nile crocodile reclassified from endangered to threatened. End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(1): 16-17.

Hanski, I. and Thomas, C. 1994. Metapopulation dynamics and conservation: a spatially explicit model applied to butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 68(2): 167-180.

Hanson, J. 1993/1994. A rich trove of sub-Saharan Africa's forage genetic resources conserved at ILCA. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 43-45.

Harlow, T. 1994. The National Biological Survey: Bruce Babbitt's tool for ecosystem management. End. Species UPDATE 11(1,2): 1-4.

Hawkes, J. and Mayo, S. 1993/1994. Linnean Society spotlights Brazilian and UK biodiversity training collaboration. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 41-43.

Hawkins, C. 1993/1994. The language of diplomacy... and the biodiversity convention. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 47.

Henne, D. 1994. Taiwan and Peoples Republic of China are warned against continued trade in rhino horn and tiger parts. End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(1): 4,20.

Houghton, R. 1994. The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience 44(5): 305-313.

Ingram, G. and Williams, J. 1993. Gap analysis for in situ conservation of crop genepools: implications of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Biodiversity Letters 1: 141-148.

Johns, T., Mhoro, E., Sanaya, P. and Kimanani, E. 1994. Herbal remedies of the Bateni of Ngorongoro District, Tanzania: a quan.titative appraisal. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 90-95.

Kasonia, K., Ansay, M., Gustin, P. and Plume, C. 1993. Plants used in ethnomedicine for asthma in Kivu (Zaire). Belgian J. of Botany 126(1): 20-28.

King, S. 1994. Utilisation of wildlife in Bakossiland, West Cameroon, with particular reference to primates. TRAFFIC Bull. 14(2): 63-73.

Kumar, A. and "Firoz". 1993. How we busted the tiger gang. Int. Wildlife 24(5): 38-43.

Kummer, D. and Turner, B. 1994. The human causes of deforestation in Southeast Asia. BioScience 44(5): 323- 326. (Logging and agricultural expansion)

Lankosz-Mroz, M. and Zarzycki, K. 1993. Threatened and protected wild vascular plants in Polish botanic gardens. Botanostephani Kornasiana 2: 721-728. (Botanical contributions presented to Jan Kornas in celebration of his 70th birthday)

Lau, A., Ngai, C. and Melville, D. 1994. Study on bear gall bladders for sale in Hong Kong. TRAFFIC Bull. 14(2): 59- 62.

Lemonick, M. 1994. Too few fish in the sea. Time 143(14): 70-71. (Populations declining)

Lesica, P. 1993. Loss of fitness resulting from pollinator exclusion in Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae). Madrono 40(4): 193-201. (Endangered in Montana)

Linden, E. 1994. Tigers on the brink. Time 143(13): 44-51.

Listman, G. 1993/1994. Los Reyes teosinte: going, going...gone ! Tracking teosinte outside of Mexico City. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 34-36.

Loh, J. and Loh, K. 1994. Rhino horn in Taipei, Taiwan. TRAFFIC Bull. 14(2): 55-58.

Loh, J. and Loh, K. 1994. A spot check on the availability of rhino products in Guangzhou and Shanghai, China. TRAFFIC Bull. 14(2): 79-80.

Lugo-Fernandez, A., Hernandez-Avila, M. and Roberts, H. 1994. Wave-energy distribution and hurricane effects on Margarita Reef, southwestern Puerto Rico. Coral Reefs 13(1): 21-32.

Martin, W. Boyce, S., and Echternacht, A. (Eds.) 1993. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland Terrestrial Communities. Wiley, New York, NY. 502 pp.

Menon, V. 1994. The trade in hill mynas in India. TRAFFIC Bull. 14(2): 81-82.

Miller, J. 1994. Behavior of butterflies as a means of conservation: comparison of insular and continental fauna. Florida Entomologist 77(1): 74-84. (West Indies)

Minelli, A. 1993. Biological Systematics: The State of the Art. Chapman & Hall, London, England. 387 pp.

Negi, S. 1992. Himalayan Wildlife: Habitat & Conservation. Indus Pub. Co., New Delhi, India. 207 pp.

Numata, M. 1993. Environmental and conservational aspects of the humid Himalayas. Botanostephani Kornasiana 2: 709-720. (Botanical contributions presented to Jan Kornas in celebration of his 70th birthday)

Ojima, D., Galvin, K. and Turner, B. 1994. The global impact of land use change. BioScience 44(5): 300-305.

Pearce, F. 1994. A breath of fresh air for planet earth. New Scientist 142(1922): 16. (Atmospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide have declined sharply since 1990)

Pearce, F. 1994. Britain's abandoned empire. New Scientist 142(1922): 26-31. (Britain is showing few signs of accepting responsibility for environmental protection in its dependent territories)

Pendick, D. 1994. Spiny secret of submarine 'rainforest'. New Scientist 142(1922): 18. (Long-spined black sea urchins may play key role in survival of coral reefs)

Pykala, J. 1993. The ecology and distribution of Carex remota in Finland. Memoranda Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica 69(3): 77-86. (Threatened species in Finland)

Rawinski, T. and Price, S. 1994. Conclusion: an action plan for coastal plain wetland conservation. Toward a conservation strategy. Biol. Conserv. 68(3): 281-284. (Coastal plain wetlands support some of the greatest concentrations of rare plants in eastern North America)

Reichel, J. and Lemke T. 1994. Ecology and extinction of the Mariana mallard (Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti). J. Wildlife Management 58(2): 199-205. (Subspecies was endemic to the Northern Mariana Islands of the Western Pacific but now extinct due to overhunting and habitat loss)

Richmond, G. and Ghisalberti, E. 1994. The Australian desert shrub Eremophila (Myoporaceae): the medicinal, cultural, horti.cultural and phytochemical uses. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 35-59.

Ritchie, H. 1993/1994. Harmful non-indigenous species cost U.S. $millions, says OTA report. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 65- 67.

Ritchie, H. 1993/1994. Task force assesses management of University of California-Davis' treasured biological collections. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 74-75.

Robertson, S. and Luke, W. 1993. Kenya Coastal Forests. World Wide Fund for Nature, Nairobi, Kenya. (Protected areas, checklist of plants, conservation status)

Russell, E. 1994. The use of theory in land management decisions: the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Biol. Conserv. 68(3): 263-268.

Sanchez-Palomino, P. and Rivas-Pava, P. 1993. Composicion, abun.dancia y riqueza de especies de la comunidad de murcielagos en bosques de galeria en La Serrania de La Macarena (Meta- Colombia). Caldasia 17(2): 301-312.

Shands, H. 1993/1994. Impact of NAFTA could enhance conservation of genetic resources. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 79-80.

Shuker, K. 1993. Lost Ark: New and Rediscovered Animals of the Twentieth Century. Harper Collins, London, England. 287 pp.

Simpson, R. 1994. Pitchers in Trade. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 61 pp. (Conservation review of carnivorous plant genera, Sarracenia, Darlingtonia and Heliamphora)

Skole, D., Chomentowski, W., Salas, W. and Nobre, A. 1994. Physical and human dimensions of deforestation in Amazonia. BioScience 44(5): 314-322.

Strauss, D. 1993/1994. The Healing Forest Conservancy: striving to conserve biocultural diversity. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 27-28.

Strauss, D. 1993/1994. Missouri Botanical Garden: a beacon for plant research throughout the world. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 75-76.

Strauss, D. 1993/1994. Union of concerned scientists cites threat to diversity as major risk to genetically engineered crops, urges temporary ban on approvals. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 62-63.

Taggart, J. 1994. Ordination as an aid in determining priorities for plant community protection. Biol. Conserv. 68(2): 135-142.

Therres, G. 1994. Maryland's approach to nongame and endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 11(1,2): 5-8.

Van Hook, T. 1994. The conservation challenge in agriculture and the role of entomologists. Florida Entomologist 77(1): 42-73.

Vogel, J. 1993/1994. NAFTA and "the theory of second best". DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 79-80.

Walck, J. 1994. A contribution to the ecological life history ofSenecio antennariifolius. Castanea 59(1): 1-11. (Endangered in Pennsylvania)

Wielgus, R., Bunnell, F. and Zager, P. 1994. Population dynamics of Selkirk Mountain grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). J. Wildlife Management 58(2): 266-272. (The Selkirk Mountain grizzly bear ecosystem in the Pacific Northwest classified as threatened in 1990)

Williams, T. 1993/1994. Indian society for plant genetic resources holds dialogue to develop national policy. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 29.

Wood, K. and Perlman, S. 1993. Rare & endangered flora of the Kalalau and Pohakuao valleys. The Bulletin (Nat. Trop. Bot. Gard.) 23(3): 41-50.

Worthington, L. 1993/1994. Atwood announces innovative USAID plan to conserve African biodiversity, stresses critical linkage to sustainable development. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 20-22.

Worthington, L. 1993/1994. Scientists and international agricultural research centers linked through USAID program. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 63-65.

Wyse Jackson, P. and Heywood, V. 1993/1994. International botanic gardens conservation congress meets in Rio de Janeiro. DIVERSITY 9/10(4/1): 22-24.

Young, C. 1994. New plan outlines steps to recover endangered fishes of the Colorado River system. End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(1): 18-19.

Young, T. and Isbell, L. 1994. Minimum group size and other conservation lessons exemplified by a declining primate population. Biol. Conserv. 68(2): 129-134.

Zeide, B. 1994. Ecological research and environmental problems: reflections on the National Biological Survey. Bull. Ecol. Soc. America 75(1): 53-54.

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