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Department ofBotany

No. 133
June 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Medicinal plants form the main resource base of traditional medicine in India. Over 7,000 species of plants found in various ecosystems are used for medicine in the country. The Foundation for the Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions is a non- governmental foundation which has links with influential sections of the traditional medical community, modern physicians, community health organizations, scientists, industry and the government. Current projects include: conservation of medicinal plants, both in situ and ex situ; ecodevelopment projects; preparation of a Red Data Book on threatened medicinal plants; training programs for scientists; and public awareness.

The Indian Medicinal Plants National Network of Distributed Databases (Inmedplan) is an initiative being developed in collaboration with a number of specialized national agencies involved in plant related work. Its main objective is to generate reliable multi-disciplinary information on Indian medicinal plants and to serve the information needs of sectors like agriculture, research, pharmaceutical industry and medicinal plants conservation.

Future projects include the establishment of a network of regional training centers for community health workers in India to teach practical applications of traditional medicine in primary health care; setting up a chain of specialized medical centers, such as arthritis, respiratory, cardiac, ophthalmology; and develop international cooperative projects with countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America which also have a rich medical heritage. For more information, write: Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, 50, MSH Layout, 2nd Stage, 3rd Main, Anand Nagar, Bangalore - 560 024, India.


Described as a "must see" exhibit, this photographic exhibition, Rare Beauty: America's Endangered Plants, is the first major photographic/educational initiative of its kind in the United States on the subject of endangered plants. It is a stunning exhibit of 35 species of some of America's most beautiful endangered plants in bloom. The exhibit includes captions and text panels describing the fragility of the species; threats to their survival; and the efforts being made to protect them.

This exhibition of photographs by Maryl provides the rare opportunity to see a remarkable array of America's most exquisite endangered plant species. The exhibit opened at the Houston Museum of Natural Science in 1993, and will be at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science this summer, July 1 - September 5. This traveling exhibit is funded by the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation and the New England Wildflower Society. For more information, contact: Maryl Levine, 6128 Maiden Lane, Bethesda, MD 20817; Tel.: (301) 229-9434.


Review by Caroline Mackenzie

Founder of the company Seeds of Change, Kenny Ausubel, tells the story of the development of the movement to preserve biodiversity and explains the far-reaching environmental and health consequences if biodiversity continues to erode.

Situated on 128 acres in New Mexico, the Seeds of Change farm is a biodiversity farm aiming to disseminate the world's botanical gene pool into as many hands as possible. Many of the farm's 800 varieties of plants have been rescued from extinction by determined seed collectors, and subsequently propagated and distributed widely to gardeners across the US. Most are foods, for example, corn, beans, squash, carrots and onions, but unusual varieties, prized for their nutritional value and resistance to pests and disease.

The book abounds with vivid descriptions: "the Turkish orange eggplant is a tight, bulbous sun of a vegetable with pungent flavor." Other plants grown include the ugly but delicious Calabash tomato and multicolored Indian corns. All are open pollinated, and are grown in mixed rows, in a complex arrangement planned by plant geneticist Alan Kapuler, who had founded Peace Seeds of Oregon, back in 1975. Seeds of Change was set up in 1989, starting with Kapuler's collection of organically raised seeds. A mixture of traditional farming methods and more unusual methods is used. "Sonic bloom", the use of sound to improve yield, is used with positive results.

The emphasis at Seeds of Change is on nutritional value per acre rather than yield per acre, and Ausubel shows that organic crops have higher vitamin, mineral and protein contents. Organic spinach for example, contains some 65% more vitamin C than conventional varieties. On a macro level the energy and water inputs of raising livestock is contrasted with that of growing crops, highlighting the enormous difference in terms of nutrition per acre.

Ausubel reminds us that we are living in an era of unprecedented extinction, losing about 27,000 species a year out of the 250,000 known flowering plants. The loss of genetic diversity directly imperils the safety of crops, because ability to resist blights, pests and disease, rests directly on variation. An epidemic of stem wheat rust in 1917 caused President Coolidge to declare 2 wheatless days a week and a further epidemic in 1954 wiped out 75% of US durum wheat. In 1972 a report by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that wheat rust epidemics are genetically based. Still today, only six inbred kinds of corn account for about half the crops grown in North America.

Ausubel goes on to explore the link between diet and health, presenting disturbing evidence, for example that 30% of cancers are diet-related, according to the National Academy of Sciences.

The book concludes with a number of mouth watering vegetarian recipes, including "roasted corn soup with smoked chilies and cheese", and "potato, leek and water chestnut risotto with red wine-infused sun dried tomato coulis (puree)". Also given are tips on organic food to grow in your own backyard, with a list of US stockists.

While this book is packed full of facts about the biodiversity movement, it is more story than reference book. Facts are either peppered in the margins or buried in the text, to be discovered as the story of Seeds of Change unfolds, a style which will be a treat to some readers and a frustration to others. Elaborate descriptions of unusual plant varieties abound, along with detailed descriptions of magnificent landscapes and accounts of the people involved. The book has an attractive glossy cover, beautiful color photographs and is printed on acid free paper. It can be purchased from Harper Collins, New York for $18 (USA) or $24.50 (Canada).


The Endangered Plant Program of the California Department of Fish and Game is seeking a Scientific Aide to work in its downtown Sacramento office. The Aide will help identify and prioritize management and protection needs for California State- listed plants; compile status review of rare, threatened and endangered plants summarizing information on species biology, distribution and abundance, threats, management and research needs; and assist in the preparation and review of proposals for research and recovery projects involving State-listed plants.

Qualifications include a Bachelor's degree or graduate work in botany, biology, or related fields; excellent writing skills; familiarity with word processing on microcomputers; and interest in plant conservation. This is a full-time, 9-month position contingent on availability of funding. Salary is $8.34 per hour. For more details, call or send resume to: Diane Ikeda, Plant Ecologist, Endangered Plant Program, California Department of Fish and Game, 1416 Ninth Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel: (916) 227-2321.

Organization for Tropical Studies is looking for an instructor of tropical biology for a two-year, three quarter time position at Duke University, starting fall, 1994. Incumbent will prepare and lead two, eight-week courses per year in "Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach", OTS' main course in Costa Rica for graduate students from OTS-member institutions. Ph.D., Spanish, knowledge of Costa Rica required. Send detailed letter, resume, and contacts for references to Dr. Shaun Bennett, Box 90633, Durham, NC 27708-0633; Tel.: (919) 684-5774, Fax: (919) 684-5661. Position begins fall/winter 1994 with first course beginning in mid-January, 1995. Applications reviewed as received.


Whale-Watching in the West Indies is a guide to the 26 species of whales and dolphins that occur in the region. In Part 1 information on each species includes: common names; physical description, behavior; feeding; breeding, and conservation status according to the IUCN Red Data Book criteria. Part II covers areas of special interest for whale-watching, from Dominica's west coast to the Dominican Republic's north-east shore, presenting details of boat trips and land-based watching all over the region.

The 43-page booklet costing $12 (postage and packing included) can be ordered from: Island Resources Foundation, 1718 P Street, NW, Suite T-4, Washington, DC 20036; Tel: (202) 265- 9712; Fax: (202) 232-0748.

The fifth edition of the California Native Plant Society's Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California, edited by Mark W. Skinner and Bruce M. Pavlik, is now available. The 344-page book presents information on distribution, rarity, endangerment, legal status, habitat, plant growth form, blooming time, and literature sources for over 1,700 species, subspecies and varieties of California's increasingly endangered flora. Over 300 new taxa have been added to this edition. The book costs #22.95 plus tax. An electronic inventory will soon be available for $200, with updates every 18 months for about $100. For more information, contact: California Native Plant Society, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel: (916) 447-2677; Fax: (916) 447-2727.


August 15-18. Symposium on Community Ecology and Conservation Biology to be held in Bern, Switzerland will review work in community ecology and conservation biology, discuss new approaches and potential future developments, especially questions relating to adequate implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity. Invited scientists around the world will present 10-12 plenary lectures giving a broad overview of the current status and future trends in this field. For information, contact: Systematisch-Geobotanisches Institut, University of Bern, Altenbergrain, CH-3013, Bern, Switzerland; Tel.: (41) 31 6314931.
September 12 - November 4. Plant Conservation Techniques Course will be held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. The course, designed to enhance and develop professional understanding of the issues and methods used in plant conservation, will review the options open to conservationists by critically assessing, through discussion and practical demonstration, the techniques available. An integrated approach is encouraged, with topics encompassing protected area management through seed banking. For information, write: Education and Marketing Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, England; Tel.: (81) 332 5623/5626; Fax: (81) 332-5610.


Allen, L. 1994. Cast ashore. Nature Conservancy 44(3): 16-23. (Florida's sea turtles search for a safe haven)

Anon. 1994. Beyond hotspots: setting priorities for conservation. WWF Conservation Issues 1(1): 1, 3-4, 9-10. (WWF & Smithsonian project in Indo-Pacific region tests conserva. tion potential/threat index)

Anon. 1994. Concern rises over threat to Indian turtles. Marine Turtle Newsletter 64: 1-2. (Threat to world's most important sea turtle nesting site in Orissa, India)

Anon. 1994. Did Pinatubo send climate-warming gases into a dither? Science 263(5153): 1562. (Buildup of 4 greenhouse gases since 1991, possibly a result of volcano's eruption)

Anon. 1994. Drug discovery project. BioScience 44(5): 373. (Suriname Biodiversity Prospecting Initiative)

Anon. 1994. Guanenta-Alto Rio Fonce. TROPICO 3(1): 2. (New protected area in Western Cordillera, Colombia)

Anon. 1994. Guide to online resources for the conservationist. Fish & Wildlife Information Exchange Newsletter 2(4): 2-4.

Anon. 1994. Living fast, dying young in the rainforest. New Scientist 141(1918): 14-15. (Trees living faster & dying younger in forests on 4 continents, probably due to indus. trial emmissions)

Anon. 1994. Newly discovered golden lion tamarins give hope to long-term recovery plan. FOCUS 16(3): 1, 6. (Brazil's Atlantic Forest)

Anon. 1994. Old-growth forests, ecosystem management, and Option 9. WWF Conservation Issues 1(1): 5-8. (Pacific Northwest, USA)

Anon. 1994. Pigs vs. Hawaii's rain forest. Nature Conservancy 44(3): 38-39.

Anon. 1994. The pirarucu - giant red-fish of the Amazon. The Canopy Spring: 3. (Threatened by over-harvesting and habitat destruction)

Anon. 1994. Rare records of Dermochelys marine turtle in the Gulf of Venezuela. Marine Turtle Newsletter 64: 10.

Anon. 1994. Sea turtle conservation problems on Crete and the need for long-term planning. Marine Turtle Newsletter 64: 13-15.

Anon. 1994. Sea turtle nesting in the northern Peninsula de Paria, Sucre State, Venezuela, 1993. A case for protection. Marine Turtle Newsletter 64: 16-18.

Anon. 1994. Sea turtle eco-tourism brings economic benefit to community. Marine Turtle Newsletter 64: 10-12. (Tamarindo Bay, Costa Rica)

Anon. 1994. Sumatran rhino census underscores dramatic decline in all five rhino species. FOCUS 16(3): 3.

Anon. 1994. Water and conservation in Calakmul. Bioversidad Kambul 4(1): 3-4. (Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Campeche, Mexico)

Anon. 1994. WWF special report: the Southern Ocean whale sanctuary. FOCUS 16(3): 4-5.

Aplet, G., Laven, R. and Shaw, R. 1994. Application of transition matrix models to the recovery of the rare Hawaiian shrub, Tetramolopium arenarium (Asteraceae). Nat. Areas J. 14(2): 99-106.

Aponte, C. 1993. Diagnostico ambiental del refugio de fauna silvestre "Estero de Chiriguare: Edo. Portuguesa. Biollania 9: 191-198. (Venezuela)

Ausubel, K. 1994. Seeds of Change. The Living Treasure. The Passionate Story of the Growing Movement to Restore Biodiversity and Revolutionize the Way We Think About Food. Harper, San Francisco, California. 232 pp.

Barker, R. 1993. Saving All the Parts. Reconciling Economics and the Endangered Species Act. Island Press, Covelo, Califor.nia. 268 pp.

Barzetti, V. (Ed.). 1993. Parques y Progreso. Areas Protegidas y Desarrollo Economico en America Latina y el Caribe. IUCN, Washington, DC. 258 pp. (Papers from Congreso de Parques Nacionales y Areas Protegidas, Caracas, Venezuela, 10- 21 February 1992)

Belli, G. 1994. Journey to the lost city of the jaguar. Nature Conservancy 44(3): 10-14. (Belize)

Bensel, T. and Remedio, E. 1994. Woodfuel markets in Cebu: link to deforestation or reforestation? Farm Forestry News 6(2): 7-9. (South Central Philippines)

Bodmer, R., Puertas, P. and Fang, T. 1994. The urgency of finding new directions for primate conservation in western Amazo. nia. Neotropical Primates 2(1): 1-3. (Peru)

Bolgiano, C. 1994. The Great Forest. Wilderness 57(204): 10-22. (Atlantic Coast, USA)

Bozek, M. and Young, M. 1994. Fish mortality resulting from delayed effects of fire in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Great Basin Naturalist 54(1): 91-95.

Branch, L., Villareal, D. and Fowler, G. 1994. Factors influencing population dynamics of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus) in scrub habitat of central Argentina. J. Zoology 232(3): 383-396. (Population declined between 1984 and 1987)

Brown, L. et al. 1994. State of the World 1994. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC. 350 pp.

Burnes, B. 1994. Old-growth forest jewels of the Sierra Madre. Seedhead News 44: 3, 11. (Chihuahua, Mexico)

Callies, D. 1994. Preserving Paradise. Why Regulation Won't Work. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 144 pp.

Cambie, R. and Ash, J. 1994. Fijian Medicinal Plants. CSIRO Information Services, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 376 pp.

Carroll, G. 1994. Cat on the spot. Nat. Wildlife 32(4): 34-37. (USA ocelot)

Comiskey, J., Dallmeier, F., Aymard, G. and Hanson, A. 1993. Biodiversity Survey of Kwakwani, Guyana. Smithsonian Insti. tution/Man and the Biosphere Program, Washington, DC. 32 pp. + i-liv.

Connors, P. 1994. Rediscovery of showy Indian clover. Fremontia 22(2): 3-7. (Trifolium amoenum, California)

Conservation International. 1994. The Tagua Initiative: Marketing Biodiversity Products. Conservation International, Washington, DC. (Harvesting of tagua palm)

Coracerich, J. and McDonald, K. 1993. Distribution and conservation of frogs and reptiles of Queensland rainforests. Memoirs Queensland Museum 34(1): 189-199. (Nearly 20% of frog & reptile species either poorly known or not protected)

Cropper, S. 1994. Management of Endangered Plants. CSIRO Information Services, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 200 pp.

Davis, N. 1994. Following the mapmaker. Am. Forests 100(5 & 6): 22-25. (Ecosystem management)

Donald, P., Wilson, J. and Shepherd, M. 1994. The decline of the corn bunting Miliaria calandra. British Birds 87(3): 106-131. (England)

Drew, L. 1994. The bellowing bird that could. Nat. Wildlife 32(4): 16-21. (Sage grouse, USA)

Duke, J. and Vasquez Martinez, R. (Eds.). 1994. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida. 224 pp.

Edwards, P., May, R. and Webb, N. (Eds.). 1994. Large Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 416 pp.

Ellis, J. and Galvin, K. 1994. Climate patterns and land-use practices in the dry zones of Africa. BioScience 44(5): 340-349.

Goldstein, I. 1993. Distribucion, presencia y conservacion del Oso Frontino en Venezuela. Biollania 9: 171-182.

Green, M. 1994. Bravo new world. Nature Conservancy 44(3): 15. (Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, Belize)

Gricks, N. 1994. Whale-watching in the West Indies. A Guide to Cetaceans and Sites of the Region. Island Resources Foundation. Washington, DC. 43 pp.

Hall, D. and Willig, M. 1994. Mammalian species composition, diversity, and succession in conservation reserve program grass. lands. Southwestern Naturalist 39(1): 1-10. (Texas)

Herkert, J. 1994. Breeding bird communities of Midwestern prairie fragments: the effects of prescribed burning and habitat- area. Nat. Areas J. 14(2): 128-135.

Heyer, W., Donnelly, M., McDiarmid, R., Hayek, L.-A. and Foster, M. (Eds.). 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity. Standard Methods for Amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. 364 pp.

Houghton, R. 1994. The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience 44(5): 305-313.

Hyland, B. and Whiffin, T. 1994. Australian Tropical Rain Forest Trees. CSIRO Information Services, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 1160 pp. (Also on diskette)

Ireland, T., Wolters, G. and Schemnitz, S. 1994. Recolonization of wildlife on a coal strip-mine in northwestern New Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 39(1): 53-57.

Jackson, D. 1994. Saving the last best river. Audubon 96(3): 76-84, 120-121. (Yellowstone River)

Jansson, A., Hammer, M., Folke, C. and Costanza, R. (Eds.). 1994. Investing in Natural Capital. The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Island Press, Covelo, California. 450 pp.

Kartosedono, S., Sangat-Roemantyo, H., Soemowardojo, S. and Mulyono, B. (Compilers). 1993. Directory of Resources on Ethnobotany and Related Supporting Personnels of Indonesia. Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia (National Library of Indonesia), Jakarta, Indonesia. 93 pp.

Kummer, D. and Turner II, B. 1994. The human causes of deforestation in Southeast Asia. BioScience 44(5): 323- 328.

Landis, F. 1994. Surveying Santa Catalina plant communities. Fremontia 22(2): 24-27. (California)

Laskowski, L. 1993. Estudio con fines de manejo de la vegetacion lenosa del Parque Nacional "Cerro Saroche", estado Lara, Venezuela. Biollania 9: 91-94.

Lattin, J., Christie, A. and Schwartz, M. 1994. The impact of nonindigenous crested wheatgrasses on native black grass bugs in North America: a case for ecosystem management. Nat. Areas J. 14(2): 136-138.

Lima de Queiroz, H. 1994. Uma experiencia de conservacao na varzea da Amazonia Brasileira. Neotropical Primates 2(1): 12-13.

Lipske, M. 1994. Green seal of approval. Nat. Wildlife 32(4): 22-24. (Environmentally sound products)

Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation. 1994. The View from Airlie. Community Based Conservation in Perspective. Liz Claiborne and Art Ortenberg Foundation, New York, NY. 33 pp.

Madsen, J. 1993. Experimental wildlife reserves in Denmark: a summary of results. Wader Study Group Bull. 68: 23-28.

Markham, A., Dudley, N. and Stolton, S. 1993. Some Like It Hot: Climate Change, Biodiversity, and the Survival of Species. WWF-International, Gland, Switzerland.

McJannet, C., Argus, G., Edlund, S. and Cayouette, J. 1993. Rare Vascular Plants in the Canadian Arctic. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada. 79 pp. (236 rare vascular plants)

McKnight, B. (Ed.). 1993. Biological Pollution: The Control and Impact of Invasive Exotic Species. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 260 pp.

Mooney, M. and Koch, G. 1994. The impact of rising carbon monoxide concentrations on the terrestrial biosphere. Ambio 22(1): 74-76.

Moore, J. 1994. Base instinct: DoD and the woods of home. Am. Forests 100(5 & 6): 36-38, 55. (Program to help the military protect rare plants & animals)

Moran, E., Brondizio, E., Mausel, P. and Wu, Y. 1994. Integrating Amazonian vegetation, land-use, and satellite data. BioScience 44(5): 329-339.

Morris, V. 1994. Rainforest revolt. Audubon 96(3): 16-17. (Mexico's Lacandon)

Myers, N. 1994. Global security & the environment. Deforestation, environmental degradation threaten political stability. The Canopy Spring: 1, 4-5.

Myers, N. 1993. Ultimate Security: How Environmental Concerns Affect Global Political Stability. W. W. Norton & Co., New York, NY.

Neary, J. 1994. In the land of the Apaches. Audubon 96(3): 104-111. (Restoration of American Southwest)

Noss, R. and Cooperider, A. 1994. Saving Nature's Legacy. Island Press, Covelo, California. 380 pp.

Oberbauer, T. 1994. San Clemente Island revisited. Fre. montia 22(2): 11-13. (California)

Ojima, D., Galvin, K. and Turner II, B. 1994. The global impact of land-use change. BioScience 44(5): 300-304.

Olmos, F. 1994. Ilhabela State Park: a poorly known reserve in southeast Brazil. Neotropical Primates 2(1): 10-11. (Sao Paulo)

Pickart, A. and Stauffer, H. 1994. The importance of selecting a sampling model before data collection: an example using the endangered Humboldt milk-vetch (Astragalus agnicidus Barneby). Nat. Areas J. 14(2): 90-98.

Pienkowski, M. 1993. The impact of tourism on coastal breeding waders in Western and Southern Europe: an overview. Wader Study Group Bull. 68: 92-96.

Rachmananta, D., Isyanti, D., Sangat-Roemantyo, H. (Eds.). 1993. National Bibliography on Indonesian Ethnobotany. Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia (National Library of Indonesia), Jakarta, Indonesia. 244 pp.

Rappole, J., Morton, E., Lovejoy III, T. and Ruos, J. 1993. Aves Migratorias Nearticas en los Neotropicos. Conservation & Research Center, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virgi. nia. 341 pp.

Rhoads, A. and Klein, Jr. W. 1993. The Vascular Flora of Pennsylvania: Annotated Checklist and Atlas. Memoirs of American Philosophical Society 201: 1-636. (Conservation status listed)

Rich, B. 1994. Mortgaging the Earth: the World Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts. 376 pp.

Riebsame, W., Parton, W., Galvin, K., Burke, I., Bohren, L., Young, R. and Knop, E. 1994. Integrated modeling of land use and cover change. BioScience 44(5): 350-356.

Skinner, M. and Pavlik, B. (Eds.) 1994. CNPS Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California. 336 pp.

Skole, D., Chomentowski, W., Salas, W. and Nobre, A. 1994. Physical and human dimensions of deforestation in Amazonia. BioSci.ence 44(5): 314-322.

Speart, J. 1994. When citizens slap back. Nat. Wildlife 32(4): 12-15. (Environmental activism)

Sperry, T. 1994. The Curtis Prairie restoration, using the single-species planting method. Nat. Areas J. 14(2): 124- 127.

Townshend, D. and O'Connor, D. 1993. Some effects of disturbance to waterfowl from bait-digging and wildfowling at Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve, north-east England. Wader Study Group Bull. 68: 47-52.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1993. The Forestry Support Program. Report to the U. S. Agency for International Development: 1993. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Office of International Cooperation and Devel.opment, Washington, DC. 91 pp.

Utrera, A. and Cordero, Y. 1993. La priorizacion de areas de proteccion: una herramienta en el proceso de ordenacion del recurso fauna silvestre. Biollania 9: 17-26. (Venezuela)

Van den Beldt, R., Hatch, C., Sastry, C., Raintree, J., Ghosh, S., Saxena, N. and Garrity, D. 1994. Farm forestry comes of age. The emerging trend in Asia. Farm Forestry News 6(2): 1, 4-7. (Deforestation in tropical Asia)

Van Valkenburg, J. and Kether, P. 1994. Vegetation changes following human disturbance of mid-montane forest in Wau, Papua New Guinea. J. Trop. Ecology 10(1): 41-54.

Vora, R. 1994. Integrating old-growth forest into managed landscapes: a northern Great Lakes perspective. Nat. Areas J. 14(2): 113-123.

Wauthers, L., Hutchinson, Y., Parkin, D. and Dhondt, A. 1994. The effects of habitat fragmentation on demography and on the loss of genetic variation in the red squirrel. Royal Soc. Proceedings: Biological Sciences B255(1343): 107-111.

Weatherford, J. 1994. Savages and Civilization: Who Will Survive. Crown Publishers, New York, New York. 310 pp. (Loss of indigenous knowledge)

Werren, G. 1993. Conservation strategies for rare and threatened vertebrates of Australia's wet tropics region. Memoirs Museum 34(1): 228-239.

Wilderness Society. 1994. South Carolina's Mountain Treasures: The Unprotected Wildlands of the Andrew Pickens District of the Sumter National Forest. Wilderness Society, Washington, DC.

Williams, T. 1994. Whose woods are these? Audubon 96(3): 26-33. (New England's northern forest)

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