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Department ofBotany

No. 134
July 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Kentucky is home to 2,000-3,000 species of plants, more than 200 species of freshwater fish, 105 species of amphibians and reptiles, 340 species of birds, 75 species of mammals, and an unknown number of insects. It also contains a wide variety of ecosystems that support plant and animal life from hardwood forests and grasslands to caves and wetlands.

Kentucky's rich biodiversity contributes greatly to the Commonwealth's cultural and natural heritage and to its economy and quality of life. However, these native species, natural communities and entire ecosystems are not well known and are constantly threatened by a wide range of human activities.

In March, Gov. Brereton C. Jones appointed 32 Kentuckians to the Biodiversity Task Force whose mission is to submit to the governor a written report on the status of biodiversity in Kentucky with recommendations for its maintenance and conservation by October 1995.

In preparing this document, the group will look for factors affecting Kentucky's biodiversity; species, natural areas and parts of the state that need special attention; how government agencies, universities and private organizations can improve coordination of their biodiversity programs; and how to better educate the public on biodiversity issues. The group will recommend a comprehensive detailed strategy for sustaining and protecting local, regional and statewide biodiversity.


Since its discovery by Europeans 500 years ago, Puerto Rico has experienced a phenomenal population growth; current population density being 1,000 inhabitants per square mile. Puerto Rico is rich biologically. Of the 3,100 native plant species, 10% are endemic (only found in Puerto Rico) while 5% of the island's 233 species of birds are endemic. Fifty species of reptiles and 23 species of amphibians exhibit 78% endemism. During this century development has been detrimental to the country's natural resources. Much of the island's wildlife is threatend or endangered. Over 90% of the primary forest cover has been lost. A large number of exotic species have been introduced. Less than 5% of the island's wildlands are under legal protection. Although there is an adequate legal framework for protecting the environment, responsible agencies are understaffed, overworked, and interagency coordination is lacking.

The Puerto Rico Conservation Foundation, a non-profit citizen's organization, organized in 1987, is dedicated to the conservation of the island's biodiversity. The Foundation conducts a diverse array of activities, including: public education programs and publication of a newsletter; research programs; land acquisition; synthesis of information; protection of critical habitats; testimony at public hearings; sponsorship of special conservation projects; and fundraising among all sectors of the Puerto Rican Society. Most of the projects are executed jointly with other conservation groups and government agencies. Examples are its efforts to save El Yunque Rain Forest, the only virgin forest left in Puerto Rico and host of the largest segment of biodiversity on the island, and the purchase of Bahia Ballena which was annexed to the Guanica State Forest.

Anyone interested in supporting the Foundation should write: Fundacion Puertorriquena de Conservacion, Calle O'Neill #11, Hato Rey, Puerto Rico 00918.


The governors of the Great Lakes states created the Great Lakes Protection Fund in 1989. The Fund is the nation's first multi-state environmental endowment. It seeks to become a global model of political and economic cooperation in the management of a shared natural resource. The Fund was developed after two decades of increasingly cooperative efforts to identify, demonstrate, and promote regional action to enhance the health of the Great Lakes ecosystem. It continues to seek relationships with the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec which also border the Great Lakes.

The Fund has four primary goals: 1) prevent toxic pollution; 2) support effective cleanup approaches in Areas of Concern designated by the International Joint Commission; 3) support natural resource stewardship; and 4) clarify effects of toxic pollution on humans and wildlife. The Fund encourages a range of strategies to meet these goals, including regional coordination, roundtable discussions, policy analysis and evaluation, education for action, promotion of public dialogue through the media, conflict resolution, progam planning and development.

For more information, including call for preproposals, write: Great Lakes Protection Fund, 35 East Wacker Drive, Suite 1880, Chicago, IL 60601.


The World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, England, announces "CITES-L", a list for discussion and postings of issues relating to the trade in wildlife and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), where the list will be maintained, has had over 12 years of experience in dealing with wildlife trade issues and maintains a database of all reported trade in CITES-listed species on behalf of the CITES Secretariat. WCMC has regular contact with the CITES Secretariat in Geneva, which will also be a source of up-to-date information. The 9th Conference of the Parties of CITES will be held in November of this year in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA and WCMC hopes to post decisions and results of discussions as they take place.

Messages sent to CITES-L are distributed automatically and authors are solely responsible for the content of their posts. WCMC and CITES does not verify the accuracy of submitted messages nor endorse whatsoever is expressed.

If anyone is interested in joining the list, send a one line message to LISTPROC@WCMC.ORG.UK with the command line (in message body): SUBSCRIBE CITES-L , e.g. SUBSCRIBE CITES-L Ronald MacDonald. To sign-off, send a one line message to LISTPROC@WCMC.ORG.UK with the command line (in message body): SIGNOFF CITES-L or UNSUBSCRIBE CITES-L. It should be noted that replying to a message from the list will reply to EVERYONE on the list unless precautions are taken to ensure otherwise.

If you have any questions please direct them to the list manager: Helen Corrigan, Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, U.K.; Tel: (44) 223 277314; Fax: (44) 223 277136; e- mail:


The Center for Field Research invites field biologists to apply for an Earthwatch field grant. The Center for Field Research encourages and evaluates proposals for support by its international affiliate Earthwatch. Earthwatch is a private, nonprofit organization established in 1971 to fund field research, promote communication between scholars and the public, improve science education, and enhance public understanding of pressing evironmental and social problems.

Through its system of participant funding, Earthwatch supports both basic and applied research. Proposals are welcome for field studies on almost any life science topic, in any country, by advanced scholars of any nationality. The research must have scientific merit and feasibly and constructively involve non-specialist Earthwatch volunteers in the research tasks.

Earthwatch field grants average $20,000. These funds are derived from the contributions of Earthwatch members who enlist for the opportunity to join scientists in the field and assist with data collection and other tasks. On average, each volunteer contributes $600-900 towards the field grant and spends 12-16 days in the field. A typical Earthwatch project employs 4-8 volunteers each on 3-5 sequential teams. To be economically feasible for Earthwatch, the total number of Earthwatch volunteers participating on a project in one year is usually at least 20.

Earthwatch field grants cover the costs of maintaining volunteers and principal researchers in the field. They also help with other project expenses, except principal investigator salaries, capital equipment, overhead, and preparation of results for publications. Applying for grants is a two-stage process. Preliminary proposals are submitted to The Center for Field Research at least 13 months in advance of anticipated field dates. Full proposals are invited upon review of preliminary materials. Proposals are accepted and reviewed year round. For more information, please contact, Dee Robbins, Life Sciences Program Director, The Center for Field Research, 680 Mt. Auburn Street, Watertown, MA 02172; Tel: (617) 926-8200; Fax: (617) 926- 8532; e-mail:


National Wildlife Federation has released a new video entitled "Saving Our Wetlands - Facts and Fictions" which will be a great tool for educating groups on the importance of preserving wetlands for people and wildlife. The video shows the value of wetlands for controlling floods, purifying water and providing wildlife habitat, while cutting through the thicket of half- truths and propaganda spread by anti-environmentalists. The video costs $9.95 plus $3.50 for shipping and handling. To order, send a check or money order to National Wildlife Federation, 1400 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-9919.


African Biodiversity: Foundation for the Future, A Frame. work for Integrating Biodiversity, Conservation and Sustainable Development, is the principal product of the first phase of the Biodiversity Analysis for Africa (BAA) Project, implemented by the Biodiversity Support Program and funded by the Africa Bureau of the United States Agency for International Development. The goal of the BAA Project is to help improve efforts in Africa to conserve biological diversity while promoting human prosperity through an analysis of biodiversity conservation approaches currently being used or tested in Africa.

The report identifies numerous recommendations for action to slow the loss of biodiversity in Africa and to make development more sustainable. In the past, conservation strategies for Africa have tended to emphasize the international, scientific values of biological diversity and focus on areas of high species richness and endemism. However, this report proposes new, aggressive strategies that incorporate local and national values.

To obtain a copy of the 149-page report, write: Biodiversity Support Program, c/o World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037.


Mount Holyoke College seeks to fill two separate one- semester visiting professor positions in environmental studies: one each for the fall of 1995 and fall of 1996. Candidates should be accomplished senior scholars in areas related to environmental studies and may be from the natural sciences, social sciences or humanities. The specific field is not as important as a strong interest in interdisciplinary approaches to environmental problems and an ability to communicate with other scholars across disciplines. The visiting scholar will teach the senior seminar in environmental studies and take part in a lively program of campus talks and collegial discussion devoted to environmental studies. Opportunities for interaction with faculty in the other colleges in the Five-College area (Amherst, Smith, Univ. Mass, and Hampshire) are also available. Mount Holyoke is committed to cultural diversity and is an equal employment opportunity and affirmative action employer. Women and minorities are especially encouraged to apply. The evaluation of applications will begin on October 1, 1994. Send a letter of application, curriculum vitae, and letters of reference to Jens Christiansen, Chair, Environmental Studies Program, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA 01075.


August 9-14. The sixth annual conference of the Society for Ecological Restoration, "Saving All the Pieces", will he held in Lansing, Michigan. Symposia include Great Lakes restoration, wetland restoration, technology in restoration, and horticultural restoration techniques. For information, contact: Robert Welch, Program Chair, Lansing Community College, 422 N. Washington Square, Department 31, Lansing, MI 48901; Tel: (517) 483-9675.
September 19-23. "Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: the Sky Islands of the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico" will be held in Tucson, Arizona to discuss ecology and management of these desert mountains. Contact: L. F. DeBano, Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experiment Station, c/o School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721; Tel: (602) 621-2543; Fax: (602) 621-8801.
September 21-25. The first annual Wildlife Society symposium, "Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation and Management", will be held in Albuquerque, New Mexico to focus on empirical case histories and landscape consideration for metapopulation management. Contact: Dale McCullough, ESPM-145 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; Tel: (510) 642- 8462; Fax: (510) 643-5438.


Akeroyd, J., McGough, N. and Wyse Jackson, P. (Compilers). 1994. A CITES Manual for Botanic Gardens. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Kew, England. 32 pp.

Angermeier, P. and Williams, J. 1994. AFS policy statement: conservation of imperiled species and reauthorization of the 1993 Endangered Species Act. Fisheries 19(1): 26-29.

Anon. 1994. E. O. Wilson: an interview with the father of biodiversity. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 24-29.

Anon. 1994. The South China Sea: conservation area or war zone? Marine Pollution Bull. 28(3): 132.

Bauer, E. 1994. Wild leopards we have known. Int. Wildlife 24(4): 4-11.

Barcellos Falkenberg, D. and Voltolini, J. C. 1993. The montane cloud forest in southern Brazil. Pp. 83-93. In Hamilton, L.S., Juvik, J.O. and Scatema, F. (Eds.) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. East-West Center, UNESCO and IITF. (Reprints available from J. C. Voltolini, IB-USP, Depto. Zoologia, cp 20520, cep 01452-990, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil)

Best, B. and Krabbe, N. 1994. Focus on: ochre-bellied dove Leptotila ochraceiventris and white-tailed shrike-tyrant Agriornis andicola. Cotinga 1: 30-34. (The ochre- bellied dove of Ecuador and Peru and the white-tailed shrike of Ecuador and Argentina are classified as globally threatened in the Americas Red Data Book)

Bissell, J. 1994. Rare plants of the Grand River Basin. The Explorer 36(1): 4-5, 12-13. (Ohio)

Bradford, D., Gordon, M., Johnson, D., Andrews, R. and Jennings, W. 1994. Acidic deposition as an unlikely cause for amphibian population declines in the Sierra Nevada, California. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 155-163.

Breining, G. 1994. Great Lakes, great diversity. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 6.

Castro, G., Blanco, D., Banchs, R. and Canevari, P. 1994. Searching for the endangered Eskimo curlew in South America. Endangered Species UPDATE 11(3 & 4): 5. (Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis), one of the world's most endangered birds)

Celada, C., Bogliani, G., Gariboldi, A. and Maracci, A. 1994. Occupancy of isolated woodplots by the red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris L. in Italy. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 177-184.

Chazdon, R. 1994. The primary importance of secondary forests in the tropics. Tropinet 5(2): 1.

Cohn, J. 1994. The uncelebrated salamanders. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 8-9. (West Virginia)

Contreras-B., S. and Lozano-V., M. 1994. Water, endangered fishes, and development perspectives in arid lands of Mexico. Conservation Biology 8(2): 379-387.

Cunningham, D. and Moors, P. 1994. The decline of rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome at Campbell Island, Southern Ocean and the influence of rising sea temperatures. EMU 94(1): 27-36.

Curlee, A. P., Clark, T., Casey, D. and Reading, R. 1994. Large carnivore conservation. Endangered Species UPDATE 11(3 & 4): 1-4.

Edson, J. and Wenny, D. 1994. Micropropagation of endangered plants of the American Interior Northwest. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(7): 91-92.

Elgmork, K. 1994. The decline of a brown bear Ursus arctos L. population in central Norway. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 123-130.

Farino, T. 1994. The Iberian quartet. BBC Wildlife 12(7): 60. (New national parks in Spain)

Filippini, R., Caniato, R., Cappelletti, E., Piovan, A., Innocenti, G. and Cassina, G. 1994. In vitro regeneration of Haplophyllum patavinum (L) G. Don. fil., a rare and endangered plant. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(7): 87-89. (Italy)

Fojt, W. 1994. Dehydration and the threat to East Anglian fens, England. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 163-176.

French, D. 1994. Hierarchical Richness Index (HRI): a simple procedure for scoring "richness", for use with grouped data. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 207-212.

Ginsberg, H. 1994. Conservation of invertebrates in U.S. national parks. Am. Entomologist 40(2): 76-79.

Ginsberg, H. 1994. Lyme disease and conservation. Conservation Biology 8(2): 343-353.

Gonzalez-Benito, M. and Perez, C. 1994. Studies on the cryopreservation of nodal explants of Centaurum rigualli Esteve, en endemic threatened species, through vitrification. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(7): 82-83.

Goodman, S. 1994. The enigma of antipredator behavior in lemurs: evidence of a large extinct eagle on Madagascar. Int. J. Primatology 15(1): 129-134.

Grazing Lands Forum. 1993. An Explosion in Slow Motion: Noxious Weeds and Invasive Alien Plants on Grazing Lands. Grazing Lands Forum, Washington, DC. 69 pp.

Greenwell, J. 1994. Who's seen the thylacine ? BBC Wildlife 12(7): 48. (Tasmanian wolf reported in Australia)

Hamilton, L. (Ed.) 1994. Ethics, Religion, and Biodiversity: Relations Between Conservation and Cultural Values. The White Horse Press, Cambridge, England. 218 pp.

Harding, M. 1994. The wild and scenic Grand. The Explorer 36(1): 8-10. (Wild river in Ohio)

Hernandez Hernandez, J., Ruiz Campos, G. and Sanchez Martinez, E. 1994. Apuntes sobre la propagacion in vitro de Melocactus bellavistensis Rauh et Backeb. del Peru. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(7): 85-86.

Herrera, M., Alfonso, G. and Herrera, R. 1993. Las Reservas de la Biosfera de Cuba. Editorial Academia, Havanna, Cuba. 26 pp.

Hipkiss, A., Watson, L. and Evans, T. 1994. Preliminary report: The Cambridge-Tanzanian rainforest project 1992: brief account of ornithological results and conservation proposals. IBIS 136(1): 107-109. (Six globally threatened and three near threatened bird species discovered)

Horwitz, P. 1994. Distribution and conservation status of the Tasmanian giant freshwater lobster Astacopsis gouldi (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 199-206.

Jones, S. 1994. Endangered Species Act battles. Fisheries 19(1): 22-25. (Property rights, listing decisions and recovery planning are a few of the ESA's "hotspots" which will affect fisheries professionals)

Kiefer, M. 1994. Of pandas and principles. Int. Wildlife 24(4): 30-35. (Zoologist George Schaller shapes wildlife protection around the globe)

Kingsford, R. and Porter, J. 1994. Waterbirds on an adjacent freshwater lake and salt lake in arid Australia. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 219-228.

Koopowitz, H., Thornhill, A. and Andersen, M. 1994. A general stochastic model for the prediction of biodiversity losses based on habitat conversion. Conservation Biology 8(2): 425-438.

Kremen, C., Merenlender, A. and Murphy, D. 1994. Ecological monitoring: a vital need for integrated conservation and development programs in the tropics. Conservation Biology 8(2): 388-397.

Kuusipalo, J. and Kangas, J. 1994. Managing biodiversity in a foresty environment. Conservation Biology 8(2): 450-460.

La Pierre, Y. 1994. Illicit harvest. Nat. Parks 68(5- 6): 33-37. (Theft of plants from US national parks)

Larcher, S. 1994. Understanding the many dimensions of tropical diversity. Quest 3(3): 3-4.

Launer, A. and Murphy, D. 1994. Umbrella species and the conservation of habitat fragments: a case of a threatened butterfly and a vanishing grassland ecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 145-154.

Leberg, P. and Vrijenhoek, R. 1994. Variation among desert topminnows in their susceptibility to attack by exotic parasites. Conservation Biology 8(2): 419-424. (Exposure of native species to novel diseases is a major threat posed by introduced exotic species)

Margules, C., Nicholls, A. and Usher, M. 1994. Apparent species turnover, probability of extinction and the selection of nature reserves: a case study of the Ingleborough Limestone Pavements. Conservation Biology 8(2): 398-409.

McLean, H. 1994. Grizzlies on the rebound? Am. Forests 100(7 & 8): 43.

Monbiot, G. 1994. Lost outside the wilderness. BBC Wildlife 12(7): 28-31. (Maasai of southern Kenya)

Nabhan, G. and Carr, J. (Eds.). 1994. Ironwood: An Ecological and Cultural Keystone of the Sonoran Desert. Conservation International, Washington, DC. 92 pp. (Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology: Paper No. 1)

Nash, S. 1994. A bird in the hand. BBC Wildlife 12(7): 61. (Trade of wildlife in South-east Asia)

Nxomani, C., Ribbink, A. and Kirby, R. 1994. Differentiation of isolated, threatened fish populations in dolomitic waters of the Transvaal, South Africa, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of total cellular proteins. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 185-190.

Ormrod, S. 1994. Showboat as ark. BBC Wildlife 12(7): 40-44. (Zoos as a conservation strategy)

Pearce, F. 1994. Loggers haunt spirit bear. BBC Wildlife 12(7): 59. (Canadian white bear)

Phillips, J. and Packard, G. 1994. Influence of temperature and moisture on eggs and embryos of the white throated savanna monitor Varanus albigularis: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 131-136.

Polisar, J. and Horwich, R. 1994. Conservation of the large, economically important river turtle Dermatemys mawii in Belize. Conservation Biology 8(2): 338-342.

Reich, P., Oleksyn, J. and Tjoelker, M. 1994. Relationship of aluminium and calcium to net CO2 exchange among diverse Scots pine provenances under pollution stress in Poland. Oecologia 97(1): 82-92.

Reid, W., McNeely, J., Tunstall, D., Bryant, D. and Winograd, M. 1994. Biodiversity Indicators for Policymakers. World Resources Institute, Baltimore, MD. 42 pp.

Ruggiero, L., Hayward, G. and Squires, J. 1994. Viability analysis in biological evaluations: concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale. Conservation Biology 8(2): 364-372.

Scribner, K. and Stuewe, M. 1994. Genetic relationships among Alpine ibex Capra ibex populations re-established from a commom ancestral home. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 137- 144.

Short, J. and Turner, B. 1994. A test of the vegetation mosaic hypothesis: a hypothesis to explain the decline and extinction of Australian mammals. Conservation Biology 8(2): 439-449.

Silvertown, J., Wells, D., Gillman, D., Dodd, M., Robertson, H. and Lakhani, K. 1994. Short-term effects and long-term after- effects of fertilizer application on the flowering population of green-winged orchid Orchis morio. Biol. Conserv. 69(2): 191-198.

Sluiman, H. and Nelson, F. 1994. Micropropagation at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News 1(7): 84.

Stackhouse, J. 1994. A tale of two sisters. Int. Wildlife 24(4): 16-24. (Aid from two vastly different banks brings opposite results to poor people in Bangladesh)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. Bigfoot of the Amazon. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 7. (Efforts to track down the giant ground sloth (Mapinguari), thought to be extinct)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. Priceless garden: a gallery of rare plants. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 16-23. (USA)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. Safety in numbers. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 7. (A study in an oak savanna outside St. Paul has noted the abilities of biodiversity to keep an embattled ecosystem from crashing)

Taylor, K. 1994. Return of the exiles. BBC Wildlife 12(7): 32-38. (Peregrine falcons return to Bristol, England)

Tenenbaum, D. 1994. Rethinking the river. Nature Conservancy 44(4): 11-15. (Ecological impacts of the 1993 flooding of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers)

Thomas, C. 1994. Extinction, colonization, and metapopulations: environmental tracking by rare species. Conservation Biology 8(2): 373-378.

Valqui, T. 1994. The extinction of the Junin flightless grebe Podiceps taczanowskii. Cotinga 1: 42-44. (The Junin flightless grebe is threatened with extinction due to pollution of Lake Junin by mining companies)

Vogler, A. and Desalle, R. 1994. Diagnosing units of conservation management. Conservation Biology 8(2): 354- 363.

Warren, M. and Burr, B. 1994. Status of freshwater fishes of the United States: overview of imperiled fauna. Fisheries 19(1): 6-18.

White, A., Hale, L. Z., Renard, Y. and Cortesi, L. 1994. Collaborative and Community-based Management of Coral Reefs. Lessons from Experience. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut. 129 pp.

Williams, C. 1994. Aquatic resources and the Endangered Species Act. Fisheries 19(1): 19-21.

Witmeyer, D. and Strauss, M. (Eds.). 1994. Building Global Cooperation. Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources and the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Ameri. can Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC. 53 pp.

WWF Biodiversity Support Program. 1994. African Biodi. versity: Foundation for the Future. WWF Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, DC. 149 pp.

World Resources Institute. 1994. World Resources 1994- 95. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 400 pp.

Young, N. 1994. Marine Mammal Protection Act reauthorized. Marine Conservation News 6(2): 1,4.

Young, T. 1994. Natural die-offs of large mammals: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 8(2): 410-419.

Zale, A., Leon, S., Lechner, M., Maughan, O., Ferguson, M., O'Donnell, S., James, B. and James, P. 1994. Distribution of the threatened leopard darter, Percina pantherina. Southwestern Naturalist 39(1): 11-20.

Zettler, L. 1994. Extinction in our own backyard. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 63(6): 686-688. (Platanthera integrilabia, Kentucky & Tenn.)

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