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Department ofBotany

No. 135
August 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Bruce MacBryde

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) will hold its 9th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (now 123 member nations) on 7-18 November 1994 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida (USA). For plants, the agenda includes potential listing actions mainly on certain timbers, medicinals and ornamentals, and several basic regulatory topics. The Parties also will select the six regional members for the CITES Plants Committee. Background on the treaty and plants is available in proceedings of the previous biennial meetings, and minutes of the annual meetings of the CITES Plants Committee (1988-1994) and CITES Plant Working Group (1984- 1987).

Among the draft resolutions for decision in Florida are: (1) revising the 1976/1979 criteria and proposal document for inclusion of species (fauna and flora) in CITES Appendices I and II; (2) adopting strict criteria and beginning an international registration of nurseries that qualify in artificial propagation of particular taxa in Appendix I; and (3) consolidating (with some updating) of all the past CITES resolutions.

Nine countries have proposed amendments to the CITES appendices for plants, to list 35 species, uplist 23 species, downlist 9 species and delist 3 species. Pivotal are several proposals to include tropical species in Appendix II to regulate their timber (see also medicinals below), from: Africa Dalbergia melanoxylon, Entandrophragma (ca. 11 spp.), Khaya (ca. 6 spp.); Latin America Swietenia macrophylla and its natural hybrids with S. humilis; and Asia Diospyros mun. Plants almost all of Asia proposed for Appendix II particularly because of medicinal or other chemical overuse are: Berberis aristata DC., Gentiana kurroo, Colchicum luteum, Rheum australe, Aconitum deinorrhizum, A. ferox, A. heterophyllum, Coptis teeta, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Nardostachys grandiflora and the trees (also used for wood) Prunus africana, Pterocarpus santalinus, Taxus wallichiana and Aquilaria malaccensis (syn. A. agallocha).

The desire to strengthen export-import controls is shown in proposals to uplist to Appendix I succulent Madagascar species: Aloe (16 spp.), Euphorbia cremersii and Pachypodium ambongense. Some succulents also are proposed for downlisting to Appendix II: Euphorbia primulifolia, Pachypodium brevicaule, P. namaquanum, Astrophytum asterias, Leuchtenbergia principis and Mammillaria plumosa; and for delisting from Appendix II: Aloe vera.

Other proposals to use Appendix I are: listing Dactylanthus taylorii to control commerce in the wood-rose, and uplisting the Asian orchids Cypripedium cordigerum, C. elegans, C. himalaicum, C. tibeticum and Dendrobium cruentum. Other proposals to downlist to Appendix II are for the orchids Didiciea cunninghamii, Cattleya skinneri and Lycaste skinneri var. alba; and to delist from Appendix II Alocasia sanderiana and Camellia chrysantha.

To obtain or provide information, see U.S. Federal Register notices to be published in late August 1994 or contact: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Scientific Authority, 725 Arlington Square Bldg., Washington, DC 20240. Tel: 703-358-1708; Fax 703-358-2276.


The Instituto Ecologico Cristalino-IEC is a nonprofit organization seeking to expand research activities at its field station in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The field station is located in the Meridional Amazon Forest, one of the richest fauna and flora areas in the Amazon. The IEC is seeking institutions that are interested in supporting research in biology, ecology, agroforestry, reforestation, environmental education, and related areas. Contact: Adrianna Gomes Consorte-McCrea, CEA-AF, Instituto Ecologico Cristalino, R. Teodora Baima, 100 11A 01220-040 Sao Paulo, BP, Brazil.


The Regional Community Forestry Training Center (RECOFTC) is offering two training courses this fall in Bangkok, Thailand. The first course will be held November 7-December 2 in collaboration with the Agricultural and Rural Development Department of the University of Reading, UK, and will provide middle management personnel in forestry departments and community forestry programs with training in extension skills in participatory community forestry. The course will integrate classroom lectures with field experience in communities in Thailand and will cost US$3,850.

The second course, which will be held December 12-20 in collaboration with Resolve, World Wildlife Fund, USA, will focus on conflict resolution. It is aimed at mid-level officials and NGO personnel involved in forest management and conservation. The course will consist of lectures combined with role playing exercises, interactive discussion, group work and presentation and will cost US$1,550.

For more information on these training courses, contact: Dr. Somsak Sukwong, Director, RECOFTC, Kasetsart University, P.O. Box 1111, Bangkok 10903, Thailand. Tel: (662) 579-0108, 561-4881; Fax: (662) 561-4880.


Collaborative and Community-Based Management of Coral Reefs: Lessons from Experience addresses the central problem of how to involve people in natural resource management in order to make it effective. Coral reefs are among the world's most biologically diverse and productive ecosystems and are an integral part of tropical coastal ecosystems. However, the cumulative impact of human activities on reefs has increased with the world population. Of the 5.6 billion people on Earth in 1991, 3.5 billion lived in coastal areas. Many of the world's densest population clusters are found on tropical coasts bordered by coral reef ecosystems. Coral reefs are subject not only from human pressures, but from natural events. Environmental changes such as temperature variation, sediment runoff from deforestation and water pollution are serious threats. Therefore, coral reef management has become one of the most important issues in the environmental conservation movement with regard to food resources, the livelihood of the people who live around coral reefs, and the marine life that actually dwell inside coral reefs.

The book contains numerous valuable case studies and information on how to manage coral reefs in areas such as the Maluku Islands (Indonesia), San Salvador Island (Philippines), Phuket (Thailand), St. Lucia (Caribbean), and the Florida Keys (USA), to name a few. The case studies highlight the process of achieving a balanced ecological relationship between the human users of the resource and the reef ecosystem itself.

For ordering informaiton, contact: Kumarian Press, Inc., 630 Oakwood Ave., Suite 119, West Hartford, CT 006110-1529; Tel: (203) 953-0214; Fax (203) 953-8579.


RARE Center for Tropical Conservation, an international, nonprofit conservation organization, seeks a program director to develop, manage, and evaluate programs from RARE Center's Philadelphia office. The program director will work closely with the executive director and current program staff to achieve the program and related fund raising goals of the organization.

Responsibilities will include: research and development of new programs, including drafting proposals, budgets, and agreements with collaborating organizations; evaluation of programs; preparation of reports required by institutional donors; management of programs and people in the field; and presentation of RARE Center and its programs to funding agencies, conferences, etc.

The ideal candidate should be a college graduate with an advanced degree who has proven program development experience in Latin America and the Caribbean and who can bring the power of economic analysis to bear on conservation problems. The candidate should also be English/Spanish bilingual and able to communicate in Portuguese as well. Management experience, willingness to travel extensively, and communication skills are also important factors.

Salary is negotiable. Please send a curriculum vitae to John Guarnaccia, Executive Director, RARE Center, 1616 Walnut Street, Suite 911, Philadelphia, PA 19103.

The Secretariat of BirdLife International, a global partnership of 53 national conservation organizations, requires an Advocacy Program Manager to develop and coordinate its BirdLife Policy and Advocacy Program. Specific tasks include: coordinating and facilitating the development of BirdLife policies on both broad environmental and international issues affecting birds where a joint position by the BirdLife Partners is desirable; encouraging the adoption and adherence to agreed policies by Partners and other relevant parts of the BirdLife Network; developing and expanding the Advocacy Programme with a focus on agreed policies and priorities; developing and maintaining close relationships with national and international development agencies, international conventions and treaties and other key organisations whose policies and actions BirdLife wishes to influence; and managing and motivating advocacy staff.

For this post the individual should have excellent communication skills, a detailed understanding of international agencies and conventions, and be a good persuader and influencer with knowledge of international conservation and development issues. The candidate should have high levels of initiative and self-motivation and be able to work under pressure and travel the world frequently.

The post will be based at the BirdLife International Secretariat in Cambridge, UK. The salary scale ranges from US$ 25,500 - 34,500 plus benefits. Relocation costs will be covered.

Applications should be made to Dr. Michael Rands, Deputy Director-General, BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge, CB3 0NA, UK. This should include a letter highlighting relevant experience, qualifications and motivation for seeking this post and a full curriculum vitae which should arrive by no later than 10th September 1994.

The Great Lakes Protection Fund, a nonprofit organization to support projects that ensure the health of the regional ecological ecosystem, seeks a new Executive Director who will be responsible for all aspects of the Fund's activities. This includes grant making, outreach, oversight of the endowment, and management of a staff of six professional and clerical personnel. The Executive Director works closely with and reports directly to the Board of Directors.

Applicants should have high standards, imagination, leadership qualities, an entrepreneurial style and a strong commitment to the Fund's goals. The salary scale and benefits are competitive, and compensation will be set to attract the most qualified candidate. Candidates should submit a letter of application and a resume to Maureen Smyth, Great Lakes Protection Fund, 35 East Wacker Drive, Suite 1880, Chicago, IL 60601; Tel: (312) 201-5029. There is no deadline for submitting an application, but the initial screening is expected to be completed by September 1.

Ecologically Sustainable Developments (ESD), Inc., a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting ecologically sustainable development plans and projects throughout the world, is seeking a Vice President for Program. The incumbent will direct and manage ESD's program activities and initiate and develop ecologically sustainable development programs. A B.S. degree is required in any of the following areas: natural resources, landscape architecture, resource economics or regional planning. Other requirements: demonstrated successful supervisory and management experience; established contacts in the environmental and NGO communities; and working knowledge of geographic information systems. Salary is commensurate with experience, appropriate to the nonprofit community. Starting date is approximately January 1, 1995.

Candidates should submit a 2-3 page statement articulating their personal definition of ecologically sustainable development; a resume, with introductory letter of interest; and three professional and three personal references. Deadline is October 31, 1994. Submit application to: Donna Beal, Administrator, ESD, Inc., P.O. Box 848, 2 Church Street, Elizabethtown, NY 12932; Tel: (518) 873-3200; Fax: (518) 873- 2686.


September 26-28. A symposium, "The Origins, Implantation, and Differentiation of the Fauna and Flora of Madagascar, including the Islands of the West Indian Ocean", will be held by the Socie.ty of Biogeography in Paris, France. For information, write: Dr. W.R. Lourenco, Societe de Biogeographie, 57, rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France.

October 5-9. The second annual Institute of Marine and Coastal Ecology will take place at a secluded site north of San Carlos on the rugged gulf coast region of the Sea of Cortez, Sonora, Mexico. Participants will study the diversity of tropical desert and coastal life forms as well as marine ecology. Activities will include snorkeling, hiking and kayaking. Participants must be in good health to attend. Cost is $645 per person which includes transportation, instruction, camp services and all meals. One unit of University credit is available for an additional fee. For further information call Cynthia Lindquist, Institutes Director, Tel: (602) 629-0757; Fax: (602) 622-5622.

October 19-22. "Ecosystem Management and Restoration for the 21st Century" is the theme of the 1994 Natural Areas Conference to be held in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. Sessions will include papers on topics such as: environmental education as a tool for natural areas protection, new approaches to ecosystem management, understanding and managing hurricane effects in natural areas, wetland management, and exotic species policy and management. For registration information, contact: Bill Helfferich, South Florida Water Management District, P.O. Box 24680, West Palm Beach, FL 33416-4680; Tel: (407) 687-6637.


Alves, M. and Coelho, M. 1994. Genetic variation and population subdivision of the endangered Iberian cyprinid Chrondrostoma lusitanicum. J. Fish Biology 44(4): 627-636. (Ten of the 15 Portuguese indigenous species of Cyprinidae (fishes) are endangered due to habitat destruction and pollution)

Andrade, G. and Rubio-Torgler, H. 1994. Sustainable use of the tropical rain forest: evidence from the avifauna in a shifting-cultivation habitat mosaic in the Colombian Amazon. Conservation Biology 8(2): 545-554.

Anon. 1994. Condor killed. New Scientist 143(1933): 13. (An endangered Californian condor, recently returned to the wild, died after flying into a power line)

Anon. 1994. English plans for marine nature conservation. Marine Pollution Bull. 28(3): 135.

Anon. 1994. Parrots: Caribbean Amazons. On the Edge (Wildlife Preservation Trust International) 49: 9-10. (Five of the species of Amazon parrots that inhabit the Caribbean are considered endangered)

Anon. 1994. Reefbase - a global database of coral reef systems and their resources. Marine Pollution Bull. 28(3): 133.

Anon. 1994. Spotlight on education: Brazil. On the Edge (Wildlife Preservation Trust International) 49: 3-4. (Successful environmental education program developed, focusing on the conservation of the highly endangered black lion tamarin)

Anon. 1994. Symbol of success. Nat. Wildlife 32(5): 22-24. (Bald eagle no longer classified as endangered in lower 48 states of US)

Anon. 1994. Turkey - new environmental protection association set up by ship owners and industrialists to fight marine pollution. Marine Pollution Bull. 28(3): 136.

Barbour, M. and Whitworth, V. 1994. California's living land.scape. Fremontia 22(3): 3-13.

Baskin, Y. 1994. California's ephemeral vernal pools may be a good model for speciation. BioScience 44(6): 384-388.

Belleville, B. 1994. Making ecosense. The Florida Naturalist 67(2): 9-11.

Bennett, D. 1994. The unique contribution of wilderness to values of nature. Nat. Areas J. 14(3): 203-208.

Bjorndal, K., Bolten, A. and Lagueux, C. 1994. Ingestion of marine debris by juvenile sea turtles in coastal Florida habitats. Marine Pollution Bull. 28(3): 154-158.

Blockstein, D. 1994. A National Institute for the Environment: Congress is debating a proposal to create a new institute to provide the big picture on environmental issues. Fisheries 19(7): 28-29.

Bond, I. 1994. The importance of sport-hunted African elephants to CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe. Traffic Bull. 14(3): 117-119.

Bright, P., Mitchell, P. and Morris, P. 1994. Dormouse distribution: survey techniques, insular ecology and selection of sites for conservation. J. Applied Ecology 31(2): 329-339. (The doormouse Muscardinus avellanarius L., protected species in Britain)

Byrnes, P. 1994. In the kingdom of the Keys. Wilderness 57(205): 19-21. (Destruction of the Florida Keys)

Cayo, D. 1994. Exploring Fundy's untamed coast. Canadian Geographic 114(4): 28-37. (Logging threatens an isolated seashore)

Cayot, L., Rassman, K. and Trillmich, F. 1994. Are marine iguanas endangered on islands with introduced predators? Noticias de Galapagos 53: 13-14.

Collier, G., Mountjoy, D. and Nigh, R. 1994. Peasant agriculture and global change. BioScience 44(6): 398-407. (Mexico)

Crowder, L., Crouse, D., Heppell, S. and Martin, T. 1994. Predicting the impact of turtle excluder devices on loggerhead sea turtle populations. Ecological Applications 4(3): 437- 445.

Doak, D., Kareiva, P. and Klepetka, B. 1994. Modeling population viability for the desert tortoise in the western Mojave Desert. Ecological Applications 4(3): 446-460.

Fa, J. 1994. Herbivore intake/habitat productivity correlations can help ascertain re-introduction potential for the Barbary macaque. Biodiversity and Conservation 3(4): 309.

Fernandez-Duque, E. and Valeggia, C. 1994. Meta-analysis: a valuable tool in conservation research. Conservation Biology 8(2): 555-561.

Francisco-Ortega, J., Ellis, R., Gonzalez-Feria, E. and Santos-Guerra, A. 1994. Overcoming seed dormancy in ex situ plant germplasm conservation programmes; an example in the endemic Argyranthemum (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) species from the Canary Islands. Biodiversity and Conservation 3(4): 341-353.

Hall, P., Chase, M. and Bawa, K. 1994. Low genetic variation but high population differentiation in a common tropical forest tree species. Conservation Biology 8(2): 471-482. (Pentaclethra macroloba, Costa Rica)

Hardy, J., Reisen, W., Milby, M. and Reeves, W. 1994. Potential effects of global warming on mosquito-borne arboviruses. J. Medical Entomology 31(3): 323-332.

Hill, G. 1994. Observations of wildlife trade in Mergui Tavoy District, Kawthoolei. Traffic Bull. 14(3): 107-110. (Myanmar, bordering Thailand)

Holdgate, M. 1994. Ecology, development and global policy. J. Applied Ecology 31(2): 201-211.

Hunter, J. 1994. Is Costa Rica truly conservation-minded? Conservation Biology 8(2): 592-595. (Banana plantations in the Sarapiqui area)

Huntsman, G. 1994. Endangered marine finfish: neglected resources or beasts of fiction? Fisheries 19(7): 8-15.

Jordan, A. 1994. Paying the incremental costs of global environmental protection: the evolving role of GEF. Environment 36(6): 12-20, 31-35. (The Global Environment Facility (GEF), set up in 1992, channels donor funds to developing world for environmental protection projects)

Kershaw, M., Williams, P. and Mace, G. 1994. Conservation of Afrotropical antelopes: consequences and efficiency of using different site selection methods and diversity criteria. Biodiversity and Conservation 3(4): 354-372.

Kiviat, E. and Hartwig, T. 1994. Marine mammals in the Hudson River estuary. Hudsonia 10(2): 1-5.

Klekowski, E., Corredor, J., Morell, J. and Castillo, C. 1994. Petroleum pollution and mutation in mangroves. Marine Pollution Bull. 28(3): 170-177.

Komai, T. 1994. Rediscovery of Pagurus imaii (Yokoya, 1939) (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from Hokkaido, Japan. Nat. Hist. Research 3(1): 33-40. (Hermit crab)

Kremen, C. 1994. Biological inventory using target taxa: a case study of the butterflies of Madagascar. Ecological Applications 4(3): 407-422.

Lee, C. 1994. The 1994 legislature - victories and disappointments. The Florida Naturalist 67(2): 16-19.

Lovelock, C., Jebb, M. and Osmond, C. 1994. Photoinhibition and recovery in tropical plant species: response to disturbance. Oecologia 97(3): 197-307.

McGranahan, G. and Songsore, J. 1994. Wealth, health and the urban household: weighing environmental burdens in Accra, Jakarta and Sao Paulo. Environment 36(6): 4-11.

McIntyre, S. and Lavorel, S. 1994. Predicting richness of native, rare and exotic plants in response to habitat and disturbance variables across a variegated landscape. Conservation Biology 8(2): 521-531. (Australia)

Mulliken, T. and Haywood, M. 1994. Recent data on trade in rhino and tiger products, 1988-1992. Traffic Bull. 14(3): 99-106.

Nash, S. 1994. Further parrot trade records for Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Traffic Bull. 14(3): 121-124.

Numata, M. 1994. Pasture and weed vegetation in relation to land use and nature conservation in northern Pakistan. Nat. Hist. Research 3(1): 7-20.

O'Brien, J. 1994. Research on South Florida Galactia (Fabaceae). Plant Conservation 8(1): 1-3.

Oliver, K. 1994. Island: crossroads. The Florida Naturalist 67(2): 4-7. (Grand Bahama Island's Rand Nature Center, home to a large population of rare greater flamingos)

Oostermeijer, J., Van Eijck, M. and den Nijs, J. 1994. Offspring fitness in relation to population size and genetic variation in the rare perennial plant species Gentiana pneumonantha (Gentianaceae). Oecologia 97(3): 289-296.

O'Ryan, C., Flamand, J. and Harley, E. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA variation in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): conservation management implications. Conservation Biology 8(2): 495-500.

Pearce, F. 1994. Not warming but cooling. New Scientist 143(1933): 37-41. (The world's most populous areas are getting cooler - due to the aerosol effect)

Pennisi, E. 1994. Tallying the tropics. Science News 145: 362-363, 366. (Barro Colorado Island, Panama)

Peres, C. 1994. Indigenous reserves and nature conservation in Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology 8(2): 586-588.

Pleumarom, A. 1994. The political economy of tourism. The Ecologist 24(4): 142-148.

Pray, L., Schwartz, J., Goodnight, C. and Stevens, L. 1994. Environmental dependency of inbreeding depression: implications for conservation biology. Conservation Biology 8(2): 562- 568.

Pritchard, P. 1994. Ecotourism - panacea or problem ? The Florida Naturalist 67(2): 2.

Rabe, F. and Chadde, S. 1994. Classification of aquatic and semiaquatic wetland natural areas in Idaho and western Montana. Nat. Areas J. 14(3): 175-187.

Rosenzweig, M. and Clark, C. 1994. Island extinction rates from regular censuses. Conservation Biology 8(2): 491-494. (British Islands)

Roth, D., Perfecto, I. and Rathcke, B. 1994. The effects of management systems on ground-foraging ant diversity in Costa Rica. Ecological Applications 4(3): 423-436.

Russell, R., Carpenter, F., Hixon, M. and Paton, D. 1994. The impact of variation in stopover habitat quality on migrant rufous hummingbirds. Conservation Biology 8(2): 483-490. (California Sierra Nevada)

Saberwal, V., Gibbs, J., Chellam, R. and Johnsingh, A. 1994. Lion-human conflict in the Gir forest, India. Conservation Biology 8(2): 501-507.

Samson, F. and Knopf, F. 1994. Roundtable: prairie conservation in North America. BioScience 44(6): 418-421.

Sandison, M. and McGough, H. 1994. A validation of draft CITES criteria against selected plant taxa. Traffic Bull. 14(3): 92-98.

Schneider, D. 1994. Return of the ospreys. Canadian Geographic 114(4): 20-27.

Schwartz, M. 1994. Conflicting goals for preserving biodiversity: issues of scale and value. Nat. Areas J. 14(3): 213-216.

Skow, F. 1994. Redwoods: the last stand. Time June 6: 58-60. (California)

Stahle, D. and Chaney, P. 1994. A predictive model for the location of ancient forests. Nat. Areas J. 14(3): 151-158. (USA)

Stokes, M. and Slade, N. 1994. Drought-induced cracks in the soil as refuges for small mammals: an unforseen consequence of climatic change. Conservation Biology 8(2): 577-580.

Stone, P., Snell, H. and Snell, H. 1994. Behavioral diversity as biological diversity: introduced cats and lava lizards wariness. Conservation Biology 8(2): 569-573. (Exotic predators have decimated island populations of birds & reptiles)

Suzan, H., Nabhan, G. and Patten, D. 1994. Nurse plant and floral biology of a rare night-blooming cereus, Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) F. Buxbaum. Conservation Biology 8(2): 461-470. (USA & Mexico)

Tokar, B. 1994. Between the loggers and the owls: the Clinton Northwest forest plan. The Ecologist 24(4): 149- 153.

Tomiuk, J. and Loeschcke, V. 1994. On the application of birth-death models in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 8(2): 574-576.

Valle, C. 1994. "Pepino War, 1992" - is conservation just a matter for the elite? A Galapagos viewpoint. Noticias de Galapagos 53: 2.

Van der Valk, A., Squires, L. and Welling, C. 1994. Assessing the impacts of an increase in water level on wetland vegetation. Ecological Applications 4(3): 525-534.

Virkkala, R., Rajasarkka, A., Vaisanen, R., Vickholm, M. and Virolainen, E. 1994. The significance of protected areas for the land birds of southern Finland. Conservation Biology 8(2): 532-544.

Walters, T., Decker-Walters, D. and Gordon, D. 1994. Restoration considerations for wiregrass (Aristida stricta): allozymic diversity of populations. Conservation Biology 8(2): 581-585. (USA)

Weinstock, J. 1994. Rhizophora mangrove agroforestry. Econ. Bot. 48(2): 210-213.

White, A., Hale, L., Renard, Y. and Cortesi, L. 1994. Collaborative and Community-based Management of Coral Reefs. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut. 129 pp.

Willson, M., de Santo, T., Sabag, C. and Armesto, J. 1994. Avian communities of fragmented south-temperate rainforests in Chile. Conservation Biology 8(2): 508-520.

Zettler, L. 1994. Extinction in our own backyard. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 63(6): 686-688. (Platanthera integrilabia, Kentucky & Tenn.)

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