Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 137
October 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Natural History Museum of the Universidad del Cauca, Popayan, Colombia, with the support of the Corporacion Biopacifico and the Biodiversity Support Program, is conducting a program for the establishment of a biodiversity conservation corridor connecting the Pacific rain forests of Colombia. The project intends to unite the Farallones de Cali National Park and Munchique National Park, via the Naya River watershed, creating a protected area of at least 350,000 ha. The southern part of the corridor includes the Tambito Private Reserve, which is a center for environmental research and protects various endemic and endangered bird species. This initiative will assure the conservation of a broad area of rain forest within the Choco Biogeographic Region, which is experiencing strong pressure from colonization, as well as from regional development projects. In the zone to be protected, there are at least 550 species of birds. For further information, write: Alvaro Jose Negret, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad del Cauca, Popayan, Colombia.


The Nature Conservancy, in cooperation with the Natural Heritage Network, has completed the first-ever national listing of rare plant communities based on a standardized classification scheme. The report, Rare Plant Communities of the Conterminous United States: An Initial Survey, will be used to aid in determining priorities for land protection. A total of 371 G1 and G2 communities are described, and an additional 482 rare types are identified that need further research. Copies are available upon request from interested parties from all heritage programs and Conservancy field offices, or the National Office at 1815 North Lynn Street, Arlington, VA 22209.


The Partners in Flight Information and Education Working Group is starting a new project to inventory and assess educational materials that focus on Neotropical migratory birds and North American residence species. The goal is to identify needs for educational materials and make recommendations for new product development. The end product will be an annotated bibliography of materials, available in printed copy and as an updated database. This effort is a joint initiative of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. All organizations with currently available educational materials on this topic are requested to send two (2) copies of all materials to: Sally Laughlin, Education Team Chair, Birds of Vermont Museum, P. O. Box 157, Cambridge, VT 05444; Tel. & Fax: (802) 644-5651.

The Tropical Forest Management Trust, a private non-profit organization, is distributing a 35-minute video, "Avances Prometedores para el Manejo de Bosques Tropicales en America Latina", showing how natural forest management can provide an alternative to current deforestation of wet forests. By means of interviews with experts and visits to forest management projects in Mexico, Costa Rica and Ecuador, the video describes how forests can be managed in a sustainable way for the extraction of wood and other products. The video is available in English and Spanish for $18 each. Checks and money orders should be addressed to Tropical Forest Management Trust, Inc., 6124 SW 30th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32608; Tel: (904) 331-2007; Fax: (904) 331-3284.


The Garden Club of America offers a selection of opportunities for further study to college and graduate students in environmental areas. A new scholarship, the Frances M. Peacock Scholarship for Native Bird Habitat, will be awarded for the first time in the spring of 1995. The scholarship provides financial aid (up to $4,000) to an advanced student (college senior or graduate student) to study areas in the United States that provide winter or summer habitats for threatened and endangered native birds. For application guidelines, write or fax: Scott Sutcliffe, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850; Fax: (607) 254-2415.

The Garden Club of America Awards for Summer Environmental Studies offer financial aid so students may pursue a summer course in environmental studies in a variety of topics, i.e. hazardous waste, barrier island ecology, plant resources of the tropics, environmental journalism. Awards are usually $1,500 for each recipient. Applications must be received at The Garden Club of America headquarters in New York City by February 15 preceding the summer of study. To request an application, send a self- addressed stamped envelope to: Scholarship Committee, The Garden Club of America, 598 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10022, or call Mrs. Monica Freeman at (212) 753-8287; Fax: (212) 753-0134.


The Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) is seeking a full- time Grant Coordinator for its National office headquartered at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. This position manages existing grants consistent with the mission of the Center for Plant Conservation. Applicant must be able to exercise independent judgment within broad guidelines while interacting directly with funding agencies, contractors, other botanical gardens, and the internal and external scientific community. This position focus on grant administration, budget maintenance, proposal and grant writing, and project direction. Candidate must be able to reinstate and stabilize regional task force meetings in collaboration with the CPC President and lead the implementation of several research and integrated conservation projects on endangered plants. Position duration is one year and renewable depending upon performance and funding.

Position requirements include a Bachelor's degree in plant biology, conservation or related scientific discipline, Master's degree preferred; or a combination of education and experience. Proficiency with various word processing and spreadsheet software; exceptional verbal and written communication; demonstrated leadership abilities and proven creative management skills; three years' experience in grants administration with budgetary responsibilities; and ability to maintain an active travel schedule are required. Applications will be accepted until position is filled. However, interested individuals with the specified position qualifications should apply immediately and submit a resume, including salary requirements, to: Missouri Botanical Garden, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166.

The American Museum of Natural History's department of exhibitions seeks a person with training and knowledge in one of the biodiversity sciences (systematics, ecology, conservation biology) to assist the scientific and exhibition personnel in the production of a major exhibition on biodiversity. The Science Coordinator will work as part of the Biodiversity Exhibition Project team to conduct research for the exhibition, write summaries of this research, write interpretive text for the exhibition, and coordinate content development with the research departments of the Museum and with advisors outside the Museum. Requirements include an M.S. degree or comparable experience and interest and experience in public education. This appointment is for two years and may be renewed. Please send resume with salary requirements to: Personnel Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024.

The University of Nevada, Reno seeks an established ecologist or conservation biologist as Professor of Biology and Director of the Biodiversity Research Center. Duties include administration, research and teaching. Expertise in desert or arid/montane ecosystems and hands-on conservation experience required; background in modeling, ecology of sensitive species or GIS and remote sensing highly desirable. Ph.D., ten years experience after the doctorate and significant publication record necessary. Starting date: January 1, 1995; salary $56,485 - $72,623 for academic year; summer salary available. Send letter of application, curriculum vitae, selected publications and the names, addresses and phone numbers of three references to: Dr. Peter F. Brussard, Chair, Dept. of Biology/314, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557.


December 11-14. An International Conference on Biodiversity, Ecosystem Health and Sustainable Development will be held in New Orleans. The conference is organized by Tulane University and co- sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and Conservation International. Basic themes addressed: research and policy priorities; national and international strategies; case studies of biodiversity initiatives; biodiversity; sustainable development and indigenous populations; and the linkages between biodiversity and sustainable development. Registration $395 (before Nov. 1, 1994); $495 (after Nov. 1). For more information, contact: Ms. Bobby Palfrey, Conference coordinator, Energy Spatial Analysis Research Laboratory, Tulane University Medical Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue (SL1), New Orleans, LA 70112; Tel: (504) 586-3824; Fax: (504) 585-6954.


The Monteverde Institute in Costa Rica is offering several courses in 1995. January 7-21 will be a special three-week course on tropical biology, sustainable development, and conservation which will be given in Spanish. Cost: $1500. Deadline for registration: November 1, 1994. For more information contact: Lisa Wirtanen, Monteverde Institute, Apartado 69-5655, Monteverde de Puntarenas, Costa Rica; Tel: (506) 645-5053; Fax: (506) 645- 5219; email:

February 6-24, 1995. Tropical dendrology course, intensive instruction in the field identification of neotropical trees and shrubs. Cost: $2,500 includes: materials, lodging, meals, insurance, course-related local transport and diploma. Deadline for application: December 17, 1994. Another course will be given June 19-July 7, 1995. Deadline for application: April 17, 1995. The same course will be given in Spanish March 13-31, 1995. Deadline for application: December 17, 1994. Additional information can be obtained from: Dr. Humberto Jimenez Saa, Tropical Science Center, P.O. Box 8-3870-1000, San Jose, Costa Rica; Tel: (506) 225 2649 or 253 3267; Fax: (506) 253 4963.

April 17-May 5, 1995. The Life Zone Ecology course will provide intensive instruction in the practical and theoretical use of the World Life Zone System of Ecological Classification developed by Dr. L. R. Holdridge. Cost: $2,700 includes: tuition and fee, materials, lodging, meals, insurance, course-related local transport and diploma. Deadline for application: January 17, 1995. For more information, contact Dr. Saa (address above).

The 2nd International Conference on Wildlife Management in Amazonia will be held May 7-11, 1995 in Iquitos, Peru. The conference organizers are the Tropical Conservation & Development Program, Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida and the Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonica Peruana. The conference will address wildlife and fisheries management in Amazonia by focussing on the importance of local community participation and the development of economic alternatives to conserve habitats and prevent extinctions. For more information, contact: Conference, TCD Program, P. O. Box 115531, Gainesville, FL 32611-5531; Tel: (904) 392-6548; Fax: (904) 392-0085; email: or Coordinador Nacional de Congreso, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Pl. Serafin Filomeno s/n, Iquitos, Peru; Tel: (51-94) 23-6121; Fax: (51-94) 23-4723.

Field Museum of Natural History is convening a three-day scientific meeting entitled, Natural and Human-Induced Change in Madagascar, June 2-4, 1995 in Chicago. The meeting will consist of presentations to the general public, invited technical presentations, scientific workshops, and contributed poster presentations organized around geological, anthropological, biological, and resource management/conservation themes. For more information, contact: B.D. Patterson, Center for Evolutionary & Environmental Biology, Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496; Tel: (312) 922-9410, ext. 468; Fax: (312) 663-5397; Internet:, or S. M. Goodman, B.P. 738, WWF Aires Protegees, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar; Fax: 261-2-348-88.


Aguirre, A. and Starkey, E. 1994. Wildlife disease in U.S. national parks: historical and coevolutionary perspectives. Conservation Biology 8(3): 654-661.

Anon. 1994. Aerial view gives clear picture of forest threats. FOCUS 16(5): 3. (Columbia River Basin, Pacific Northwest, USA)

Anon. 1994. Colombia makes substantive reforms to conserve biological diversity. Biodiversity Conservation Strategy UPDATE 6(3): 7. (Creation of a Ministry of Environment)

Anon. 1994. An ESA victory: Americans work together to save the bald eagle. Endangered Species Action August: 1.

Anon. 1994. First living sao las found in Vietnam. FOCUS 16(5): 3. (Vu Quang ox)

Anon. 1994. Making CITES work: rhino and tiger protection tops agenda at CITES meeting. FOCUS 16(5): 1.

Anon. 1994. NWF working to protect wilderness: bombing range threatens fragile desert in Idaho. Endangered Species Action August: 2. (Owyhee Canyonlands, Idaho)

Anon. 1994. Rwanda update: guards continue to protect mountain gorillas. FOCUS 16(5): 3.

Anon. 1994. Species updates: recovery underway for bears and wolves. Endangered Species Action August: 3.

Anon. 1994. WWF launches global conservation training program. FOCUS 16(5): 1, 6.

Ardern, S., Mclean, I., Anderson, S., Maloney, R., and Lambert, D. 1994. The effects of blood sampling on the behavior and survival of the endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi). Conservation Biology 8(3): 857- 862. (New Zealand)

Baker, W. 1994. Restoration of landscape structure altered by fire suppression. Conservation Biology 8(3): 763-769.

Berg, A., Ehnstrom, B., Gustafsson, L., Hallingback, T., Jonsell, M. and Weslien, J. 1994. Threatened plant, animal, and fungus species in Swedish forests: distribution and habitat associations. Conservation Biology 8(3): 718-732.

Berger, J. and Cunningham, C. 1994. Phenotypic alterations, evolutionarily significant structures, and rhino conservation. Conservation Biology 8(3): 833-840.

Boertmann, D. 1994. A annotated checklist to the birds of Greenland. BioScience 38: 1-63. (Lists status, rarity, habitat of 235 species)

Bowden, C. 1994. Desert dreams. Nature Conservancy 44(5): 16-24. (Pinacate region, USA/Mexico)

Bowen, B., Conant, T. and Hopkins-Murphy, S. 1994. Where are they now? The Kemp's ridley headstart project. Conservation Biology 8(3): 853-856.

Bronmark, C. and Edenhamn, P. 1994. Does the presence of fish affect the distribution of tree frogs (Hyla arborea)? Conservation Biology 8(3): 841-845.

Brown, L., Moyle, P. and Yoshiyama, R. 1994. Historical decline and current status of coho salmon in California. North American J. Fisheries Management 14(2): 237-262.

Burkett, D. and Thompson, B. 1994. Wildlife association with human-altered water sources in semiarid vegetation communities. Conservation Biology 8(3): 682-690.

Caro, T., Pelkey, N. and Grigione, M. 1994. Effects of conservation biology education on attitudes toward nature. Conservation Biology 8(3): 846-852.

Carter, M. (Ed). 1994. Conservation Tillage in Temperate Agroecosystems. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. 400 pp.

Conservation International and Natural Resources Defense Council. 1994. Reframing the Green Window: An Analysis of the GEF Pilot Phase Approach to Biodiversity and Global Warming and Recommendations for the Operational Phase. Conservation International and Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC.

Davis, N. 1994. Hawaii: forestry's best-kept secret. Am. Forests 100(9 & 10): 42-44, 58-59. (Reforestation)

Dieringer, G. and Werth, C. 1994. Reproductive ecology of Magnolia schiedeana (Magnoliaceae), a threatened cloud forest tree species in Veracruz, Mexico. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121(2): 154-159.

Dorr, L. 1994. Plants in peril, 21. Callirhoe scabriuscula. Kew Magazine 11(3): 146-151. (Texas)

Egan, T. 1994. New feud on the range: cowman vs. tourist. New York Times September 18: 1, 32. (Utah)

Evans, S. 1991. Florida debuts new wildlife program. Marine Conservation News 6(3): 21. (South Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean Regional office, St. Petersburg, FL)

Fleischner, T. 1994. Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America. Conservation Biology 8(3): 629- 643.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America. Oxford University Press, New York. 2 vols. so far. (Lists conservation status)

Fraver, S. 1994. Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradients in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina. Conservation Biology 8(3): 822-832.

Frazier, J., Vazquez, R., Galicia, E., Duran, R. and Capurro, L. (Eds.). 1993. Memorias del IV Taller Regional Sobre Programas de Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas en la Peninsula de Yucatan. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Mexico. 211 pp.

Gonzalez-Garcia, F. 1993. Avifauna de la Reserva de la Biosfera "Montes Azules", Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Acta Zoologica Mexicana, nueva serie 55: 1-86.

Hamilton, B. 1994. An enduring wilderness. Sierra 79(5): 46-49. (Wildlands protection, USA)

Hartman, G. 1994. Long-term population development of a reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber) population in Sweden. Conservation Biology 8(3): 713-717.

Hawksworth, D. 1994. Biodiversity: measurement and estimation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London. B. 345(1311): 1- 136. (Theme of entire issue)

Hedrick, P. 1994. Endangered Pacific salmonids. Conservation Biology 8(3): 863-894. (USA)

Hengeveld, R. 1994. Biodiversity - the diversification of life in a non-equilibrium world. Biodiversity Letters 2(1): 1-10.

Holmes, B. 1994. Feathered freeloaders. Nature Conservancy 44(5): 8-9. (Cowbirds impact on songbird populations)

Howe, H. 1994. Managing species diversity in tallgrass prairie: assumptions and implications. Conservation Biology 8(3): 691-704.

Hussey, S. 1994. Profile: Wetlands Reserve Program. Fisheries 19(8): 42.

Hyde, T. 1994. Olympic coast is country's 14th sanctuary. Marine Conservation News 6(3): 7. (Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Washington)

Johnson, G. and Chambers, R. 1994. Breeding ecology of the red-shouldered hawk in north central New York. Kingbird 44(2): 87-95. (Threatened species)

Kenworthy, T. 1994. Pristine forests at stake as Alaskans balance priorities in Valdez cleanup. Washington Post August 23: A3. (Alaska)

Knopf, F. and Samson, F. 1994. Scale perspectives on avian diversity in western riparian ecosystems. Conservation Biology 8(3): 669-676.

Kodela, P., James, T. and Hind, P. 1994. Observations on the ecology and conservation status of the rare herb Gentiana wingecarribiensis. Cunninghamia 3(3): 535-542.

LeBlond, R., Weakley, A., Reznicek, A. and Crins, W. 1994. Carex lutea (Cyperaceae), a rare new coastal plain endemic from North Carolina. Sida 16(1): 153-162.

Linden, E. 1994. Chain saws invade eden. Time 144(9): 58-59. (Guyana & French Guiana)

Luther, H. 1994. A guide to the species of Tillandsia regulated by Appendix II of CITES. Selbyana 15(1): 112- 131.

Lyman, R. 1994. The Olympic Mountain goat controversy: a different perspective. Conservation Biology 8(3): 898-901. (Washington state, USA)

McLean, H. 1994. Hot logs: timber theft on the national forests. Am. Forests 100(9 & 10): 17-21, 55.

McLean, H. 1994. The new timber cops. Am. Forests 100(9 & 10): 22-24. (Forest Service's efforts to prevent illegal cutting of timbers in national forests)

Meagher, M. and Meyer, M. 1994. On the origin of brucellosis in bison of Yellowstone National Park: a review. Conservation Biology 8(3): 645-653.

Meave, J. and Kellman, M. 1994. Maintenance of rain forest diversity in riparian forests of tropical savannas: implications for species conservation during Pleistocene drought. J. Biogeography 21(2): 121-136.

Medellin, R. 1994. Mammal diversity and conservation in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Conservation Biology 8(3): 780-799.

Mihaly, M. 1994. Farming for the future. Nature Conservancy 44(5): 24-29. (Ohio)

Miller, B., Ceballos, G. and Reading, R. 1994. The prairie dog and biotic diversity. Conservation Biology 8(3): 677- 681.

Miller, R. (Ed). 1994. Mapping the Diversity of Nature. Chapman & Hall, New York. 240 pp.

Mills, J. 1994. Market Under Cover: The Rhinoceros Horn Trade in South Korea. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, England. 43 pp.

Mitchell, J. 1994. The Reptiles of Virginia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 384 pp.

Mladenoff, D., White, M., Crow, T. and Pastor, J. 1994. Applying principles of landscape design and management to integrate old-growth forest enhancement and commodity use. Conservation Biology 8(3): 752-762.

Nash, S. 1994. Sold for a Song. The Trade in Southeast Asian Non-CITES Birds. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, England. 84 pp. (Out of print)

Nilsson, A., Elmberg, J. and Sjoberg, K. 1994. Abundance and species richness patterns of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) in Swedish lakes. J. Biogeography 21(2): 197-206.

O'Connell, M. 1994. Toward consensus solutions to complex problems: The Nature Conservancy's experience with HCPs. Resolve 26: 8-11. (Habitat Conservation Plans)

Ogilvie, M. and Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 1994. Rare breeding birds in the United Kingdom in 1991. British Birds 87(8): 366-393.

Oostermeijer, J., Van't Veer, R. and den Nijs, J. 1994. Population structure of the rare, long-lived perennial Gentiana pneumonantha in relation to vegetation and management in the Netherlands. J. Applied Ecology 31(3): 428-438.

Parson, P. 1994. The energetic cost of stress. Can biodiversity be preserved? Biodiversity Letters 2(1): 11- 15.

Pressey, R. 1994. Ad hoc reservations: forward or backward steps in developing representative reserve systems? Conservation Biology 8(3): 662-668.

Price, M. and Kelly, P. 1994. An age-structured demographic model for the endangered Stephens' kangaroo rat. Conservation Biology 8(3): 810-821.

Ranker, T. and Arft, A. 1994. Allopolyploid species and the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 8(3): 895-897. (Plants)

Rave, E., Fleischer, R., Duvall, F. and Black, J. 1994. Genetic analyses through DNA fingerprinting of captive populations of Hawaiian geese. Conservation Biology 8(3): 744-751.

Robinson, G., Yurlina, M. and Handel, S. 1994. A century of change in the Staten Island flora: ecological correlates of species losses and invasions. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121(2): 119-129.

Silva, M. and Downing, J. 1994. Allometric scaling of minimal mammal densities. Conservation Biology 8(3): 732- 743.

Skare, M. 1994. Whaling: a sustainable use of natural resources or a violation of animal rights? Environment 36(7): 12-20, 30-31.

Skowron, S. 1994. 4 species declared extinct in state. Washington Times (Maryland News) September 21: 6. (Yellow lampmussel, Hessel's hairstreak, American burying beetle, cheat minnow)

Sparrow, H., Sisk, T., Ehrlich, P. and Murphy, D. 1994. Techniques and guidelines for monitoring neotropical butterflies. Conservation Biology 8(3): 800-809.

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. New views of ancient times. Nature Conservancy 44(5): 10-15. (Paleoecology)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. Rising star. Nature Conservancy 44(5): 6. (Rare Hispaniola solendon)

Strong, A. and Bancroft, G. 1994. Postfledging dispersal of white-crowned pigeons: implications for conservation of deciduous seasonal forests in the Florida Keys. Conservation Biology 8(3): 770-779.

Thornton, R. 1994. Industry perspectives regarding habitat conservation plans. Resolve 26: 12-14.

Touval, J. and Dietz, J. 1994. The problem of teaching conservation problem solving. Conservation Biology 8(3): 902-904.

Turner, I., Tan, H., Wee, Y., Ibrahim, A., Chew, P. and Corlett, R. 1994. A study of plant species extinction in Singapore: lessons for the conservation of tropical biodiversity. Conservation Biology 8(3): 705-712.

Unger, P. (Ed). 1994. Managing Agricultural Residues. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. 464 pp. (Important for sustaining soil productivity)

Van Biema, D. 1994. The killing fields. Time 144(8): 36-37. (Poachers in US national parks)

White, L. 1994. The effects of commercial mechanized selective logging on a transect in lowland rainforest in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. J. Trop. Ecology 10: 313-322.

Whitmore, T. 1994. La Selva: a densely researched rain forest. J. Biogeography 21(2): 117-118. (Costa Rica preserve)

Wiser, S. 1994. High-elevation cliffs and outcrops in the Southern Appalachians: vascular plants and biogeography. Castanea 59(2): 85-116.

Wohlgenant, T. and Orenstein, S. 1994. Negotiating endangered species conflicts: the habitat conservation planning process. Resolve 26: 1, 3-7.

Wuerthner, G. 1994. Subdivisions versus agriculture. Conservation Biology 8(3): 905-909. (Development threatens biological systems)

Wunderlich, R., Winter, B. and Meyer, J. 1994. Restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem. Fisheries 19(8): 11-20. (Washington)

Young, N. 1994. Gray whale is first whale removed from Endangered Species List. Marine Conservation News 6(3): 5.

Zauner, P. 1994. Little bog of horrors. Zoogoer 23(4): 6-11. (Carnivorous plants; some species on CITES)

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