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Department ofBotany

No. 138
November 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Amy Rossman

The number of fungal species estimated to exist on earth is approximately 1.5 million, yet little is known about the relative abundance of these species, or if any are endangered. Nevertheless, many species of fungi appear to be declining in Europe and in the Netherlands. Eef Arnolds points to nitrate deposition as being responsible for the decline of many mycorrhizal species, which are necessary for the health of their tree hosts. Some mycologists are also concerned about the effects of mushroom harvest on fungal populations. The decline of these fungi could directly affect the health of the forest, and Europeans are taking steps to safeguard populations of threatened fungal species by creating "red lists," which regulate the collection of selected species.

There are no "red lists" for fungi in North America, but recent reports indicate that many fungi may be endangered in the Pacific Northwest due to habitat loss. The Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT), commissioned by President Clinton to examine forestry practices in the Pacific Northwest, lists 527 fungal species which are closely associated with late successional forest ecosystems. Of these, 80 are endemic, and destruction of their habitat could result in their extinction. One example is Oxyporus nobilissimus, which is a polypore restricted to old growth Abies; it is known from only 12 locations. A less dramatic but equally notable example is Tuber rufum, a truffle which has a beneficial association with the roots of oak. Western oak habitat is being lost to agricultural and residential development, and as the oak goes, so goes the truffle. The FEMAT report calls for inventory and monitoring of western oak habitat.

The inclusion of fungi in federal ecosystem assessments is a landmark in the history of mycology and conservation. Management agencies are starting to acknowledge that good stewardship includes consideration of all species, and that microbes such as fungi occupy important ecosystem niches and require protection.

The FEMAT report can be obtained by calling (503) 326-2877.


Costa Rica, led by the government and private sector, is converting itself into a world level pilot project for sustainable development. The goal is to sustain economic viability, political stability, and strong institutional capability, while raising basic living standards across the total population base.

Special attention is being given to balancing environmental protection and enhancement with social and economic concerns - conserving biological diversity, finding effective ways for economic forces to work in concert with environmental protection, advancing international agreements and mechanisms for climate protection, and encouraging new energy policies. The Costa Rican Initiative also is being designed as the precursor to a regional effort under the Central American Alliance for Sustainable Development - a project launched in December, 1993, by the Presidents of Central American countries and U.S. Vice President Al Gore.

While internally the Costa Rican government is facilitating cross-sectoral implementation of new policies through a major restructuring effort, international outreach has been limited by communications difficulties and the lack of a central information point. International outreach is vital - both on a Costa Rican national level to develop support for this innovative path, and on an international level to ensure that Costa Rica's attempts are truly used as sustainable development test cases for other tropical developing countries and the world as a whole. Costa Rica's initiative holds tremendous global significance - but only if the world knows about it.

The Washington, DC based Costa Rican Office of Sustainable Development (CROSD) was created specifically to initiate and maintain this important outreach effort. The goals of CROSD are to educate the international environment and business communities about Costa Rica's efforts to move to a sustainable society and to facilitate connections between and among different sectors - government, non-government, international organizations and the private sector in Costa Rica, the United States and other countries with the goal of furthering practical and tangible methods to move toward global sustainability.

Staff of the Costa Rican Office for Sustainable Development include Cristina Figueres, executive director, and Anne Hambleton, program director. For further information contact: CROSD, 1604 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; Tel: (202) 588-0155; Fax within USA: (800) 220-7763; Fax from overseas: (510) 472-6976; e-mail:


The Caribbean Conservation Corporation is providing technical assistance for the establishment of the Miskito Coast Protected Area, covering 5,000 sq. miles between Prinzapolka, Nicaragua and the Honduran border. Field research opportunities are available to study marine and coastal ecosystems, consisting of sea grass, coral reefs, mangroves, pine and palm savannas along the northern Atlantic coast of Nicaragua. Logistical support for appropriate field research projects is available. There is a field office in Puerto Cabezas, with staff biologists and boats and motors. Limited financial support may be available for research projects addressing management issues of the area.

For more information, contact: Dr. Jeanne A. Mortimer, Director of Programs, Caribbean Conservation Corporation, P.O. Box 2866, Gainesville, FL 32602-2866; Tel: (904) 373-6441; Fax: (904) 375-2449; e-mail:


The Garden Club of America and World Wildlife Fund are offering two scholarships for doctoral students undertaking field work in tropical botany. Generally, one grant is awarded in the area of tropical plant systematics and a second in tropical forest ecology. Individuals are eligible to apply if they anticipate completing the requirements for a PH.D in Botany within two years and are enrolled in a U.S. university.

There is no formal application for the two $5,500 awards. Candidates should submit an application packet including the following: 1) a curriculum vitae, including graduate transcripts (photocopies acceptable); 2) evidence of foreign language capability, if necessary for country of research; 3) a two-page statement of the proposed research, including its relevance to conservation; and 4) a letter of recommendation from the student's graduate advisor, including an evaluation of the student's progress to date.

Deadline to apply is December 31, 1994. Recipients will be announced during the month of March, 1995. Send packet to: Lori Michaelson, Program Coordinator, Research & Development Program, GCA Awards, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037; Tel: (202) 778-9714; Fax: (202) 293-9211.

The University of Connecticut seeks outstanding Ph.D. candidates in ecology, animal behavior, evolutionary biology, systematics, and conservation biology. National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Training fellowships will provide a $14,000 annual stipend plus up to $7,500 in cost of education allowance. Although the graduate program accepts and supports highly qualified applicants from any country, NSF support is limited to U.S. citizens and permanent residents. For information, write: Biodiversity Graduate Fellowships, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Univ. of Connecticut, U-43, Storrs, CT 06269-3043; Fax: (203) 486-6364; or call Ellie DeCarli at 203-486-4319. E-mail inquiries can be directed to Kent Holsinger at


The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, has published the second edition of the International Directory of Primatology. The purpose of the directory is to enhance communications among organizations and individuals involved in primate research, conservation and education. It can be used by primatologists as a desktop working tool or by guidance counselors, educators, librarians, students and the general public as a guide to primate programs and information resources.

Coverage includes: 1) detailed entries for major primate centers, laboratories, educational programs, foundations, conservation agencies and sanctuaries; 2) a listing of primates held in zoological gardens worldwide; 3) professional primate societies, including membership roster of the International Primatological Society; and 4) major information resources in the field. University and college libraries serving students in anthropology, psychology, conservation biology and zoology will find this directory a useful reference tool.

Copies are available in the U.S. for $15 each, or in other countries for $US23 each, which includes postage and handling. To order a copy of the directory, contact: Larry Jacobsen, IDP Coordinator, Wisconsin Regional Primate Center Library, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 537125-1299; Tel: (608) 263-3512; Fax: (608) 263-4031; e-mail:

The Center for Wildlife Law has just published the State Wildlife Laws Handbook. The handbook provides both summary information on the wildlife codes of each of the 50 states and policy anaylsis of wildlife management and protection laws. It also offers recommendations, sample statutes, and state-by-state comparisons of topics including hunting and trapping laws, law enforcement, and habitat and endangered species protection. Copies of the book may be ordered for $US89 from Government Institutes, 4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, MD 20850; Tel: (301) 921-2355.


February 10-12, 1995. "Local Heritage in the Changing Tropics: Innovative Strategies for Natural Resource Management and Control" will be held in New Haven, Connecticut. For more information, contact: Andi Eicher, ISTF Conference Committee, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511; e-mail:


Abbiw, D. 1994. Traditional and modern methods of plant conservation. Pp. 159-174. In Adams, R., Miller, J., Golenberg, E., and Adams, J., (Eds.), Conservation of Plant Genes II: Utilization of Ancient and Modern DNA. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri.

Adams, R., Miller, J., Golenberg, E. and Adams, J. (Eds.). 1994. Conservation of Plant Genes II: Utilization of Ancient and Modern DNA. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. 276 pp.

Agoramoorthy, G. 1994. An update on the long-term field research on red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus, at Hato Masaguaral, Venezuela. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 7-9.

Alcorn, J. 1994. A new national planning tool: Papua New Guinea site of conservation needs assessment. DIVERSITY 10(2): 28-31.

Angermeier, P. and Karr, J. 1994. Biological integrity versus biological diversity as policy directives. BioScience 44(10): 690-697.

Anon. 1994. California desert closer to protection. The Washington Post October 15: A12.

Anon. 1994. Conservation and development. CONSERVATION ISSUES 1(2): 1-10.

Anon. 1994. Crash "seeds of hope" program to rescue Rwanda's precious beans. DIVERSITY 10(2): 15.

Anon. 1994. Fort Hill preserve grows. The Nature Conservancy News 18(3): 3. (Fort Hill Nature Preserve, Allegany Co, Maryland)

Anon. 1994. Plants listed, proposed, and candidates under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as of August 18, 1994. Newsletter of Hawaiian Bot. Soc. Special Issue (Sept.): 27-53.

Anon. 1994. Preserving Maryland's natural heritage. The Nature Conservancy News 18(3): 1, 5-6. (Rivers of the Chesapeake Bay)

Antonietto, L. and Cardoso Mendes, F. 1994. Sao Francisco Xavier: a new site for primatological research and conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 3-4.

Barbour, M., Pavlik, B., Drysdale, F. and Lindstrom, S. 1993. California's Changing Landscapes: Diversity and Conservation of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California. 244 pp.

Baskin, Y. 1994. Ecosystem function of biodiversity. BioScience 44(10): 657-660. (Species richness)

Boubli, J. 1994. The black uakari monkey in the Pico Neblina National Park. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 11-12. (Brazil)

Burke, K. 1994. Racing to rescue barnyard beasts from sure oblivion. Smithsonian 25(6): 60-65.

Carrillo, E. and Vaughan, C. (Eds.). 1994. La Vida Silvestre de Mesoamerica: Diagnostico y Estrategia para su Conservacion. Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. 200 pp.

Center for Wildlife Law. 1994. State Wildlife Laws Handbook. Government Institutes, Inc., Rockville, Maryland.

Chebez, J. 1994. Los que se Van: Especies Argentinas en Peligro. Albatros, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 605 pp. (Red Data Book on mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians)

Cohn, J. 1994. Putting forever in the Everglades. Zoogoer 23(6): 6-15. (Florida)

Colwell, R. and Coddington, J. 1994. Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 345(1311): 101-118.

Craft, L. 1994. $20,000 for one fish? Int. Wildlife 24(6): 18-21. (Bluefin tuna becoming scarce)

Cristofani, A. 1994. Politically correct tourism. Hispanic October: 50. (Ecotourism)

Cunningham, I. 1994. Special report: National Academy of Sciences releases long-awaited landmark report on global genetic resources. DIVERSITY 10(2): 33-37.

Cushman, Jr., J. 1994. World group to debate plan to protect species by numbers. The New York Times (National) November 6: 44. (CITES meeting)

Diamond, J. 1994. Ecological collapses of past civilizations. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 138(3): 363-370.

Eisner, T. 1994. Chemical prospecting: a global imperative. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 138(3): 385-393.

Emory, J. 1994. Just add water. Nature Conservancy 44(6): 10-15. (California Ricelands Habitat Partnership)

Fischer, A. 1994. Coming full circle: the restoration of the urban landscape. Orion 13(4): 20-29.

Fonseca, G., Rylands, A., Costa, C., Machado, R. and Leite, Y. (Compilers). 1994. Livro Vermelho dos Mamiferos Brasileiros Ameacados de Extincao. Fundacao Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 457 pp. (In Portuguese)

Gaski, A. 1994. Prescription for extinction. TRAFFIC USA 13(2): 1-3. (Executive summary from new book, see under TRAFFIC USA)

Gaston, K. 1994. Rarity. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York. 205 pp.

Gbile, Z. 1994. Nigerian medicinal plants and danger of extinction. Pp. 187-204. In Adams, R., Miller, J., Golenberg, E., and Adams, J. (Eds.), Conservation of Plant Genes II: Utilization of Ancient and Modern DNA. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri.

Geatz, R. 1994. Nesting instincts. Nature Conservancy 44(6): 7. (Maui parrotbill, Hawaii)

Giampietro, M. 1994. Sustainability and technological development in agriculture. BioScience 44(10): 677-689.

Halloy, S., Gonzalez, J. and Grau, A. 1994. Importancia de la vegetacion en la estabilidad de los suelos y rutas en la Sierra de San Javier. Miscelanea 99: 5-10. (Argentina)

Halloy, S., Gonzalez, J. and Grau, A. 1994. Proyecto de Creacion del Parque Nacional Aconquija (Tucuman - Argentina). Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Tucuman, Argentina. 53 pp. (Serie Conservacion de la Naturaleza 9)

Hammond, N. 1994. When 32 artists went to Poland. Int. Wildlife 24(6): 38-45. (Biebrza and Narew Rivers, Europe's best wetland)

Hammond, P. 1994. Practical approaches to the estimation of the extent of biodiversity in speciose groups. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 345(1311): 119-136.

Hartup, B. 1994. Community conservation in Belize: demography, resource use and attitudes of participating landowners. Biol. Conservation 69: 235-241.

Hirsch, A., Subira, R. and Landau, E. 1994. Levantamento de primatas e zoneamento das matas na regiao do Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 4-6.

Jacobsen, L. (Complier). 1994. International Directory of Primatology. Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin. 354 pp. (2nd Edition)

Jervis, M. 1994. Galapagos goldrush. IUCN Bull. 25(3): 28. (Ecotourism pressure on the Galapagos Islands)

Lahaye, W., Gutierrez, R. and Akcakaya, H. 1994. Spotted owl metapopulation dynamics in southern California. J. Animal Ecology 63(4): 775-785.

Lasky, J. 1994. Where the turtles hang out. The New York Times (Travel Sect.) October 30: 11, 29. (Culebra: nesting site of leatherback turtles)

Li, Z.-H. and Piippo, S. 1994. Preliminary list of bryophytes of Heishiding Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. Trop. Bryology 9: 35-42.

Line, L. 1994. Tale of two warblers. Nat. Wildlife 32(6): 16-19. (Decline of songbird species)

Lovejoy, T. 1994. The quantification of biodiversity: an esoteric quest or a vital component of sustainable development? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 345(1311): 81-87.

Lyons, J. 1994. Managing your ecosystem. Urban Forests 14(5): 5. (U.S. Forest Service's management plan for cities)

Malatesta, P. and Honey, M. 1994. Going to extremes. Americas 46(5): 36-43. (Chile's Torres del Paine National Park)

Marchetti, D. 1994. An island the fun set forgot. The New York Times (Travel Sect.) October 30: 11-12. (28% of Dominica is protected)

Marcus, F. 1994. The greening of the Caribbean. The New York Times (Travel Sect.) October 30: 10-26. (Ecotourism)

McJannet, C., Argus, G., Edlund, S. and Cayouette, J. 1993. Rare Vascular Plants in the Canadian Arctic. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada. 79 pp. (Syllogeus Series 72)

Meadows, R. 1994. Mobbing and the male monk seal. Zoogoer 23(6): 24-25. (Endangered Hawaiian monk seal)

Middleton, S., Liitschwager, D., Howell, K., Slack, G. and Edgar, B. 1994. Witness: Endangered Species of North America. Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California. 256 pp. (Photographs and text of endangered U.S. plants and animals)

Miller, B. and Ceballos, G. 1994. Managing conflict and biotic diversity in the prairie dog ecosystem. End. Species UPDATE 11(6 & 7): 1-4, 6. (North American grasslands)

Mills, E., Leach, J., Carlton, J. and Secor, C. 1994. Exotic species and the integrity of the Great Lakes. BioScience 44(10): 666-676.

Moll, G. and Petit, J. 1994. The urban ecosystem: putting nature back in the picture. Urban Forests 14(5): 8-15.

Nickens, E. 1994. Muddy time for the bog turtle. Nature Conservancy 44(6): 8-9. (New York to Georgia)

Oswald, V. and Ahart, L. 1994. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Butte County, California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California. 348 pp. (Lists rare and endangered species)

Palacios-Vargas, J. and Vidal Acosta, Ma. V. 1994. Nuevas especies de Friesea (Collembola: Neanuridae) de reservas biologicas de Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist 19(3): 291-300. (Fauna reserves of Chamela; Rancho del Cielo; Ajusco, Mexico)

Pang, B. 1994. Rare plant conservation and endangered species law - an annotated bibliography. Newsletter of Hawaiian Bot. Soc. Special Issue (Sept.): 54-58.

Pepler, D. 1994. The endangered lesser kestrel: current research. Birding in Southern Africa 46(2): 53-58. (Part 1: Spain)

Poulsen, B. 1994. Movements of single birds and mixed- species flocks between isolated fragments of cloud forest in Ecuador. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 29(3): 149-160.

Prance, G. T. 1994. A comparison of the efficacy of higher plant taxa and species numbers in the assessment of biodiversity in the neotropics. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 345(1311): 101-118.

Putterman, D. 1994. Trade and the biodiversity convention. Nature 371: 553-554. (Genetic resource conservation)

Rasmussen, D. 1994. Development of a Panamanian primate center. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 14-15.

Rojas, J. 1994. The great invasion. IUCN Bull. 25(3): 29-31. (Ecotourism pressure on Galapagos Islands)

Root, T. 1994. Scientific/philosophical challenges of global change research: a case study of climatic changes on birds. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 138(3): 377-384.

Rudner, R. 1994. Sacred geographies. Wilderness 58(206): 10- 28. (Native Americans strive for conservation in the West)

Ruiz-Vidal, R., Perez-Ruiz, A. and Ramos-Fernandez, G. 1994. A study on the behavioral ecology of the spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, in the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 10-11.

Salvesen, D. 1994. A western welcome for wolves. Zoogoer 23(6): 18-23. (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming)

Sayer, J. and Ruiz-Perez, M. 1994. Making the most of forests. IUCN Bull. 25(3): 13-15.

Schouten, M. G. C. 1994. Nature conservation in Ireland: a critical decade. Biology & Environment 94(B): 91-95.

Serageldin, I. 1994. Genetic resources conservation in the CGIAR: protecting an irreplaceable resource for future generations. DIVERSITY 10(2): 9-12. (CGIAR, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)

Shenon, P. 1994. Indonesia forest fires blanket Southeast Asia. The New York Times (Int. Section) October 9: 6. (Indonesia has the world's second largest concentration of rain forests next to Brazil)

Sims, G. 1994. Can we save the Northwest's salmon? Nat. Wildlife 32(6): 42-49. (USA)

Sivinski, R. and Lightfoot, K. (Eds.). 1993. Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plants. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division, Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, Santa Fe, New Mexico. (Miscl. Publ. # 2, Proceedings of the Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference)

Stafford, K. 1994. Peten crafts a future. Americas 46(5): 28-35. (Sustainable development in Guatemala)

Stap, D. 1994. Why they're working to save the Florida scrub. Smithsonian 25(6): 36-47. (Forty percent of the plants are endemic; many are threatened)

Stolzenburg, W. 1994. The old men & the sea. Nature Conservancy 44(6): 16-23. (Palau's marine habitats)

Stoms, D. 1994. Scale dependence of species richness maps. The Professional Geographer 46: 346-358.

TRAFFIC USA. 1994. Prescription For Extinction: Endangered Species and Patented Oriental Medicines in Trade. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC. 300 pp.

Van Jaarsveld, E. 1994. Saphesia flaccida and its conservation. British Cactus and Succulent Society J. 12(3): 98-103. (South Africa)

Vitousek, P. 1994. Beyond global warming: ecology and global change. Ecology 75(7): 1861-1876.

Waugh, D. 1994. Current status of primates in Venezuelan zoos. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 1-3.

Wexler, M. 1994. The art of growing giants. Nat. Wildlife 32(6): 20-27. (Republic of Palau's efforts to stem the decline of threatened giant clams in the South Pacific)

White, G. 1994. Coping with environmental degradation. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 138(3): 394-396.

White, S. 1994. Vernal pools in the San Jacinto Valley. Fremontia 22(4): 17-19. (Rarest and most threatened wetland habitat of California)

Wightman, G. et al. 1994. Gurindji ethnobotany: aboriginal plant use from Daguragu Northern Australia. Northern Territory Bot. Bull. 18: 1-76.

Wightman, G., Astuti, I. and Munawaroh, E. 1994. Sundanese ethnobotany traditional plant knowledge from Ciamis and Tasikmalaya West Java Indonesia. Northern Territory Bot. Bull. 19: 1-21.

WorldWIDE Network. 1994. WorldWIDE Directory of Women in the Environment. WorldWIDE Network, Inc., Washington, DC. 240 pp + appendices (Sixth Edition, 1993-1994)

Yoon, C. 1994. Ecologists read the rolls of vanishing species on Staten Island. The New York Times (Science) October 18: C4.

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