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Department ofBotany

No. 139
December 1994

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Bruce MacBryde

The 9th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP9) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was held during 7-18 November 1994 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida (USA). Background on the treaty and plants is available in proceedings of the biennial COP meetings (1976-1994), and reports or minutes of the annual meetings of the CITES Plants Committee (1988-1994) and CITES Plant Working Group (1984-1987).

Among the resolutions decided upon were: (1) replacement of the 1976 criteria and 1979 proposal format for documenting inclusion of species (fauna and flora) in CITES Appendices I and II with detailed clear and more scientifically objective criteria and the corresponding format for proposals; (2) the establishment of guidelines for inclusion of species in Appendix III; (3) consolidation (with some updating) of all the CITES resolutions; and (4) adoption of detailed criteria to begin international registration of those exporting nurseries that qualify in the artificial propagation of taxa in Appendix I.

Six countries (Thailand, India, Madagascar, Kenya, Switzerland and Mexico) proposed successful amendments to the CITES appendices for plants, to list 4 species, uplist 20 species, downlist 8 species, and delist 2 species. Moreover by withdrawal of proposals, the cactus Astrophytum asterias stayed in Appendix I, and Camellia chrysantha stayed in Appendix II. The 24 additions to Appendices I and II enter into force on 16 February 1995.

As sought respectively by Madagascar (with Switzerland) and by Thailand, export-import controls were strengthened and shared by uplisting to Appendix I 19 succulent Malagasy species: Pachypodium ambongense, Euphorbia cremersii and 17 rare Aloe spp. (mostly dwarf aloes), and the mainly Thailand orchid Dendrobium cruentum. Artificial propagation of some of these taxa is extensive, and cooperative efforts will be made by several countries (including USA) to facilitate propagation and/or the availability of the propagated specimens.

Eight taxa were downlisted to Appendix II: five succulents - Euphorbia primulifolia, Pachypodium brevicaule but with no adult wild plants to be exported before COP10 in 1997, P. namaquanum, Leuchtenbergia principis and Mammillaria plumosa, and three orchids - Didiciea cunninghamii, Cattleya skinneri and Lycaste skinneri var. alba. Two species were delisted from Appendix II: the ornamental aroid Alocasia sanderiana, and the succulent Aloe vera - with which there are additional problems, such as the continued listing of A. vera var. chinensis (syn. A. indica), that were referred to the CITES Plants Committee (CPC).

Proposals were rejected that would have made use of Appendix I controls by listing the New Zealand endemic Dactylanthus taylorii to stop the international commerce in its wood- roses, and by uplisting from Appendix II the Asian orchids Cypripedium cordigerum, C. elegans, C. himalaicum and C. tibeticum. Asian plants mostly withdrawn (one species rejected) from proposed listing in Appendix II were: Berberis aristata, Gentiana kurroo, Colchicum luteum, Rheum australe, Aconitum deinorrhizum, A. ferox, A. heterophyllum, Coptis teeta, Picrorhiza kurrooa and Nardostachys grandiflora. These 10 species will be evaluated by the CPC through its newly endorsed project on medicinal plants, in cooperation with the new IUCN SSC Medicinal Plants Specialist Group.

One African and three Asian tree species were included in Appendix II, which are used for medicinal or other chemical purposes and as well for their wood: Prunus africana, Pterocarpus santalinus, Taxus wallichiana and Aquilaria malaccensis (syn. A. agallocha). Amendment of the redsanders (Pterocarpus) proposal excluded finished musical instruments, formulations and chemical derivatives; amendment of the Himalayan yew (Taxus) proposal excluded final medicines (e.g., taxol).

The Latin American Swietenia macrophylla (bigleaf mahogany) and its natural hybrids with S. humilis (amended to regulate only the logs, sawn wood, veneer and plywood sheets) received 50 votes in favor and 33 votes against inclusion in Appendix II, which was 6 votes short of the two-thirds majority needed. Four proposals that had sought to include other tropical tree species in Appendix II to regulate their timber were withdrawn because of political or also technical considerations: in Africa - Dalbergia melanoxylon, Entandrophragma (ca. 11 spp.) and Khaya (ca. 6 spp.), and in Asia - Diospyros mun. A Timber Species Working Group was established under the CPC to improve implementation of CITES for such species. Additionally, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) at its 8-16 November 1994 meeting (in Yokohama, Japan) decided to encourage liaison between ITTO and CITES and to invite CITES to make a presentation at its May 1995 meeting in Accra, Ghana.

The Parties doubled representation in the CITES Plants Committee for the three large developing regions, and selected nine regional members (as well as some alternates). The next CPC meeting is planned for May or June 1995 in the Canary Islands, hosted by Spain. The CITES Guide to Plants in Trade was published in 1994 and available for the Parties at COP9. The CPC will continue to support studies of significant trade, and work on an orchids checklist and the 2nd edition of the cacti checklist. COP10 is planned for the first half of 1997 in Zimbabwe.

To obtain COP9 information, see for example the U.S. Federal Register notices published on 4 & 8 November 1994 and/or contact: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Scientific Authority, 725 Arlington Square Bldg., Washington, DC 20240; Tel.: (703) 358-1708; Fax: (703) 358-2276. Permit questions should go to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Office of Management Authority's Permits Branch, 432 Arlington Square Bldg., Washington, DC 20240; Tel.: (800) 358-2104; Fax: (703) 358-2281.


The Summit of the Americas, the first meeting of the leaders of the nations of North America, the Caribbean, and Central and South America, will convene in Miami, Florida December 9-11. This will be the first-ever hemispheric summit of solely democratically elected leaders and the first hemispheric summit hosted by the United States. The meeting will focus on three central themes: the strengthening of democracy, the expansion of hemispheric economic integration, and sustainable development. This partnership aims to promote prosperity by increasing trade and investment. The region, unparalleled in biodiversity - contains more than one half of the world's species - is threatened by accelerated deforestation in many regions. This biodiversity is an invaluable natural resource, as well as a current and potential future source of new medicines, agricultural and industrial products, and recreational and eco- tourism opportunities. To ensure the sustainability of the hemisphere's social and economic development, efforts must be intensified to understand, assess, and maintain this living resource base.

The summit will generate specific initiatives to give life to the three themes, taking advantage of expanding active relationships in the hemisphere among private citizens, non- governmental organizations, regional institutions, and governments. The participants have expressed interest in issuing a declaration of principles and an associated plan of action to transform principles into concrete activities with measurable impact. This common plan of action will set in motion a process that will, ultimately, transform the quality of life of people throughout the hemisphere.


On November 23 a fire razed the central buildings of the Las Cruces Biological Station in San Vito, Costa Rica, site of the Robert and Catherine Wilson Botanical Garden. The fire, which began in a downstairs apartment, swept through the Stanley Smith Science Building and the adjacent laboratory. Lost are the living quarters for researchers, students and natural history visitors and the kitchen, dining hall, and library. No one was injured. According to the station's director, Luis Diego Gomez, the garden's extensive plant collections, one of the richest in Central America, were not affected. Las Cruces is owned and operated by the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS), a non- profit consortium of 50 universities and research institutions. Charles Schnell, the head of OTS in Costa Rica, estimates the loss to be approximately $500,000 of which insurance will cover only a fraction of the replacement value.

Schnell reports that the station will continue to operate as a major education and research site and as an important locale for birders and natural history visitors, though temporarily with fewer amenities and services. OTS Executive Director Donald Stone has issued an urgent appeal for emergency funds to sustain the Garden's operation. Contributions should be sent to OTS/Save the Garden Fund, Duke University, Box 90630, Durham, NC 27708-0630.


The Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), a National Institute for Amazon Research and Smithsonian Institution bi-National Project, is offering a post-doctoral position for a qualified person to work on the Plant Ecology sub- project.

Responsibiliies include: 1) organize, analyze, and prepare manuscripts from the BDFFP phytodemographic data gathered over the past 15 years; 2) supervision of computerized data entry, including digitalization of data and maps, original data and field verification; 3) supervision and amplification of reference herbarium collection including more than 70,000 specimens; 4) supervision of taxonomic database; and 5) supervision of laboratory activities, such as receiving field specimens and data cards, and identification of herbarium specimens.

Qualifications are: 1) Ph.D or equivalent with proven experience in publishing; 2) interest in participating in the organization, analysis, and publication of data already collected; 3) herbarium experience, including collection and/or curation of botanical specimens; 4) knowledge of plant systematics; and 5) experience in organization and manipulating large computerized data sets. Salary commensurate with experience; travel and relocation assistance provided. Location of work is primarily in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Contract period is 2 years. The purpose of the position is to publish the results of years of data collection, so there will be no time for independent research. Application deadline is January 10, 1995. Candidates will be notified during February 1995.

Interested parties should send a CV, 3 relevant publications, a letter detailing how their experience applies to the position described above. Faxed applications will be accepted. Candidates should also arrange for 3 letters of reference be sent directly to: Dr. Claude Gascon, PDBFF, Scientific Coordinator, Ecologia/INPA, CP 478, 69011-970 Manaus, AM, Brasil (mailing address). Courier address: Dr. Claude Gascon, PDBFF, rua Andre Araujo, 1753, Fundos Aleixo, 69011-970 Manaus, AM, Brasil. Please direct e-mail inquiries to Argelis Roman, Smithsonian Project Liaison at


The Second International Conference on the Convention on Biological Diversity: Access to Genetic Resources will be held May 10-13, 1995 in Nairobi, Kenya. The conference will address issues such as regulating access to genetic resources, trade in germplasm, rights of indigenous peoples and communities, mechanisms for prior informed consent, capacity building in biodiversity prospecting, obligations of private companies, model national legislation, systems for sharing benefits, technology development and transfer, technical cooperation and the relationship between Parties and non-Parties.

Those interested in presenting papers at the event should send one-page abstracts to the organizers no later than January 15, 1995. The deadline for the submission of papers is April 1, 1995. For further details, contact: Dr. Kenton Miller, World Resources Institute, 1790 New York Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA; Tel.: (202) 662-2582; Fax: (202) 638-0036; e-mail:; or Dr. John Mugabe, African Centre for Technology Studies, P.O. Box 45917, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel.: (254-2) 565173/569986; Fax: (254-2) 569989; e-mail:; or Ms. Gudrun Henne, ACTS Research Associate, Yorckstrasse 75, D- 10965, Berlin, Germany; Tel.: (49-30) 7856427; Fax: (49-30) 8385142; e-mail:

The American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) is requesting proposals from groups or individuals seeking to organize discussions, symposia, or workshops at the 1995 AIBS Meeting. The annual meeting, which will be held August 6-10, 1995 in San Diego, California, provides an excellent forum for outreach/demonstration activities and for scientists and policy makers to express their views on issues relating to biology and biologists. Proposals should indicate type of session and include a provisional title, a one-paragraph justification, special room requirements, list of participants, and any other information that might help AIBS determine the suitability of the proposed session. Deadline March 1, 1995.

For general meeting information concerning participant registration, scientific and commercial exhibit space, floor plans of exhibits, costs, and other information, contact the AIBS Meetings Department, 730 11th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001- 4521 or call (202) 628-1500 or (800) 992-2427; Fax: (202) 628- 1509.


BioSystems Books, a division of BioSystems Analysis, Inc., has recently released Life on the Edge: A Guide to California's Endangered Natural Resources: Wildlife. The book describes California's threatened and endangered species, how they are affected by alterations to their habitat, and how conservation efforts are coming to their defense. With a wealth of expert commentary and historical and contemporary accounts, supported by stunning images, Life on the Edge is an essential reference work for professionals as well as a fascinating book for general readers of all ages. The book contains detailed entries on the 17 mammals, 29 birds, 20 fish, 17 reptiles and amphibians, 18 invertebrates and 14 marine mammals and marine reptiles currently on the state's endangered species list. The accounts are arranged in phylogenetic order and are accompanied by discussions of conservation and recovery and illustrated with dramatic photography and detailed maps showing range, including historical and current distributions.

The 560 page book is available in bookstores or by ordering from BioSystems Books, 330 Potrero Street, Suite 29-101, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. Price: hardcover: $75; paperback: $45.

The Biodiversity Support Program, a USAID-funded consortium of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, and World Resources Institute, has just published Conserving Biological Diversity in Bulgaria: The National Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy. The book summarizes current scientific information about the threats facing Bulgaria's biodiversity at the genetic, species and community levels and provides the basis for integrated conservation planning and project development. Copies can be ordered free of charge from Biodiversity Support Program, c/o World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037; Tel.: (202) 861-8337; Fax: (202) 861-8324.


February 10-12, 1995. The Yale chapter of the International Society of Tropical Foresters is hosting their fourth annual conference, "Local Heritage in the Changing Tropics: Innovative Strategies for Natural Resource Management and Control", to examine the international response to the destruction of cultures and associated natural resources in the tropics. The conference will be held at Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies and School of Organization and Management, New Haven, Connecticut, and will address three major themes: 1) legal structures and local recognition; 2) constructive market participation; and 3) information technologies. Proceedings of the conference will be published as part of the Yale School of Forestry Bulletin series. Registration fees: $15 - student (lunch optional; $5 extra); $75 - regular (lunch included); $65 - regular registration if received before December 31, 1994. Registration fee includes refreshments and all materials.

For more information, contact: Greg Dicum, ISTF Conference Committee, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 USA; Tel.: (203) 432-6999; Fax: (203) 432-5942; e-mail:


American Rivers. 1994. North America's Most Endangered and Threatened Rivers of 1994. American Rivers, Washington, DC.

Anon. 1994. A "Lost World" in Bibb County, Alabama. Panga 4: 1-6. (Lists rare plants)

Anon. 1995. NWF wins case to help protect rare Florida deer; only 300 remain. Nat. Wildlife 33(1): 29.

Beatley, T. 1994. Habitat Conservation Planning. Endangered Species and Urban Growth. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. 243 pp.

Beatley, T., Brower, D. and Schwab, A. 1994. An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management. Island Press, Covelo, California. 200 pp.

BioSystems Analysis. 1994. Life on the Edge. A Guide to California's Endangered Natural Resources: Wildlife. BioSystems Books, Santa Cruz, California. 560 pp.

Bisby, F., Russell, G. and Pankhurst, R. (Eds.). 1994. Designs for a Global Plant Species Information System. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 368 pp. (The Systematics Association Special Vol. 48)

Bounds, D. and Shaw, W. 1994. Managing coyotes in U.S. national parks: human-coyote interactions. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 280-284.

Bratley, T. 1994. Habitat Conservation Planning. Endangered Species and Urban Growth. Island Press, Covelo, California. 243 pp.

Breining, G. 1995. Growing crops, and wildlife too. Nat. Wildlife 33(1): 40-43. (Reauthorization of Farm Bill)

Broadus, J. and Vartanov, R. (Eds.). 1994. The Oceans and Environmental Security. Shared U.S. and Russian Perspectives. Island Press, Covelo, California. 330 pp.

Burdick, A. 1994. Invasion of the nature snatchers. The New York Times Magazine November 13: 48-55, 78-81, 86-87. (Alien species threaten nature)

Burks, D. 1994. Shenandoah - park on the brink. Am. Forests 100(11 & 12): 17-22, 53. (Virginia)

Caughley, G. and Sinclair, A. 1994. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Blackwell Science, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. 344 pp.

Cohn, J. 1994. Restoring the Everglades. BioScience 44(9): 579-583. (Florida's water management plans)

Comber, J. 1994. Status of orchids in South Asia and strategy for its conservation. Pp. 195-196. In HMSO, Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Edwards, P., May, R. and Webb, N. (Eds.). 1994. Large- Scale Ecology and Conservation Biology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. 384 pp. (British Ecological Society Symposium Vol. 35)

Evans, M. 1994. Important Bird Areas in the Middle East. BirdLife International, Cambridge, England. 335 pp.

Forey, P., Humphries, C. and Vane-Wright, R. (Eds.). 1994. Systematics and Conservation Evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 850 pp. (The Systematics Association Special Vol. 50)

Gilfedder, L. and Kirkpatrick, J. 1994. Culturally induced rarity? The past and present distributions of Leucochrysum albicans in Tasmania. Australian J. Bot. 42(4): 405- 416.

Grumbine, R. (Ed). 1994. Environmental Policy and Biodiversity. Island Press, Covelo, California. 416 pp.

Hale, A. 1994. "Property rights" and the new Medieval Age. Sarasota ECO Report 4(11): 1, 12.

Hemley, G. (Ed). 1994. International Wildlife Trade. A CITES Sourcebook. Island Press, Covelo, California. 150 pp.

Henderson, A. 1994. The Palms of the Amazon. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 240 pp.

Hickey, J. 1994. A floristic comparison of vascular species in Tasmanian oldgrowth mixed forest with regeneration resulting from logging and wildfire. Australian J. Bot. 42(4): 383- 404.

HMSO. 1994. Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland. 428 pp.

Holthouse, D. 1995. The mystery of the disappearing species. Nat. Wildlife 33(1): 34-39. (Steller sea lion, Alaska)

Hopps, M. 1994. Reforesting Appalachia's coal lands. Am. Forests 100(11 & 12): 40-45. (Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia)

Howell, S. and Webb, S. 1994. Field Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 850 pp. (Conservation status listed)

Jansson, A., Hammer, M., Folke, C. and Costanza, R. (Eds.). 1994. Investing in Natural Capital. The Ecological Economics Approach to Sustainability. Island Press, Covelo, California. 450 pp.

Jiggins, J. 1994. Changing the Boundaries. Women-centered Perspectives on Population and the Environment. Island Press, Covelo, California. 240 pp.

Johnston, B. (Ed). 1994. Who Pays the Price? The Sociocultural Context of Environmental Crisis. Island Press, Covelo, California. 264 pp.

Kenworthy, T. 1994. Endangered species meeting confronts contentious issues. Washington Post November 11: A2. (CITES meeting)

Knight, R. and Bates, S. (Eds.). 1994. A New Century for Natural Resources Management. Island Press, Covelo, California. 432 pp.

Koopowitz, H., Andersen, M., Thornbill, A., Nguyen, H. and Pham, A. 1994. Comparison of distributions of terrestrial and epiphytic African orchids: implications for conservation. Pp. 120-124. In HMSO, Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Leak, W., Yamasaki, M., Smith, M-L. and Funk, D. 1994. Selection criteria for forested natural areas in New England, USA. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 300-305.

Lemonick, M. 1994. Animal genocide, mob style. Time November 14: 77-78. (Wildlife trade)

Li, X-W. 1994. Two big biodiversity centres of Chinese endemic genera of seed plants and their characteristics in Yunnan Province. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 16(3): 221-227.

Luken, J. 1994. Valuing plants in natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 295-299.

MacKerron, C. and Cogan, D. (Eds.). 1993. Business in the Rain Forests: Corporation, Deforestation and Sustainability. Investor Responsibility Research Center, Washington, DC. 239 pp.

Marks, M., Lapin, B. and Randall, J. 1994. Phragmites australis (P. communis): threats, management and monitoring. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 285-294.

Maurer, B. 1994. Geographical Population Analysis. Tools for the Analysis of Biodiversity. Blackwell Science, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. 144 pp.

May, R. 1994. Resource management: the economics of extinction. Nature 372(6501): 42. (Wildlife trade)

Mazur, L. (Ed). 1994. Beyond the Numbers. A Reader on Population, Consumption, and the Environment. Island Press, Covelo, California. 225 pp.

Meiners, S. and Gorchov, D. 1994. The soil seed pool of Huffman Prairie: a degraded Ohio prairie, and its potential in restoration. Ohio J. Science 94(4): 82-96.

Mitsch, W. (Ed). 1994. Global Wetlands: Old World and New. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 992 pp.

Morrison, A. 1994. The international politics of orchid conservation. Pp. 1-4. In HMSO, Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Muir, P. and Moseley, R. 1994. Responses of Primula alcalina, a threatened species of alkaline seeps, to site and grazing. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 269-279. (Idaho endemic)

Nettleship, D., Burger, J. and Gochfeld, M. (Eds.). 1994. Seabirds on Islands. Threats, Case Studies and Action Plans. BirdLife International, Cambridge, England. 350 pp.

Nobel, P. 1994. Remarkable Agaves and Cacti. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 180 pp.

Odgers, B. 1994. Seed banks and vegetation of three contrasting sites in an urban eucalypt forest reserve. Australian J. Bot. 42(4): 371-382.

Porter, D. and Salvesen, D. (Eds.). 1994. Collaborative Planning for Wetlands and Wildlife. Issues and Examples. Island Press, Covelo, California. 352 pp.

Pradhan, K. 1994. Status of orchids in South Asia and strategy for its conservation. Pp. 195-196. In HMSO. Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Ramsay, M., Stewart, J. and Prendergast, G. 1994. Conserving endangered British terrestrial orchids. Pp. 176-179. In HMSO, Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Rylands, A. (Ed). 1994. Marmosets and Tamarins. Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 412 pp. (Notes on conservation status)

Sample, V. (Ed). 1994. Remote Sensing and GIS in Ecosystem Management. Island Press, Covelo, California. 384 pp.

Sanchez, V. and Juma, C. 1994. Biodiplomacy: Genetic Resources and International Relations. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya.

Schlesinger, R., Funk, D., Roth, P. and Myers, C. 1994. Assessing changes in biological diversity over time. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 235-240. (Natural area in Indiana)

Shifley, S. and Schlesinger, R. 1994. Sampling guidelines of old-growth forests in the Midwest, USA. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 258-268. (Indiana, Illinois, Missouri)

Sisk, T., Launer, A., Switky, K. and Ehrlich, P. 1994. Identifying extinction threats. BioScience 44(9): 592-604.

Tenenbaum, D. 1994. The Guanacaste idea. Am. Forests 100(11 & 12): 28-31, 58-59. (Guanacaste National Park, Costa Rica)

Tucker, G., Heath, M., Tomialojc, L. and Grimmett, R. 1994. Birds in Europe: Their Conservation Status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, England. 625 pp.

van Vliet, G. 1994. CITES and orchids - a conflict between conservation and international trade? Pp. 188-194. In HMSO, Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Wang, H-S. and Zhang, Y-L. 1994. The biodiversity and characters of spermatophytic genera endemic to China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 16(3): 209-220.

Warren, R. and Miller, D. 1994. Practical conservation in Brazil: self-sustainable montane Atlantic rainforest conservation units in Rio de Janeiro State. Pp. 225-227. In HMSO, Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Congress. HMSO, Glasgow, Scotland.

Wege, D. and Long, A. 1994. Priority Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, England. 370 pp.

Wellner, P. 1994. A pipeline killing field: exploitation of Burma's natural gas. The Ecologist 24(5): 189-193. (Pipeline causes forest destruction)

Williams, C., Witmer, V., Casey, M. and Barrett, G. 1994. Effects of strip-cropping on small mammal population dynamics in soybean agroecosystems. Ohio J. Science 94(4): 94-98.

Woods, K. and Cogbill, C. 1994. Upland old-growth forests of Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Nat. Areas J. 14(4): 241- 257.

Zaslowsky, D. and Watkins, T. 1994. These American Lands. Parks, Wilderness, and the Public Lands. Wilderness Society, Washington, DC. 420 pp. (Revised and expanded edition)

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