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Department ofBotany

No. 143
April 1995

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Ellen Farr

The cumulative Conservation Bibliography from this newsletter has been available on the Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Gopher Server since the fall of 1993. The list has now grown to over 8000 references.

Gopher Server searches normally return a list of the first lines of any items that meet the search criteria and each item must be selected in turn to view the entire citation. We have now implemented a new search option that will build a single document from the search results for up to 200 records. This document can be browsed on the screen, printed, or downloaded as a file.

The limit of 200 records was set to reduce demands on processor time on our host computer and to limit the size of the file to a manageable size on the client computer. If your search returns too many records, try restricting the search with another key word. For example, searching the bibliography for the word 'wildlife' will exceed the 200 record limit. Narrowing the search to records with 'wildlife and conservation' returns 179 records.

The address for the Smithsonian's Natural History Gopher Server is port 70. Look under Botany/Biological Conservation/Conservation Bibliography. If you have a World Wide Web Client, you can reach the material on the Gopher Server from our department's Web Home Page. The URL is


A non-profit, non-governmental organization, the Grupo Ecologista Antares, AC (Antares Ecological Group) has recently been incorporated in Loreto, Baja California, Mexico in order to focus attention on the urgent need to preserve the unique natural resources of the area. The group is composed of concerned citizens of Loreto interested in the study, conservation, rescue, and development of the environmental and ecological equilibrium of the Baja California peninsula.

Located nearly 700 miles south of the U.S. border, Loreto is situated on the Sea of Cortez. The peninsula town was the first European settlement in all of California, founded in 1697 by Jesuit missionaries, and is the site of the first of all California missions. In addition to Loreto's rich historical and cultural interest, the area boasts a wealth of marine and terrestrial treasures -- currently endangered.

In order to protect and restore the ecological balance, the Grupo Ecologista Antares intends to establish the Museo de la Ballena (Whale Museum), which will be a center for education, investigation, and protection of marine life in the Sea of Cortez. A botanical garden and reserve, to be named in honor of Annetta Carter, will also be introduced as a center for the preservation and investigation of the unique plants of the Baja California peninsula.

The association will maintain contact with other institutions, private and governmental, to exchange and gather information on advanced technologies to aid the environment. It will develop programs to educate the citizens of the area on the importance of maintaining an ecological balance, and the group will act as a watch-dog to see that the existing laws and regulations to control the exploitation of the environment are enforced. Grupo Ecologista Antares welcomes any comments, advice, and support. Please address correspondence to: Fernando Arcas Saiz, President, Calle Bac #3, Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico.


In 1988, a tenth grade biology class in Dodgeville, Wisconsin became interested in rain forest conservation. The product of their concern is Save the Rainforest, Inc., one of the largest rain forest education organizations in the United States. The non-profit network of over 20,000 primary and secondary school teachers seeks to contribute to rain forest preservation through education, activism, and fundraising.

Save the Rainforest's educational programs include publication of a teacher's guide to environmental action. This guide, distributed biannually to all member teachers, details Save the Rainforest's available resources and programs. The guide also includes lessons developed by members of the organization. In addition, Save the Rainforest has developed an array of teaching aids, from curriculum guides to video and posters, that continue to elicit student interest in conservation.

A growing part of Save the Rainforest's educational program is coordination of high-quality, low-cost educational trips to temperate and neotropical rain forests for teachers and high school students. The two-week courses, taught by local conservationists, guides, and field scientists, are designed to broaden multi-disciplinary understanding of the rain forest and the forces that are driving its destruction. Last year, more than 700 people took courses in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Panama, and Washington State's Olympic Peninsula. Local conservation groups including Program for Belize and the Monteverde Institute are paid for their assistance in conducting the courses. The average price for a Save the Rainforest course is US$650 plus airfare. Graduate credits are available.

Political and social action also plays a critical role in the philosophy of Save the Rainforest. For example, the group circulated petitions among member schools that asked the International Monetary Fund to reform its policies to eliminate incentives for natural resource exploitation. Save the Rainforest also strongly encourages letter writing to government agencies. One of the most popular projects among school children has been financing the purchase of rainforest reserves. Save the Rainforest is a member of the Swedish-based International Children's Rainforest, an organization whose goal is the creation of a chain of Children's Rainforests with donations from school children. These reserves represent sites for studies of and exposure to rain forests in perpetuity. Students are currently raising money for conservation efforts in New River Wildlife Corridor (Belize), Central African Republic, Jatun Sacha (Ecuador), The Darien (Panama), and Papua New Guinea. In 1993, students affiliated with International Children's Rainforest and similar organizations raised over $710,000 for rain forest preservation.

For further information on Save the Rainforest contact: Bruce Calhoun, Save the Rainforest, 604 Jamie St., Dodgeville, WI 53533. (Source: Society for Conservation Biology Newsletter)


June 2-4. "Natural and Human-Induced Change in Madagascar", an international symposium addressing the critical impact of expanding human populations and extraction of natural resources on tropical floras and faunas, will be held at The Field Museum . For more information, contact B.D. Patterson, Center for Evolutionary & Environmental Biology, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605-2496; Tel.:(312) 922-9410, ext. 468; Fax:(312) 663-5397; E-mail: In Madagascar, contact S.M. Goodman, Fax: 261-2-348-88.

June 21-25. Sponsored by the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, the 36th annual meeting of the Society for Economic Botany will be held at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. A symposium organized by Eloy Rodriguez, "Biochemical Co-Evolution: Prospecting for Novel Nature Chemicals" will be held on June 23. For more information, contact Lucille N. Kaplan, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts/Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125-3393; Tel.:(617) 287-6850; Fax:(617) 287-6650.

June 30-July 2. The 1995 Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) annual meeting at UC Berkeley will be hosted jointly by the University of California, Berkeley and the California Academy of Sciences. The meeting will feature a workshop on "Natural History Collections on the Information Superhighway." For registration and hotel information, contact ASC, 730 11th St. NW, Second Floor, Washington, DC, 20001-4521; Tel.:(202) 347-2850; Fax:(202) 347-0072.


Michigan State University has a graduate research assistantship available for a student who wishes to pursue a Masters or Ph.D. degree in conservation biology or wildlife ecology and management, with a specialization in modelling and simulation. Benefits include annual salary ($1000-$1300/month), tuition waiver, and health insurance. Starting date is somewhat flexible, but fall 1995 is preferred.

The candidates are expected to have (1) strong quantitative background and skills in computer programming and geographic information system (GIS), and (2) interests in integrating ecological, economic, and social factors for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation on multiple scales (local, landscape, and regional).

The position is open to students in a variety of disciplines such as ecology, zoology, natural resources, wildlife, conservation, economics, sociology, geography, computer science, mathematics, engineering, and physics. Interested students should send a letter of application, a statement of professional goals, curriculum vitae, transcripts (unofficial ones are OK initially), GRE scores (and TOEFL scores for international students), and names, addresses and phone numbers of at least three references to: Dr. Jianguo (Jack) Liu, Michigan State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824; Tel.:(517) 355-1810; Fax: (517) 432-1699; E-


The School of Horticulture, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, will hold a course program July 10-September 1 at the School of Horticulture, with the support of Botanic Gardens Conservation International. This course will afford participants opportunities to develop and extend their skills in botanic garden management in the surroundings of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Other course objectives include effective management, plant conservation, establishing a channel of communication with the staff at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, as well as other institutions visited, and ultimately establishing personal networks.

Candidates are expected to hold a horticultural degree or diploma. They should be actively engaged in the management of a botanic garden or arboretum, with some operational and strategic responsibilities as well as practical involvement in horticultural tasks. This course is not intended for administrative staff. All candidates must have a good command of conversational English. Course fee of 2500 pounds sterling should be received by May 15. For further information, contact: Ian Leese, Principal, School of Horticulture, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK; Tel.: 44 181 332 5544; Fax: 44 181 332 5574; E-mail:


The Hawaii Program Office of the Center for Plant Conservation based at the Bishop Museum has produced a new booklet Hawaiian Plant Conservation & Management Directory 1994. It lists the organizations and individuals working on plant conservation in Hawaii, with addresses, phone numbers, subject areas of interest and expertise and mission statements for the organizations and has indices by subject, island and taxa. Copies available from: Center for Plant Conservation's Hawaii Program Office, c/o Bishop Museum, PO Box 19000A, Honolulu, HI 96817-0916, U.S.A.

Birds to Watch 2: The World List of Threatened Birds, by N.J. Collar, M.J. Crosby and A.J. Stattersfield identifies nearly 1,100 bird species as globally threatened. Employing the latest IUCN-commissioned criteria to determine which species are threatened, near threatened, conservation dependent and data deficient, this new, completely revised edition outlines distribution, habitat requirements, population trends and threats. This book is available for 18.50 pounds sterling, additional 8 pounds sterling for airmail costs outside of Europe.

To request the book contact: A. Berry, BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK; Fax: 44 1223 277200. Payment must be made through pound sterling check/Eurocheque payable to BirdLife International, or with charge to Visa/Mastercard/Amex/Diners.

Ethnobotany - the study of the people's classification, management and use of plants - is an endeavour which attracts people from various academic disciplines. Ethonobotanists and local people face the challenging task of not only recording knowledge of the plant world, but also applying the results of their studies to biodiversity conservation and community development. One of their goals is to ensure that local natural history becomes a living, written tradition in communities where it has been transmitted orally for many years. A new methods manual entitled Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual, A People and Plants Conservation Manual will detail methods of recovery.

This new publication - the first in a new series of practical manuals in plant conservation sponsored by the WWF, UNESCO and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew - provides a detailed overview of this emerging discipline. Aimed primarily at researchers who are beginning their field studies, it gives clear descriptions of the skills and methods most commonly employed by ethnobotanists. This manual will be used as a teaching aid in workshops and training courses on ethnobotany and sustainable uses of plant resources organized under the People and Plants Initiative. It is a companion volume to a manual entitled Harvesting of Wild Plants, Conservation and Rural Development.

The 296-page text written by Gary J. Martin and published by Chapman & Hall (U.K.) is available for 16.95 pounds sterling. A Spanish-language translation is expected to be published in 1995. For more information contact: Jessica Spencer, Chapman and Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8H UK; Fax: 44 171 522 9623.


Adang, A., Birkenshaw, C. and Andrews, J. 1994. Illegal palm felling in Lokobe Reserve, Madagascar. Principes 38(4): 204-210.

Anderson, A., Magee, P., Gely, A. and Goncalves Jardim, M. 1995. Forest management patterns in the floodplain of the Amazon estuary. Conservation Biology 9(1): 47-61.

Angermeier, P. 1995. Ecological attributes of extinction- prone species: loss of freshwater fishes of Virginia. Conservation Biology 9(1): 143-158.

Anon. 1995. Cites COP9: a recap. TRAFFIC USA 14(1): 7-15.

Anon. 1995. Environmental threats to whales. CONSERVATION ISSUES 2(2): 1, 3, 7-10.

Arano, B., Llorente, G., Garcia-Paris, M. and Herrero, P. 1995. Species translocation menaces Iberian waterfrogs. Conservation Biology 9(1): 196-198.

Barahona, R. 1994. A legal framework for the institutionalization of ecological knowledge in land use planning in Costa Rica. Ecology Int. 21: 37-46.

Bingham, S. 1995. Dollars for dust...or for bobolinks? Wildlife Conserv. 98(1): 66-67, 70. (USDA Conservation Reserve Program)

Blaustein, A. and Wake, D. 1995. The puzzle of declining amphibian populations. Scientific American 272(4): 52-57.

Bleich, V., Bowyer, R., Pauli, A., Nicholson, M. and Anthes, R. 1994. Mountain sheep Ovis canadensis and helicopter surveys: ramifications for the conservation of large mammals. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 1-8.

Bowyer, R., Testa, J. and Faro, J. 1995. Habitat selection and home ranges of river otters in a marine environment: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. J. Mammalogy 76(1): 1-11. (Alaska)

Bridgham, S., Johnston, C., Pastor, J. and Updegraff, K. 1995. Potential feedbacks of northern wetlands on climate change. BioScience 45(4): 262-274.

Bucher, E. 1994. Institutionalization of ecological knowledge in Argentina. Ecology Int. 21: 65-74.

Bunin, J. and Jamieson, I. 1995. New approaches toward a better understanding of the decline of takahe (Porphyrio mantelli) in New Zealand. Conservation Biology 9(1): 100-106. (Highly endangered endemic flightless rail)

Bustamente, J. 1995. The duration of the post-fledging dependence period of ospreys Pandion haliaetus at Loch Garten, Scotland. Bird Study 42(1): 31-36.

Calvo, B. 1994. Effects of agricultural land-use on the breeding of collared pratincole Glareola pratincola in south-west Spain. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 77-83.

Can, L. 1994. Research activities on environmental protection in Vietnam. Ecology Int. 21: 97-103.

Carpenter, R. 1994. Can sustainability be measured? Ecology Int. 21: 27-36.

Castilla, J. 1994. The Chilean small-scale benthic shellfisheries and the institutionalization of new management practices. Ecology Int. 21: 47-64.

Clarke, G. 1995. Relationships between developmental stability and fitness: application for conservation biology. Conservation Biology 9(1): 18-24.

Cogger, H., Cameron, E., Sadlier, R. and Eggler, P. 1993. The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra. 254 pp.

Cotterill, F. 1995. Systematics, biological knowledge and environmental conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(2): 183-205.

Crick, H. and Ratcliffe, D. 1995. The peregrine Falco peregrinus breeding population of the United Kingdom in 1991. Bird Study 42(1): 1-19.

Dantas de Araujo, F. 1995. A review of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae)- an economically valuable species of the central Brazilian cerrados. Econ. Bot. 49(1): 40- 48.

de Vries, B., Jansen, E., van Dobben, H. and Kuyper, Th. W. 1995. Partial restoration of fungal and plant species diversity by removal of litter and humus layers in stands of Scots pine in the Netherlands. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(2): 156- 164.

Debinski, D. 1994. Genetic diversity assessment in a metapopulation of the butterfly Euphydryas gilletti. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 25-32. (Endemic Rocky Mountain checkerspot)

Dee, W. 1994. Institutionalizing the protected area management effort in the Philippines. Ecology Int. 21: 89- 96.

Drew, L. 1995. 25 messages from wildlife. Nat. Wildlife 33(3): 8-19.

Eldredge, L. and Miller, S. 1995. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994: how many species are there in Hawaii? Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 41: 3-18.

Evans, T. 1995. Spotlight on Laos. Wildlife Conserv. 98(1): 52-57. (Exploitation of natural resources)

Falk, D., Millar, C. and Olwell, M. (Eds.). 1995. Restoring Diversity. Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. Island Press, Covelo, CA. 400 pp.

Folke, C. 1995. Roundtable: ecologists and economists can find common ground. BioScience 45(4): 283-284.

Galinat, W. 1995. El origin del maiz: el grano de la humanidad; The origin of maize: grain of humanity. Econ. Bot. 49(1): 3-12.

Gaston, K. and Blackburn, T. 1995. Rarity and body size: some cautionary remarks. Conservation Biology 9(1): 210- 213.

Glick, D. 1995. The alarming language of pollution. Nat. Wildlife 33(3): 38-45.

Gonzalez-Tejero, M. R., Martinez-Lirola, M. J., Casares- Porcel, M. and Molero-Mesa, J. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain). Econ. Bot. 49(1): 96-98.

Grachev, M. 1994. Formation of the Baikal International Center for Ecological Research. Ecology Int. 21: 75-88.

Green, R. 1995. The decline of the corncrake Crex crex in Britain continues. Bird Study 42(1): 66-75.

Gresswell, R. and Liss, W. 1995. Values associated with management of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) in Yellowstone National Park. Conservation Biology 9(1): 159-165.

Hannah, L., Carr, J. and Lankerani, A. 1995. Human disturbance and natural habitat: a biome level analysis of a global data set. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(2): 128- 155.

Harcourt, A. 1995. Population viability estimates: theory and practice for a wild gorilla population. Conservation Biology 9(1): 134-142. (Virunga gorilla of Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda)

Haug, T., Henriksen, G., Kondakov, A., Mishin, V., Nilssen, K. and Rov, N. 1994. The status of grey seals Halichoerus grypus in North Norway and on the Murman coast, Russia. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 59-68.

Hautaluoma, J. and Woodmansee, R. 1994. New roles in ecological research and policy making. Ecology Int. 21: 1- 10.

Heschel, M. and Paige, K. 1995. Inbreeding depression, environmental stress, and population size variation in scarlet gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata). Conservation Biology 9(1): 126-133. (Plant of western USA)

Houston, D. and Schreiner, E. 1995. Alien species in national parks: drawing lines in space and time. Conservation Biology 9(1): 204-209.

Jacobson, S., Vaughan, E. and Miller, S. 1995. New directions in conservation biology: graduate programs. Conservation Biology 9(1): 5-17.

Jennings, S., Brierley, A. and Walker, J. 1994. The inshore fish assemblages of the Galapagos archipelago. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 49-58.

Keenan, B. 1994. Ecopolitical system realities in building ecosystem research institutions. Ecology Int. 21: 11-26.

Kenworthy, T. 1995. Agency outlines salmon protection plan. The Washington Post March 21: A3. (Measures affect Northwest economy)

Lawrence, D., Leighton, M. and Peart, D. 1995. Availability and extraction of forest products in managed and primary forest around a Dayak village in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Conservation Biology 9(1): 76-88.

Liu, J., Dunning, Jr, J. and Pulliam, H. 1995. Potential effects of a forest management plan on Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis): linking a spatially explicit model with GIS. Conservation Biology 9(1): 62-75. (South Carolina)

Magin, C. and Greth, A. 1994. Distribution, status, and proposals for the conservation of mountain gazelle Gazella gazella cora in south-west Saudi Arabia. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 69-76.

Mann, C. and Plummer, M. 1995. Empowering species. End. Species UPDATE 11(12): 17-18.

Mello, S. 1994. Status of the stellar sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, in Alaska. End. Species UPDATE 11(12): 1-6.

Miller, S. 1994. Dispersal of plant pests into the Virgin Islands. Florida Entomologist 77(4): 520-521.

Moe, S. 1994. The importance of aquatic vegetation for the management of the barasingha Cervus duvauceli in Nepal. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 33-38.

Nickens, E. 1995. Iguaca makes its last stand. Wildlife Conserv. 98(1): 40-45. (Puerto Rican parrot, Luquillo Mountains)

Nishida, G. (Ed.). 1994. Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropod Checklist. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 287 pp. (Revised list of 8,552 species)

Norriss, D. 1995. The 1991 survey and weather impacts on the peregrine Falco peregrinus breeding population in the Republic of Ireland. Bird Study 42(1): 20-30.

O'Neal, A., Pandian, A., Rhodes-Conway, S. and Bornbusch, A. 1995. Human economies, the land ethic, and sustainable conservation. Conservation Biology 9(1): 217-220.

Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 1995. Rare breeding birds in the United Kingdom in 1992. British Birds 88(2): 67-93.

Peres, C. and Terborgh, J. 1995. Amazonian nature reserves: an analysis of the defensibility status of existing conservation units and design criteria for the future. Conservation Biology 9(1): 34-46.

Powledge, F. 1995. The food supply's safety net. BioScience 45(4): 235-243.

Ralls, K. and Starfield, A. 1995. Choosing a management strategy: two structured decision-making methods for evaluating the predictions of stochastic simulation models. Conservation Biology 9(1): 175-181.

Ranker, T. 1994. Evolution of high genetic variability in the Hawaiian fern Adenophorus periens and implications for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 19-24.

Rieseberg, L. and Gerber, D. 1995. Hybridization in the Catalina Island mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus traskiae): RAPD evidence. Conservation Biology 9(1): 199-203.

Robinson, N. 1995. Implications from mitochondrial DNA for management to conserve the eastern barred bandicoot (Perameles gunnii). Conservation Biology 9(1): 114-125. (Australia)

Rodgers, Jr., J. and Smith, H. 1995. Set-back distances to protect nesting bird colonies from human disturbance in Florida. Conservation Biology 9(1): 89-99.

Rose, D. 1995. American bear trade on the rise. TRAFFIC USA 14(1): 1-2, 5.

Rose, D. 1995. International symposium on trade of bear parts for medicinal use. TRAFFIC USA 14(1): 6.

Ryder, R. 1995. The new World Trade Organisation - a major threat to social values. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(2): 206-207.

Schneider, K. 1995. Alaska cruise-ship plan stirs environmentalists. The New York Times (Travel) March 19: 3.

Schrader, E. 1995. Battle for survival in Darwin's eden. The Washington Post April 6: A26. (Sea cucumber harvesting threatens evolution)

Scott, J., Tear, T. and Mills, L. 1995. Socioeconomics and the recovery of endangered species: biological assessment in a political world. Conservation Biology 9(1): 214-216.

Smith, T., Freed, L., Lepson, J. and Carothers, J. 1995. Evolutionary consequences of extinctions in populations of a Hawaiian honeycreeper (Vestiaria coccinea). Conservation Biology 9(1): 107-113.

Starfield, A., Roth, J. and Ralls, K. 1995. "Mobbing" the Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslani): the value of simulation modeling in the absence of apparently crucial data. Conservation Biology 9(1): 166-174.

Swenson, J., Sandegren, F., Bjarvall, A., Soderberg, A., Wabakken, P. and Franzen, R. 1994. Size, trend, distribution and conservation of the brown bear Ursus arctos population in Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 9-18.

Tamisier, A. and Grillas, P. 1994. A review of habitat changes in the Camargue: an assessment of the effects of the loss of biological diversity on the wintering waterfowl community. Biol. Conserv. 70(1): 39-48.

Tear, T., Scott, J., Hayward, P. and Griffith, B. 1995. Recovery plans and the Endangered Species Act: are criticisms supported by data? Conservation Biology 9(1): 182-195.

Thompson, P. 1995. Thinking of biology: conceptions of property and the biotechnology debate. BioScience 45(4): 275-282.

Trombulak, S. 1995. The Northern forest: conservation biology, public policy, and a failure of regional planning. End. Species UPDATE 11(12): 7-16.

Wallis de Vries, M. 1995. Large herbivores and the design of large-scale nature reserves in western Europe. Conservation Biology 9(1): 25-33.

Vandermeer, J. 1994. Effects of Hurricane Joan on the palms of the Caribbean coast rainforest of Nicaragua. Principes 38(4): 182-189.


I would like to thank Kirsten Buckstaff who is now assisting with the production of the newsletter each month. I would also like to thank another volunteer, Helen-Marie Fruth, who, for over 8 years, has been responsible for the mailing of the newsletter to more than 1,200 subscribers in 95 countries. Without their weekly help, this publication would not be possible.

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