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Department ofBotany

No. 144
May 1995

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The irreplaceable genetic resources found in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea will be the focus of a soon-to-be-released issue of the international news journal, DIVERSITY. The biological diversity contained on the land and in the seas of the Mediterranean region - known to many as the cradle of civilization - is the source of much of the world's food, clothing, and medicine. The landmark issue will be released in English and Arabic versions and will be available for worldwide distribution in June.

The biological resources available to the first inhabitants of the Tigris, Euphrates and Nile valleys have provided the world with some 25,000 plant species, including wheat - the "staff of life" - a crop that archaeologists and paleobotanists believe originated in the Fertile Crescent. More than 12,000 of these species are considered endemic to the region and all fill important economic or ecological niches.

While most of the world's attention has been drawn to the political tensions of the Middle Eastern part of the region, the special issue of DIVERSITY will emphasize the reconciliatory role that preserving our irreplaceable genetic heritage can play in the Mideast Peace Process as it brings together scientists and policymakers regardless of nationality, religion, or ethnic origin. Few realize that throughout the turmoil that has plagued the region since 1948, agriculturalists and ecologists have been working across national boundaries to carry out research, share knowledge, and establish collaborations to safeguard the disapperaing genetic resources that could prevent future famines, outbreaks of disease, and other natural disasters.

The special issue will look at the way scientists and policymakers in seventeen countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea are preserving and conserving the very basis of humankind's food and medicinal supplies and will examine the national, regional, and international program activities that are working to offset the pressures that threaten it.

For information on how to subscribe to DIVERSITY, or receive this special issue, write: DIVERSITY, 4905 Del Ray Avenue, Suite 401, Bethesda, MD 20814; Tel.: (301) 907-9350; Fax: (301) 907-9328; E-mail:


Loss of biodiversity, deforestation, climatic fluctuations, and rapid population growth are examples of the serious environmental problems that are becoming more complex each year. The critical nature of these issues will bear a heavy burden on the geopolitical, economic, and social agendas of the United States and the world during this decade and into the next century. Their importance was emphasized by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, the largest meeting of heads of state in history.

Science and technological knowledge will play an heroic role in confronting the issues of environmental salvation. But our nation's decisionmakers often lack the scientific information they need to find long-term, cost-effective solutions. In an effort to combat this serious deficit in sustainable development, Republican Congressman Jim Saxton (NJ), will lead the effort to establish the National Institute for the Environment (NIE) in the new Republican Congress.

To control costs and bureaucracy, the NIE will not operate labs or research facilities. It will competitively award extramural research grants to academia, government laboratories, private companies, and others. To ensure the credibility of its research, the NIE will have no regulatory or management responsibilities. NIE's inclusive Governing Board, balanced by the participation of business, environmentalists, scientists, state and local governments, and others, will set priorities for environmental research and ensure that it addresses the needs of the entire nation. Additionally, the NIE will complement, not duplicate, research done by other agencies. Research directors of government agencies will serve on an interagency advisory committee to help NIE coordinate with existing federal programs. The NIE will not set policies for other government programs, but will provide the scientific information agencies require to make sound environmental regulations and policies.

"A healthy environment is essential to the well-being of our economy and the health of our people," said Robert McNamara, former Secretary of Defense under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, and former president of the World Bank. McNamara, who has joined the board of directors of the Committee for the NIE, further expressed that "the proposed NIE's commitment to sound, integrated science will give us a strong base to deal with the potential environmental threats to our nation and the world for decades to come."

To improve the scientific basis for making decisions on environmental issues, the NIE will have the following goals: 1) to increase scientific understanding of environmental issues by sponsoring credible, problem-focused research; 2) to assist decisionmaking by providing comprehensive assessments of current environmental knowledge and its implications; 3) to facilitate and expand access to environmental information and better communicate scientific and technological results through an electronic National Library for the Environment; and 4) to strengthen the capacity to address environmental issues by sponsoring higher education and training.

In fulfilling each of the above goals, the NIE will attempt to harness the nation's full range of expertise in aspects of its activities. The NIE believes the United States needs such an institute to bridge, fortify, and augment existing agency efforts, not replace them. As a new agency, the NIE will create flexible and inclusive ways of setting research priorities and funding research.

The Committee for the NIE is a national non-profit group of more than 9,000 scientists, business leaders, environmentalists, and other concerned citizens. For more information, contact: CNIE, 730 11th St., N.W., Washington, DC 20001; Tel.: (202) 628- 4303; Fax: (202)628-4311; E-mail:


The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is offering computer users cruising the information superhighway a wealth of data on the conservation and management of this country's fish and wildlife resources and their habitat.

The information available on the Service's Internet server is as diverse as the agency itself. The new World Wide Web server "home pages" contain summaries of virtually every aspect of the numerous activities and programs conducted by the Service.

Examples include a current listing of all endangered and threatened species, information concerning recreational activities on the more than 500 national wildlife refuges, and valuable tips for travelers concerning the ethics of buying wildlife products in a foreign country. Also available is information on fisheries management and conservation, detailed descriptions of various popular wildlife species, and information on hunter/angler supported programs to enhance fish and wildlife conservation.

Accessing the World Wide Web server requires a computer program that can communicate with hypertext transfer protocol (http), such as Mosaic. The Internet address for the new server is "". Information is also available to those with only Internet E-mail text transfer capabilities through a separate "dial-a-file" library server maintained by the Service. Send an E-mail message to "" to access this server. On the subject line (not the body of the message), type SEND HELP and you will be sent to a user's guide including an index of topics in the library. To receive a specific document, on the subject line type the command SEND followed by the document name as listed in the index. No text is necessary in the body of the message.

A server established recently by the Service's National Wetlands Inventory office is just one example of how this new technology can bolster conservation activities. For the past 13 years, this office has been conducting an inventory of the nation's wetlands and producing geospatial data on magnetic media. The material depicts the relationship of wetlands habitat to U.S. Geological Survey maps.

Last July, the office began offering the capability of downloading this information from an "anonymous FTP" server (address "") accessible through the Internet. Since that time, more than 64,000 wetlands maps have been downloaded to users from nearly 25 countries. The availability of this service has resulted in significant savings to both the user and the Service. The maps normally cost $9 each, so the public has realized a substantial savings, while the Service has reduced its administrative costs.

The Texas Natural History Collections (TNHC), a division of Texas Memorial Museum of the University of Texas at Austin, announces the availability of collections databases and collections-related files. The Internet address for the server is http:/, or gopher:// WAIS-indexed databases from the ichthyology and herpetology collections are searchable, and data from other divisions (geology and invertebrate) will soon be added.

Also through the same location, the TNHC is able to provide related collaborative projects such as the WWW pages of Desert Fishes Council, including its complete bilingual Proceedings of meetings, photographs of fishes, distribution maps, and abstracts of biology, conservation status and management of selected fish species. The business office of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, now based at the TNHC, provides (WWW & Gopher) an updated membership directory, meeting announcements, and general information about the society. Also on-line is the University of Texas Biodiversity Resources and Collections (UT-BRAC) collaborative project (WWW & Gopher), which provide links to other natural history and biodiversity resources at UT-Austin. Currently the Plant Resources Center and Vertebrate Paleontology lab join the TNHC with online databases and related files. Links to other University of Texas natural history and biodiversity-related collections, and to external regional biodiversity resources, will be added in the near future.

Please contact the following should the user experience any difficulties in accessing these files: Dean A. Hendrickson, Curator of Ichthyology; E-mail:; David C. Cannatella, Curator of Herpetology; E-mail:; Carol K. Malcolm, Collections manager for Ichthyology and Herpetology; E-mail:


Amphibian & Reptile Conservation (ARC) is a new quarterly publication that will serve as a forum for exchange of information within the herpetological conservation community and will foster a closer union between the private sector and academia in the worldwide conservation of amphibians and reptiles. For more information and/or to receive an information packet, contact: Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 2255 N. University Pkwy., Suite 15, Provo, UT 84604-7506; Tel.:(801) 379- 8900; Fax: (801) 373-0695; E-mail:

Russian Conservation News is a quarterly publication of the Biodiversity Conservation Center (BCC), a Moscow-based consultation, information, and fundraising center that coordinates a wide range of conservation projects. The publication addresses topics including protected areas and species and conservation legislation. For additional information, contact: Mikhail Blinnikov, 2126 W. 16th Ave., Eugene, OR 97402; Tel:(503) 686-2288; E-mail:, or Eugene Simonov, 4 Cherniakovskogo St., Apt. 10, Moscow 125319; Tel: 151 5226; E-mail: To subscribe, send a check or money order for US$10 (individuals) or US$25 (organizations) payable to PEEC/RCN, R.R. 2, Box 1010, Dingman's Ferry, PA 18328.

For an introduction to the issue of genetic erosion and a first-hand look at the strategies and personalities of the most important institutions involved with germplasm today, Genetic Time Bomb, produced by John deGraaf and Vivia Boe, offers an overview of the genetic diversity of agricultural crops, the present crisis of genetic erosion, and the efforts of governmental and independent organizations to stem germplasm losses. The 50-minute long Oregon Public Broadcasting documentary traces the history of germplasm conservation from its roots in the scientific theories to the network of national and international seed collections - and the contemporary neglect of germplasm maintenance.

The film is available from: The Video Project, 5332 College Ave., Suite 101, Oakland, CA 94618; Tel:(510) 655-9050 or 1-800-4-PLANET; Fax:(510) 655-9115. Institutions: VHS sale US$150, rent $45. Individuals: sale US$39.95, rent $25.

The western Atlantic, especially the Caribbean Sea, is a marine region that explodes with an abundance of biodiversity. Although no one is sure of their numbers, there is no less than 4,000 species of mollusks that live in the Caribbean. Moluscos del Caribe Colombiano,is an illustrated catalog with information garnered from innumerable publications, private collections and previously unpublished data. The material collected by the authors, biologists Juan Manuel Diaz Merlano and Monica Puyana Hegedus, took place over a period of ten years.

Not only the student of zoology, or the specialist, but also the amateur collector of conches and snails will find in this book an encyclopedic knowledge of the 1,086 species of mollusks known to date existing in the Colombian Caribbean. Chapters 1, 2 and 3 introduce themes of general interest, from an introduction of the zoology of mollusks to the interaction of man and mollusks to a brief characterization of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. While the fourth chapter, making up the bulk of the work, is the result of the authors' decade-long dedication to research and collection, it includes the species of mollusks known to the Colombian Caribbean, accompanied by a brief description and notes on the preferred habitats and ranges of geographic distribution.

The Spanish language 291-page catalog was published in 1994 by Colciencias and Fundacion Natura Colombia, A.A. 55402, Santafe de Bogota, Colombia.


Allan, D. and Nuttall, R. 1995. South Africa - the rainbow country. World Birdwatch 17(1): 10-13. (Environmental problems)

Anderson, E. 1995. Is Echinocereus lindsayi extinct in the wild? Cactus & Succ. J. (U.S.) 67(2): 113. (Mexico)

Anderson, E. 1995. The "peyote gardens" of south Texas: a conservation ethic? Cactus & Succ. J. (U.S.) 67(2): 67-73.

Anon. 1995. Crush of Rwandan refugees threatens mountain gorilla's habitat. Int. Wildlife 25(3): 28. (Virunga National Park, victim of civil war)

Anon. 1995. IUCN surveys Vietnamese pheasants, recommends action to save them. Int. Wildlife 25(3): 28.

Anon. 1995. Operation renegade targets bird smuggling. End. Species Bull. 20(2): 7.

Anon. 1995. Safer - but not secure. World Birdwatch 17(1): 3. (White-headed duck, Burdur Lake, Turkey)

Anon. 1995. Slender-billed curlew sighting. World Birdwatch 17(1): 4. (Italy)

Anon. 1995. Some whales improve, but river dolphins face increased risk. Int. Wildlife 25(3): 28. (IUCN Species Survival Commission's action plan)

Anon. 1995. A symbol of wilderness returns. End. Species Bull. 20(2): 16-17. (Gray wolf in Yellowstone National Park and Idaho)

Baert, L. 1994. Notes on the status of terrestrial arthropods in Galapagos. Noticias de Galapagos 54: 15-21. (Galapagos)

Baggett, D. 1995. Improved installation of artificial cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23(1): 101-102.

Boesman, P. and Curson, J. 1995. Grey-headed warbler. Cotinga 3: 35-41. (Endangered species)

Brace, R., Hesse, A. and White, A. 1995. The endemic macaws of Bolivia. Cotinga 3: 27-30. (Threatened species)

Bury, R. and Corn, P. 1995. Have desert tortoises undergone a long-term decline in abundance? Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23(1): 41-47.

Butman, C., Carlton, J. and Palumbi, S. 1995. Whaling effects on deep-sea biodiversity. Conservation Biology 9(2): 462-464.

Carey, J. 1995. Embattled behemoths. Int. Wildlife 25(3): 4-13. (Pollution challenging whale's survival)

Cater, E. 1995. Environmental contradictions in sustainable tourism. Geographical J. 161(1): 21-28.

Cayot, L. and Lewis, E. 1994. Recent increase in killing of giant tortoises on Isabela Island. Noticias de Galapagos 54: 2-7. (Galapagos)

Chessman, B. 1995. Rapid assessment of rivers using macroinvertebrates: a procedure based on habitat-species sampling, family level identification and a biotic index. Australian J. Botany 20(1): 122-129.

Clark, T., Reading, R. and Clark, A. (Eds). 1994. Endangered Species Recovery: Finding the Lessons, Improving the Process. Island Press, Washington, DC. 450 pp.

Cole, F., Loope, L., Medeiros, A., Raikes, J. and Wood, C. 1995. Conservation implications of introduced game birds in high- elevation Hawaiian shrubland. Conservation Biology 9(2): 306-313.

Cree, A., Daugherty, C. and Hay, J. 1995. Reproduction of a rare New Zealand reptile, the Tuatara Sphenodon punctatus, on rat-free and rat-inhabited islands. Conservation Biology 9(2): 373-383.

Diaz, J. and Hegedus, M. 1994. Moluscos del Caribe Colombiano. Un Catalogo Ilustrado. Colciencias and Fundacion Natura, Bogota, Colombia. 291 pp.

Elisabetsky, E. and Shanley, P. 1994. Ethnopharmacology in the Brazilian Amazon. Pharmac. Ther. 64: 201-214.

Epperly, S., Braun, J. and Veishlow, A. 1995. Sea turtles in North Carolina waters. Conservation Biology 9(2): 384-395.

Fitzsimmons, N., Buskirk, S. and Smith, M. 1995. Population history, genetic variability, and horn growth in bighorn sheep. Conservation Biology 9(2): 314-323. (Rocky Mountains, USA)

Forrester, B. 1995. Rio Branco endemics. Cotinga 3: 51-53. (Brazilian birds)

Foster, M. and Humphrey, S. 1995. Use of highway underpasses by Florida panthers and other wildlife. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23(1): 95-100.

Gillett, G., Howell, J. and Leschke, H. 1995. A Flora of Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. California Native Plant Society Press, Sacramento, CA. 216 pp. (Revised by V. Oswald, D. and M. Showers; indicates rarity)

Goodall, B. 1995. Environmental auditing: a tool for assessing the environmental performance of tourism firms. Geographical J. 161(1): 29-37.

Goodman, S. 1995. Rattus on Madagascar and the dilemma of protecting the endemic rodent fauna. Conservation Biology 9(2): 450-453.

Growns, J., Chessman, B., McEvoy, P. and Wright, I. 1995. Rapid assessment of rivers using macroinvertebrates: case studies in the Nepean River and Blue Mountains, NSW. Australian J. Ecology 20(1): 130-141.

Hagan, J. 1995. Private industrial forests and bird conservation in the northeastern United States. End. Species UPDATE 12(1 & 2): 1-5.

Harris, J. 1995. The use of fish in ecological assessments. Australian J. Ecology 20(1): 65-80.

Heinen, J., Yonzon, P. and Leisure, B. 1995. Fighting the illegal fur trade in Kathmandu, Nepal. Conservation Biology 9(2): 246-254.

Hongfa, X. and Giles, Jr. R. 1995. A view of wildlife management in China. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23(1): 18-25.

Huenneke, L. and Thomson, J. 1995. Potential interference between a threatened endemic thistle and an invasive nonnative plant. Conservation Biology 9(2): 416-425. (Dipsacus sylvestris invading habitat of Cirsium vinaceum in California)

Humphrey, C., Faith, D. and Dostine, P. 1995. Baseline requirements for assessment of mining impact using biological monitoring. Australian J. Ecology 20(1): 150-166.

Hyman, R. 1995. Open season on the woolly mammoth. Int. Wildlife 25(3): 16-22. (Hunt for its ivory continues)

Jenny, J. 1995. Argentine pampa. Cotinga 3: 58-59. (Reserva Natural "Federico Wildermuth")

Joshi, A., Garshelis, D. and Smith, J. 1995. Home ranges of sloth bears in Nepal: implications for conservation. J. Wildlife Management 59(2): 204-214.

Kelly, D. 1994. Demography and conservation of Botrychium australe, a peculiar, sparse mycorrhizal fern. New Zealand J. Bot. 32(4): 401-408.

Kershaw, M., Mace, G. and Williams, P. 1995. Threatened status, rarity, and diversity as alternative selection measures for protected areas: a test using Afrotropical antelopes. Conservation Biology 9(2): 324-334.

Knight, R., Wallace, G. and Riebsame, W. 1995. Ranching the view: subdivisions versus agriculture. Conservation Biology 9(2): 459-461.

Lammertink, M. 1995. Ivory-billed woodpecker. Cotinga 3: 45-47.

Leslie, D., Ionescu, O., Tissescu, A. and Nicolescu, N-V 1995. Wildlife conservation and education in Romania. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23(1): 12-17.

Lieberman, S. 1994. Can CITES save the box turtle? End. Species Tech. Bull. 19(5): 1, 16-17. (United States)

Lieberman, S. 1995. Improving international controls on wildlife trade. End. Species Bull. 20(2): 8-13.

Linnell, J. and Andersen, R. 1995. Site tenacity in roe deer: short-term effects of logging. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 23(1): 31-35.

Little, R. and Crowe, T. 1995. Conservation implications of deciduous fruit farming on birds in the Elgin District, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Trans. Royal Soc. South Africa 49(2): 185-198.

Lombard, A., Nicholls, A. and August, P. 1995. Where should nature reserves be located in South Africa? A snake's perspective. Conservation Biology 9(2): 363-372.

Marine Mammal Commission. 1995. Annual Report to Congress 1994. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC. 270 pp.

Marquez, C., Gordillo, J. and Tupiza, A. 1994. The fire of 1994 and herpetofauna of southern Isabela. Noticias de Galapagos 54: 8-10. (Galapagos)

Matteson, S. 1994. Conservation of endangered, threatened and nongame birds 1 July to 30 June 1994. Passenger Pigeon 56(4): 247-262.

Mech, L. 1995. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations. Conservation Biology 9(2): 270-278. (USA)

Mills, L. 1995. Edge effects and isolation: red-backed voles on forest remnants. Conservation Biology 9(2): 395-403. (Oregon)

Mitchell, A. and Wells, L. 1995. The threatened birds of Cuba project. Cotinga 3: 42-44.

Mladenoff, D., Sickley, T., Haight, R. and Wydeven, A. 1995. A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the northern Great Lakes Region. Conservation Biology 9(2): 279-294. (Wisconsin, Michigan)

Moran, D. 1994. Debt-swaps for hot-spots: more needed. Biodiversity Letters 2(4): 63-66.

Ng, P. 1994. Peat swamp fishes of Southeast Asia - diversity under threat. Wallaceana W73: 1-6.

Ng, P. and Wee, Y. (Eds). 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened Plants and Animals of Singapore. Nature Society (Singapore), Singapore. 343 pp.

Norton, D., Hobbs, R. and Atkins, L. 1995. Fragmentation, disturbance, and plant distribution: mistletoes in woodland remnants in the western Australian wheatbelt. Conservation Biology 9(2): 426-438.

Noss, R. and Murphy, D. 1995. Endangered species left homeless in sweet home. Conservation Biology 9(2): 229- 232. (Oregon)

Orr, D. 1995. Conservation and conservatism. Conservation Biology 9(2): 242-245.

Oswald, V. and Ahart, L. 1995. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Butte County, California. California Native Plant Society Press, Sacramento, CA. 348 pp. (Includes rarity status)

Palomares, F., Gaona, P., Ferreras, P. and Delibes, M. 1995. Positive effects on game species of top predators by controlling smaller predator populations: an example with lynx, mongooses, and rabbits. Conservation Biology 9(2): 295-305. (Spain)

Parson, E. and Greene, O. 1995. The complex chemistry of the international ozone agreements. Environment 37(2): 16-20, 35-43.

Patterson, B. 1994. Accumulating knowledge on the dimensions of biodiversity: systematic perspectives on Neotropical mammals. Biodiversity Letters 2(4): 79-86.

Pearman, M. and Abadie, E. 1995. Sickle-winged nightjar. Cotinga 3: 12-14. (South American bird)

Peterson, I. 1995. Lull in the battle over pinelands, as all wonder what Whitman will do. New York Times (Metro) April 23: 42. (New Jersey)

Powell, G. and Bjork, R. 1995. Implications of intratropical migration on reserve design: a case study using Pharomachrus mocinno. Conservation Biology 9(2): 354-362. (Resplendent quetzal, Mexico and Central America)

Quigley, H. 1995. On the trail of Russia's leopards. Int. Wildlife 25(3): 38-41.

Roy, M. 1995. Unity of voice in endangered species recovery. Conservation Biology 9(2): 457-458.

Ryol, C. 1995. Red data bird: black-faced spoonbill. World Birdwatch 17(1): 18-19.

Saharjo, B. 1994. Deforestation with reference to Indonesia. Wallaceana W73: 7-12.

Schatt, C. 1995. DBG cactus experts are monitoring two threatened species in Texas. Sonoran Quarterly 49(1): 4-5. (Echinocereus chisoensis and Sclerocactus (Neolloydia) mariposensis, Desert Botanical Garden)

Schedvin, N., Cook, S. and Thornton, I. 1994. The diversity of bats on the Krakatau islands in the early 1990s. Biodiversity Letters 2(4): 87-92.

Simon, N. 1993. The Guinness Guide to Nature in Danger. Guinness Publishing, Middlesex, UK. 240 pp.

Simonetti, J. 1995. Wildlife conservation outside parks is a disease-mediated task. Conservation Biology 9(2): 454-456.

Stanley, Jr., T. 1995. Ecosystem management and the arrogance of humanism. Conservation Biology 9(2): 255-262.

Swensen, S., Allan, G., Howe, M., Elisens, W., Junak, S. and Rieseberg, L. 1995. Genetic analysis of the endangered island endemic Malacothamnus fasciculatus (Nutt.) Greene var. nesioticus (Rob.) Kearn. (Malvaceae). Conservation Biology 9(2): 404-415. (Santa Cruz Island bush mallow)

Thiollay, J. M. 1995. The role of traditional agroforests in the conservation of rain forest bird diversity in Sumatra. Conservation Biology 9(2): 335-353.

Tutin, C., Parnell, R., White, L. and Fernandez, M. 1995. Nest building by lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon: environmental influences and implications for censusing. Int. J. Primatology 16(1): 53-76.

Van Rooy, P. and Stumpel, A. 1995. Ecological impact of economic development on Sardinian herpetofauna. Conservation Biology 9(2): 263-269.

Vega-Villasante, F., Aviles, H., Busto, K., Romero-Schmidt, H. and Nolasco, H. 1995. Mexican cactus ethnobotany: the contribution of cacti to the survival of the natives of Baja California. Cactus & Succ. J. (U.S.) 67(2): 74-79.

Vogelmann, J. 1995. Assessment of forest fragmentation in southern New England using remote sensing and geographic information systems technology. Conservation Biology 9(2): 439-449.

Walsh, M. 1995. Europe's last wilderness. World Birdwatch 17(1): 6-9. (Taiga and tundra)

Whittaker, A., Carvalhaes, A. and Pacheco, J. 1995. Chestnut-headed nunlet. Cotinga 3: 48-50. (Amazonian Brazil)

Whitton, B. and Kelly, M. 1995. Use of algae and other plants for monitoring rivers. Austalian J. Ecology 20(1): 45-56.

Williams, P., Gaston, K. and Humphries, C. 1994. Do conservationists and molecular biologists value differences between organisms in the same way? Biodiversity Letters 2(4): 67-78.

Young, J. 1995. A feather in our cap. World Birdwatch 17(1): 14-17. (Kilum Mountain Forest Project, Cameroon)

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