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Department ofBotany

No. 145
June 1995

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


While the consequences of species loss are becoming a reality, the response one institution is taking will hopefully combat or stymie the current trend of degradation. One of the leading research institutions in the United States, Columbia University, has formed an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional center in response to the greatest environmental crisis of our time: the ever increasing disappearance of plant, animal and other life from our planet. The Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC) brings together Columbia University, the American Museum of Natural History, the New York Botanical Garden, the Wildlife Conservation Society (based at the Bronx Zoo) and Wildlife Preservation Trust International. The United Nations Development Programme is also linked to CERC through the department's governing panel. CERC will also utilize the many other established departments at the university, taking advantage of a large student cross-section interested in conservation.

A primary objective will be to train the future scientists and policy makers who will have to face the challenge of stemming the tide of extinctions and protecting the natural systems that support human life. A unique feature of this training center will be the integral involvement of people from major research institutions, conservation organizations, and policy bodies, as well as from the broad range of disciplines found at a major research university like Columbia.

Conservation organizations and natural science research institutions in New York are also examining their place in the environmental field, partially in response to the enthusiasm expressed by Columbia for reentry into biological conservation. Some of the objectives and goals of the Center include conducting ecological, taxonomic and genetic work and assessments of the long-term viability of selected populations of species, establishing viable protected areas, and developing techniques for ecosystem restoration. Other goals include: 1) becoming a leader in the assessment of floral, faunal, and genetic diversity, and in developing effective policy positions on biodiversity; 2) being recognized as an authoritative source. CERC hopes to become the outlet through which conservation practitioners can access the media, governments, and international agencies. The target audience is not only academics and policy makers, but the general public, whom the Center hopes to reach through the popular media and through a newsletter for non-professionals; 3) creating model programs of conservation work in countries with critical conservation needs( e.g. Belize, Brazil, Dominica, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, and Tanzania; 4) becoming the origin of information on research and clinical practice of alternative medical treatments such as Chinese, Ayurvedic and other traditional medical practices and promoting study of the integration of people and their environment.

Presently, undergraduate and graduate curriculum plans for CERC are under development, and hope to be in place by September 1995. To do this, existing courses are being consolidated and new ones created. Full programs will be offered officially during the 1996-1997 academic year. Training programs for mid-career professionals, organized as the Morningside Institute, will also be developed at this time.

For further information contact: CERC , 405 Low Library, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; Tel.: (212) 854-8186; Fax: (212) 854-8188; E-mail:; WWW Home Page:


By Kathy Kelly

Usually ads request help or information; this ad offers help. I run an international outreach project that supplies wildlife publications (books, journals, magazines, and articles) to wildlife institutions outside the United States. The objective is to provide them with reference materials. Currently I have a glut of donations and can easily share as much as 200 pounds of publications to several recipients. These materials will be free. Some examples of available literature are: college texts; wildlife books; scientific articles donated by Walter Reed Army Hospital's pathology department; veterinary, avian, mammalogy, and physical anthropology journals; American Zoologist journals, most recognized wildlife magazines (including ZooLife, Wildlife Conservation, National/International Wildlife, Natural History, Audubon, Birders' World, Zoogoers, AAZPA's Communique, AAZK's Animal Keepers Forum, etc.); Science ; Science News; American Scientist; the list goes on. Almost all of these donations are organized and stored on bookcases. I also have several hundred baby bottle nipples to share.

Anyone interested in receiving these free publications, pleae contact Kathy Kelly, National Zoological Park, 3000 Block of Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20008 or call Tel.: (202) 673-4869.


The Fish and Wildlife Service's Oklahoma Field Office has produced 30,000 posters of Oklahoma's 22 federally-listed threatened and endangered species. These large posters place an emphasis on providing important biological information, while also providing on the back of the poster, a natural history for all of the listed species, including their current status, description, range, diet, reasons for decline, and other notes of interest. The colorful posters can be used as a tool for stimulating discussions on habitat loss. The posters are being distributed without charge to schools, libraries, and teachers as well as federal, state and local agency offices. For a free copy, contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Oklahoma Field Office, 222 South Houston, Suite A, Tulsa, OK 74127; Tel.: (918) 581-7458.


The Florida Institute of Technology has a one-year visiting assistant professor position opening August 1995. The candidate will have a Ph.D with a strong background in conservation biology. Teaching experience in conservation biology and evolutionary ecology is preferred. The position will require teaching graduate classes in conservation biology and undergraduate courses in evolutionary biology and other organismic classes as required and advising undergraduate students and helping guide graduate student research. Candidates with experience in applied conservation problems related to reserve design, endangered species management and marine conservation issues are encouraged to apply. GIS laboratory facilities are available to the position. The screening process is effective immediately. Send letter, resume, and three letters of reference to Dr. Gary Wells, Head, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901-6988; Tel.: (407) 768-8000, ext. 8034; Fax: (407) 984-8461; E-mail:

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) seeks a program officer with training and experience in conservation biology and biodiversity to complement the extensive research strengths of the Museum in systematics. The program officer will build a strong collaborative research program with AMNH curators and external environmental organizations.

Candidates must have a Ph.D. or MS degree in a biodiversity- related science and have a deep understanidng of conservation biology, systematic biology and recognition in research related to these fields. Applicants must have excellent writing and oral communication skills and a demonstrated ability to raise funds for research. Those with interest and experience in integrating science and policy, knowledge of environmental organizations, and leadership of projects involving diverse collaborators are particularly encouraged to apply. The program officer, together with the Center directors and AMNH curators, will plan and coordinate a national and international program of biodiversity research.

Applications, including a current CV, a narrative statement of program interests, salary requirements and the names, phone and fax numbers, addresses and e-mail address of three references, should be sent to: Francesca T. Grifo, Director, Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024; Tel.: (212) 769-5742; Fax: (212) 769-5495; E-mail: Applications must be received by July 20, 1995.


The conservation of plants is one of the most vital -- but still neglected -- issues of our time. Plants form the basis for life on earth, yet they are threatened as never before. Plant Talk, published quarterly by the Botanical Information Company, Ltd., of England, is a new magazine created to address the global issues of plant conservation. The format of Plant Talk is designed for anyone interested in the development, techniques, and activities of plant conservation. Each issue includes a feature explaining the techniques of plant conservation; inspirational stories of conservationists' successes; news of threats to plants and their habitats around the world; reviews of Red Data Books -- the vital books listing endangered plants; reports on Floras and Checklists; and information on new protected areas for plants. Reports on trade in rare plants will also be a frequent feature. Plant Talk is available only by subscription; Individuals (US $25); Organizations (US$ 60). To subscribe or receive a free introductory copy, please contact: Plant Talk, PO Box 65226, Tucson, AZ 85728-5226; outside the U.S.: Plant Talk, PO Box 400, Richmond, Surrey TW10 7XJ, UK.


August 5-11. The 5th Congress of Neotropical Ornithology will hold its conference in Asuncion, Paraguay to discuss the conservation and management of neotropical birds and their parent ecosystems. Specialists and scientists on birds of the Americas will participate in this week-long event discussing methodologies, discoveries, and developments which have taken place in the last four years in the Neotropics. With the theme, "Birds without borders", there will be a strong focus on the migration of birds, local and long distance. This theme and the conference hope to emphasis that an environment without birds is the first indication of the degradation and the impoverishment of the quality of life.

For more information, contact: Nancy Lopez de Kochalka, General Secretary V CON, c/o INTERTOURS, Mcal. Estigarribia 1097 y Brasil, Asuncion, Paraguay; Tel.: (595-21) 331-954; Fax: (595- 21) 211870; E-mail:

September 27-30. The Midwest Oak Savanna and Woodland Ecosystem Conference will be held in Springfield, Missouri at the University Plaza Hotel. Currently the oak savannas and woodlands, which were historically an important component of the North American landscape, are endangered. Many agencies, organizations, and individuals are engaged in research and management efforts to restore the biological integrity and complexity of these ecosystems. The goal of this meeting will be to focus scientific and public interest on midwestern oak savannas and woodlands, exchange knowledge about the biotic and abiotic processes that shape them, and expose resource stewards to the best available knowledge on the restoration and management of these rich systems. Information will be shared through invited and submitted technical papers and field-oriented workshops. For more information, contact: Dr. Ernie P. Wiggers, School of Natural Resources, 112 Stephens Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211; Tel.: (314) 882-9423; Fax:(314) 884-5070; E-mail:


Andrade, G. 1995. Ahora Utria regional. Tropico 4(1): 2. (Fundacion Natura, Colombia)

Anon. 1995. Bounty island's biodiversity threatened. Plant Talk 1: 10. (Henderson Island, World Heritage Site)

Anon. 1995. Canada's ecological catastrophe: an international scandal. Plant Talk 1: 7-8. (Temperate rainforests of British Columbia)

Anon. 1995. Colombian forest find. Pan American News 10(1): 3. (Brown-banded Antpitta rediscovered in Colombian Andes)

Anon. 1995. Ecotourism: conservation tool or threat? CONSERVATION ISSUES 2(3): 1, 3-10.

Anon. 1995. Endangered Species Act under attack: what's really at risk. FOCUS 17(3): 5.

Anon. 1995. Fire and axe in Sumatra and Borneo. Plant Talk 1: 11. (Nearly 5 million ha. of rainforest destroyed)

Anon. 1995. La Fundacion se pronuncia sobre el proyecto de construccion del tramo final de la carretera Panamericana en el "tapon del Darien". Tropico 4(1): 4. (Fundacion Natura, Colombia)

Anon. 1995. Overfishing threatens marine diversity. FOCUS 17(3): 6.

Anon. 1995. Protecting the monkey puzzle. Plant Talk 1: 8. (Araucaria araucana, threatened in Chile's temperate coniferous forests)

Anon. 1995. Ray of hope for forests in the Solomon Islands. Plant Talk 1: 10. (Logging controls in effect)

Anon. 1995. Restoring the Everglades ecosystem. FOCUS 17(3): 6. (Florida)

Anon. 1995. WWF's forest carnivore project will protect wolves, grizzlies. FOCUS 17(3): 1. (North America)

Anon. 1995. WWF studying the effect of climate change on U.S. parks. FOCUS 17(3): 3.

Anon. 1995. WWF team rediscovers woolly flying squirrel. FOCUS 17(3): 3. (Pakistan)

Bakker-Cole, M. 1995. Back from extinct. BBC Wildlife 13(5): 58. (Last captive-born oryx herd in Oman)

Barr, C. 1995. Update on critical habitat for Hawaiian threatened and endangered plants. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Bot. Society 34(1): 8-9.

Bartgis, R. and Maddox, D. 1995. Designing and implementing a riverine preserve for the endangered Ptlimnium nodosum: Sideling Hill Creek as a case study. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 42-49. (Pennsylvania)

Bass, R. 1995. The woodland caribou. They're still out there. Audubon 97(3): 76-84, 114-115. (Idaho, Montana, Canada)

Bissell, J. 1995. Rare plants and plant communities of Presque Isle. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 2-8. (Pennsylvania)

Blackstock, T., Stevens, J., Howe, E. and Stevens, D. 1995. Changes in the extent and fragmentation of heathland and other semi-natural habitats between 1920-22 and 1987-88 in the Llyn Peninsula, Wales, UK. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 33-44.

Bourgeron, R., Engelking, L., Humphries, H., Muldavin, E. and Moir, W. 1995. Assessing the conservation value of Gray Ranch: rarity, diversity, and representativeness. Desert Plants 11(2-3): 1-68. (New Mexico)

Branckaert, R. 1995. Minilivestock: sustainable animal resource for food security. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 336-338.

Cabrera-Perez, M. 1995. Explant establishment in the micropropagation of Globularia ascanii, a threatened species from Gran Canaria. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(8): 111-113.

Chadwick, D. and March, J. (Eds.). 1994. Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 280 pp. (CIBA Foundation Symposium 185)

Cherfas, J. 1995. Goats must go to save the Galapagos tortoises. New Scientist 146(1973): 9.

Clancy, K. 1995. Selected rare and historical vascular plants of Delaware. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 75-92.

Cohn, J. 1995. Defending the environment. Zoogoer 24(3): 12-22. (Department of Defense facilities preserve critical habitats)

Cole, C. and Bratton, S. 1995. Freshwater wetlands of Cape Hatteras National Seashore: water quality in a resort setting. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 136-147. (North Carolina)

Cooke, J. 1994. The management of whaling. Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 129-136.

Cooper, J. E. 1995. The role of birds in sustainable food production. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 266-280.

Cooper, J. E. 1995. Wildlife species for sustainable food production. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 215-219.

Cooper, M. 1995. Legal and ethical aspects of new wildlife food sources. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 322-335.

Coram, R. 1995. Water worlds. Audubon 97(3): 38-41. (12 national marine sanctuaries in the USA)

Davis, A. 1995. County natural areas inventory. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 58-60.

DeFoliart, G. 1995. Edible insects as minilivestock. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 306-321.

Diamond, D., Rowell, G. and Keddy-Hector, D. 1995. Conservation of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) woodlands of the Central Texas Hill Country. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 189-197.

Diffendorfer, J., Gaines, M. and Holt, R. 1995. Habitat fragmentation and movements of three small mammals (Sigmodon, Microtus, and Peromyscus). Ecology 76(3): 827-839.

Donahue, J. and Lopez, C. 1995. Observations on Pinus maximartinezii Rzed. Madrono 42(1): 19-25. (Rare species; 2,000-2,500 mature individuals in 400 ha in Zacatecas, Mexico)

Estes, J. 1994. Conservation of marine otters. Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 125-128.

Feron, E. 1995. New food sources, conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development: can unconventional animal species contribute to feeding the world? Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 233-240.

Frelich, L. 1995. Old forest in the Lake States today and before European settlement. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 157-167. (Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin)

Gerlach, J. 1995. Big shell shock. BBC Wildlife 13(5): 12. (Giant tortoise thought extinct found on Aldabra)

Given, D. and Harris, W. 1994. Techniques and Methods of Ethnobotany. Commonwealth Secretariat, London, England. 148 pp.

Gonzalez-Benito, E., Martin, C. and Iriondo, J. 1995. Autecology and conservation of Erodium paularense Fdez. Glez. & Izco. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 55-60.

Graham, A. and Graham Jr., F. 1995. Life drawing. Audubon 97(3): 72-75. (Botanist-painter, Kate Furbish, best known for discovering the Furbish's lousewort in 1880, endangered US plant)

Gretch, M. 1995. Status of northern harrier in the Champlain Valley of Clinton County, New York. The Kingbird 45(1): 11-13. (Threatened)

Grilz, P. and Romo, J. 1995. Management considerations for controlling smooth brome in fescue prairie. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 148-156. (Canada)

Helvarg, D. 1995. Blue frontiers. Audubon 97(3): 42- 52. (Marine sanctuaries)

Henrickson, G. and Haug, T. 1994. Status of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina in Finnmark, North Norway. Fauna Norv. Ser. A. 15(1): 19-24.

Holmes, B. 1995. Saving Snake River's wild salmon. New Scientist 146(1974): 14-15. (Washington, Oregon, California)

Iriondo, J., Hond, L. de and Gomez-Campo, C. 1994. Current research on the biology of threatened plant species of the Mediterranean Basin and Macaronesia: a database. Bocconea 4: 1-383.

Jones, S. 1995. The first hundred days of the 104th Congress: impacts on endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 12(3): 8-10. (USA)

Jori, F., Mensah, G. and Adjanohoun, E. 1995. Grasscutter production: an example of rational exploitation of wildlife. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 257-265.

Katz, D. (Ed.). 1995. Tales from the Jungle: A Rainforest Reader. Crown Trade Paperbacks. (Rare plants)

Klemens, M. and Thorbjarnarson, J. 1995. Reptiles as a food resource. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 281-298.

Klotz, L. and Walck, J. 1995. Rare vascular plants associated with limestone in southwestern Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 16-41. (Pennsylvania)

Kock, R. 1995. Wildlife utilization: use it or lose it - a Kenyan perspective. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 241-256.

Kovac, J. 1995. Micropropagation of Dianthus arenarius subsp. bohemicus - an endangered endemic from the Czech Republic. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(8): 106-108.

Kucera, T. and Zielinski, W. 1995. The case of forest carnivores: small packages, big worries. End. Species UPDATE 12(3): 1-7. (USA)

Latham, R. 1995. The serpentine barrens of temperate eastern North America: critical issues in the management of rare species and communities. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 61-74.

Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R. 1994. River dolphins: a review of the plans of the cetacean specialist group. Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 137-154.

Lee, G. 1995. Learn from nature. Washington Post May 10: H1, H7. (A veteran ecotourist picks 10 favorite destinations: Surinam, Madagascar, Chesapeake Bay, Glacier Bay, Costa Rica, Blackwater National Wildlife Reserve, Himalayas, Belize, Florida, Siberia)

Longman, K. 1994. Preparing to Plant Tropical Trees. Commonwealth Secretariat, London, England. 238 pp.

MacKenzie, D. 1995. Can the coelacanth be saved? New Scientist 146(1975): 6. (Comoros Islands, Indian Ocean)

MacMillan, S. 1995. Restoration of an extirpated red-sided garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis population in the Interlake region of Manitoba, Canada. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 13-16.

Marsh, H., Rathbun, G., O'Shea, T. and Preen, A. 1995. Can dugongs survive in Palau? Biol. Conservation 72(1): 85-90.

Marsh, N. and Adams, M. 1995. Decline of Eucalyptus tereticornis near Bairnsdale, Victoria: insect herbivory and nitrogen fractions in sap and foliage. Australian J. Bot. 43(1): 39-50.

McDonald, D. and Cowling, R. 1995. Towards a profile of an endemic mountain fynbos flora: implications for conservation. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 1-12. (South Africa)

McJannet, C., Argus, G. and Cody, W. 1994. Rare Vascular Plants in the Northwest Territories. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada. 104 pp. (206 species)

Morgan, J. 1995. Ecological studies of the endangered Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides. I. Seed production, soil seed bank dynamics, population density and their effects on recruitment. Australian J. Bot. 43(1): 1-11.

Morgan, J. 1995. Ecological studies of the endangered Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides. II. Patterns of seedling emergence and survival in a native grassland. Australian J. Bot. 43(1): 13-24.

Mustart, P., Juritz, J., Makua, C., Van der Merwe, S. and Wessells, N. 1995. Restoration of the Clanwilliam cedar Widdringtonia cedarbergensis: the importance of monitoring seedlings planted in the Cederberg, South Africa. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 73-76.

Nelson, J. 1995. The New Forest, England: a threatened landscape of global significance. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 168-174. (Largest area of wild or "unsown" vegetation in lowland Britain)

Northington, D. and Muench, D. 1995. Flowers for the future. The Garden 120(5): 274-279. (US endangered plants at National Wildflower Research Center, Texas)

Ojeda, F., Arroyo, J. and Maranon, T. 1995. Biodiversity components and conservation of Mediterranean heathlands in southern Spain. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 61-72.

Oldfield, S. 1995. Plants and the 1994 CITES conference. Plant Talk 1: 12-13.

Palmer, M. 1995. How should one count species? Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 124-135.

Parr, S., Collin, P., Silk, S., Wilbraham, J., Williams, N. and Yarar, M. 1995. A baseline survey of lesser kestrels Falco naumanni in central Turkey. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 45-54.

Pence, V. and Soukup, V. 1995. Propagation of the rare Trillium persistens in vitro. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(8): 109-110. (Rare plant of Georgia and South Carolina)

Prendergast, J. and Eversham, B. 1995. Butterfly diversity in southern Britain: hotspot losses since 1930. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 109-114.

Prestrud, P. and Sterling, I. 1994. The international polar bear agreement and the current status of polar bear conservation. Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 113-124.

Putnam, C. 1995. Birds on the brink. BBC Wildlife 13(5): 11. (Ground finches)

Raez, E. 1995. Proyecto cuenca del rio Valle: nueva etapa. Tropico 4(1): 3. (Fundacion Natura project in Choco, Colombia)

Revol, B. 1995. Crocodile farming and conservation, the example of Zimbabwe. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(3): 299-305.

Robisch, E. and Wright, R. 1995. A survey of ungulate management in selected U.S. national parks. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 117-123.

Ronse, A. 1995. Micropropagation of two Chilean Jovellana species. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 1(8): 102- 103.

Rowe, R. and Cronk, Q. 1995. Applying molecular techniques to plant conservation: screening genes for survival. Plant Talk 1: 18-19.

Sajeva, M. and Costanzo, M. 1994. Succulents. The Illustrated Dictionary. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 239 pp. (Lists plants threatened by trade)

Sankaran, R. 1995. The distribution, status and conservation of the Nicobar megapode Megapodius nicobariensis. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 17-26.

Sillero-Zubiri, C., Tattersall, F. and MacDonald, D. 1995. Habitat selection and daily activity of giant molerats Tachyoryctes macrocephalus: significance to the Ethiopian wolf Canis simensis in the Afroalpine ecosystem. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 77-84.

Sisinni, S. and Emmerich, A. 1995. Methodologies, results, and applications of natural resource assessments in New York City. Nat. Areas J. 15(2): 175-188.

Sizer, N. 1995. Suriname's fire sale. New York Times May 14: E15. (Selling of forests to Asian loggers)

Snyder, D. 1995. Extinct, extant, extirpated or historical? Or in defense of historical species. Bartonia 57(Suppl.): 50-57. (Pennsylvania)

Stap, D. 1995. Florida's ancient shores. Audubon 97(3): 36-37. (Apalachicola River in Florida, home to rare plants)

Stewart, A., Pearman, D. and Preston, C. (Eds.). 1994. Scarce Plants in Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, England. 515 pp. (325 declining species)

Stutz, B. 1995. The sea cucumber war. Audubon 97(3): 16, 18. (Overfishing threatens marine species of Galapagos Islands)

Synder, G. 1995. Cultivating wildness. Audubon 97(3): 64-71. (Efforts to rebuild Sierra Nevada ecosystem, California)

Synge, H. 1995. The Biodiversity Convention explained. Plant Talk 1: 14-15. (Introduction and objectives)

Tanden, V. and Thayil, S. 1995. Saving medicinal plants in South India. Plant Talk 1: 16-17.

Thorp, R. and Leong, J. 1995. Native bee pollinators of vernal pool plants. Fremontia 23(2): 3-7. (California)

Thouless, C. and Sakwa, J. 1995. Shocking elephants: fences and crop raiders in Laikipia District, Kenya. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 99-108.

Tubbs, C. 1995. Siege of the wildwood. BBC Wildlife 13(5): 28-30. (New Forest, England threatened)

Urbanska, K. 1994. Ecological restoration above the timberline: demographic monitoring of whole trial plots in the Swiss Alps. Botanica Helvetica 104(2): 141-156.

Veitch, N., Webb, N. and Wyatt, B. 1995. The application of geographic information systems and remotely sensed data to the conservation of heathland fragments. Biol. Conservation 72(1): 91-98.

Watkins, T. 1995. Beyond mile zero. Wilderness 58(208): 9-14, 30-31. (Arctic National Wildlife Refuge)

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