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Department ofBotany

No. 146
July 1995

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


By Argelis Roman

Scientists and researchers from biological biosphere reserves throughout the Americas spent two days at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History applying different procedures for gathering and disseminating information electronically during the EcoNetAmerica Workshop, May 21 and 22, 1995.

The Smithsonian Institution/Man and the Biosphere (SI/MAB) and the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program organized the session for participants to gain experience using BioMon, a biodiversity monitoring database and associated protocol for data collection, developed by Francisco Dallmeier (Director of SI/MAB) and James Comiskey (data manager). BioMon is an integrated, computerized data management system with a focus on global forest biodiversity, but the system is designed to incorporate future links to research on other taxa.

Participants also examined the ecological measuring and monitoring program taking place in Europe and North America known as Biosphere Reserve Integrated Monitoring Programme (BRIM) and were also introduced to the MABFauna, a biological inventory computerized system, developed by the University of California at Davis, which has been tested at more than 60 biosphere reserves.

The ultimate goal is that through exchange of information scientists and the countries they represent can gain a thorough understanding of how ecosystems function, for the purpose of better managing their resources for the future.

Attending the workshop were 30 representatives from Latin American countries, Canada, Russia, and Germany. The participants developed a strategy work plan to ultimately electronically connect the 100 biological biosphere reserves in the Western Hemisphere.


The alarming decrease in Haiti's marine life over the years has caused a noticeable increase in land clearance for farming. This has in turn increased soil erosion which, undoubtedly, affects the flora and fauna of the ocean in a negative way. In an effort to maintain the delicate balance of life in a society so dependent on the ocean for its economic and nutritional needs, the Fondation pour la protection de la biodiversite marine, which is a non-governmental organization dealing exclusively with the conservation and management of the marine ecosystem, has been established. It seeks to 1) identify any and all threats to the marine ecosystem and monitor its overall health, and 2) promote, through education, an awareness of the beauty and fragility of the marine environment. The foundation members include representatives of the Haitian professional, business, scientific, and literary sectors as well as the scuba diving club. For more information contact: Fondation pour la protection de la biodiversite marine, FoProBiM, PO Box 642, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; Tel.:(509) 45-2335.


The World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, "Science for Better Management and Understanding", requests papers for its September 1996 meeting in Cairns, Far North Queensland, Australia. The goal of the meeting is to provide an international forum for presentation of current scientific research on tropical forests; to provide an interface among scientists, managers, indigenous people and property owners to discuss the applications of scientific research and indigenous wisdom to World Heritage tropical forest protection, presentation and management; and to identify priorities for future research and management necessary for fulfilling the goals of the World Heritage Convention. The organizing committee has identified the following themes around which the conference program will be developed: 1) understanding World Heritage tropical forests and their conservation needs, 2) managing the use of World Heritage tropical forests, and 3) indigenous perspectives on understanding and managing World Heritage tropical forests. The organizing committee invites suggestions for additional topics relevant to the central theme. Potential presenters are invited to submit brief synopses addressing a topic related to the conference theme by October 30, 1995. The conference presentation formats will include: long papers (20 minutes plus ten minutes discussion), short papers (ten minutes plus five minutes discussion), posters (five minute address), and workshops. For more detailed information, contact: World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, PO Box 1280, MILTON QLD 4064, Australia; Tel.: (07) 3369 0477; Int: (617) 3369 0477; Fax: (07) 3369 1512; Int: (617) 3369 1512; E-mail:


September 11-14. The Second Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference will be held in Flagstaff, Arizona. Authors with topics concerning rare plants in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah are invited to submit abstracts. Proceedings will be published. For further information, contact: Dr. Joyce Maschinski, The Arboretum at Flagstaff, PO Box 670, Flagstaff, AZ 86002; Tel.: (602) 774-1441; E-mail:

September 25-29. Planning is now under way for the Fourth International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress to be held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Perth, Australia. The program highlights will include workshops and hands-on training sessions on germplasm storage, conservation genetics, tissue culture, garden management and funding. Plenary sessions will contain overviews of current trends and issues in botanic garden conservation. Full registration before July 24, is $400 (Australian Dollars), student, with signed letter from the head of their department, and endorsement as a full-time student, is AD $150, and day delegate is AD $200. After the July deadline, prices are slightly higher. For more information, contact: 4th International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress, C/- Congress West, PO Box 1248, West Perth WA 6872, Australia; Fax: 61 9 322 1734.


The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society, has recently developed a new program, the Critical Ocean Wildlife Recovery Initiative (COWRI), to address the problems of declining populations of marine fish and other ocean resources from overuse and mismanagement. COWRI has three program areas: research on critically affected ocean species and habitats; marine conservation policy; and public awareness and conservation education. Initially WCS is focusing COWRI on fisheries, highly migratory ocean giants (sharks, bluefin tuna, swordfish, and marlin), and coral reefs. This builds on WCS's long history of field-based research and conservation in the marine environment, including projects in Belize and Kenya on corals, reef management and effects of fishing on reef ecosystems, and many projects on marine mammals particularly in Argentina and Peru related to growing conflicts with local fisheries. Concurrently, the development of a coral research facility in the Osborn Labs has expanded capabilities for basic research on corals.

As an important part of the COWRI program WCS is seeking to fill a new position: Scientist, Fisheries Ecology. The successful candidate will be the program manager for fish/fisheries conservation programs within COWRI. The fisheries ecologist will be responsible for WCS's efforts to conserve fish species and fisheries, will conduct scientific research and field projects related to this work, and will be WCS's representative in collaborations with other major conservation organizations focused on aquatic/fishery issues. Requirements: Ph.D. or equivalent experience in fisheries ecology or closely related field, strong modeling background, and demonstrated interpersonal, presentation and team management skills. Salary and title commensurate with experience. Send curriculum vitae, a summary statement of conservation, policy, and research interests, and references to: Director of Human Resources, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx Zoo, 185th St. and Southern Blvd., Bronx, NY 10460.


While the American West is experiencing rapid population growth, its native biodiversity is suffering from the westward expansion infringing on its space. Recently, the Colorado State University, Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, produced two videos dealing with the implications of population growth in the American West and its biodiversity.

Subdividing the West: Implications of Growth examines aspects pertaining to this most recent Western expansion. Included in this examination is a focus on the societal drives and motivations behind this rush on the land, and how the different values and perspectives are affecting western communites and cultures. Suggestions that may minimize impacts of growth on wildlife and open spaces are also discussed. Another video, 40-minutes of Saving the American West: Protecting Open Space, explores a variety of approaches being used to protect open space in the West. This video contains footage from a symposium at Colorado State University on growth and its impacts on the American West. Cost for each video is $10 to cover duplication and postage. Requests for the videos should be sent to: Instructional Services, Colorado State University, A71 Clark Bld., Fort Collins, CO 80523.


The Coastal Resources Center at the University of Rhode Island will be sponsoring a regional training program for the Latin American and Caribbean region in 1995. The program, Manejo Integrado de Zonas Costeras, will be held September 11-22, in San Pedro de Manglaralto and Bahia de Caraquez, Ecuador. The purpose of this course is to provide participants with practical skills to design and implement integrated management plans for coastal areas and environments. It is directed at resource management professionals and environmental planners in the Latin American and Caribbean regions, and will be offered in Spanish. The course is being jointly organized by the Coastal Resources Center at the University of Rhode Island and the Centro Nacional de Recursos Costeros of Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The course fee is US $2,500 and covers all costs of the course including food and lodging. This program is open to all applicants. For further information, contact: Director de Capacitacion, Centro de Recursos Costeros-Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Casilla de Correos 09-01-5863, Guayaquil, Ecuador; Fax: 5934-854629; E-mail: In the U.S. write to: The Training Coordinator, Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Bay Campus, Narrangansett, RI 02882; Fax: (401) 792-5436 or (401) 789-4670; E-mail:


A new quarterly journal, North American Native Orchid Journal, published by the North American Native Orchid Alliance, was launched in March. The first issue contained informative articles, illustrations, and orchid news, including a "Checklist of North American Orchids," an index to 1994 orchid literature, book reviews, and information about the Alliance.

Contributions to the journal are being accepted; contact Paul Martin Brown, Editor, 15 Dresden St., Jamaica Plain, MA 02130-4407. Membership in the North American Native Orchid Alliance, which includes a subscription to the journal, costs $22 per year. Send dues to Nancy Webb, 84 Etna St., Brighton, MA 02135.

The Threatened and Endangered Species Information Institute (TESII) has compiled two information manuals with comprehensive data on all United States animals (Volume 1) and plants (Volume 2) currently listed in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Publication: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. These volumes will be followed by the international version of animals and plants. For more information, contact: TESII, c/o Heritage Square, 18301 W. Colfax Ave., Bldg. R4, Golden, CO 80401; Tel.: (303) 278-0956; Fax: (303) 278-7276.


Aguirre, A. 1995. Front Royal international course. Biodiversity News 4: 10-11. (Report of course held in 1994)

Anon. 1995. Flora of the Pico das Almas. Kew Scientist 7: 5.

Anon. 1995. Hunting for anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Kew Scientist 7: 4. (Kew and University of Brasilia project)

Anon. 1995. Maya region. Biodiversity News 4: 19. (Possible biodiversity monitoring plots to be set up in Guatemala, Belize, Mexico)

Anon. 1995. Mono Lake saved. Nat. Wildlife 33(4): 36- 37. (California)

Anon. 1995. More protection for Garrett County jewel. The Nature Conservancy News (Maryland) 19(2): 1. (Cranesville Swamp Preserve, home of rare species)

Anon. 1994. National Institutes of Health fund new plot in Cameroon. Inside CTFS Fall: 9. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Korup National Park)

Anon. 1995. The saving of the shrew. The Nature Conservancy News (Maryland) 19(2): 6. (Southern water shrew, endangered in Garrett County, Maryland)

Avise, J. 1995. Mitochrondrial DNA polymorphism and a connection between genetics and demography of relevance to conservation. Cons. Biology 9(3): 686-690.

Aymard, G. 1995. Results from the Kwakwani plots. Biodiversity News 4: 15-16. (Monitoring plots in Guyana)

Ballard, H. and Gawler, S. 1995. Distribution, habitat and conservation of Viola novae-angliae. Michigan Botanist 33(2): 35-52.

Boza, M., Jukofsky, D. and Wille, C. 1995. Costa Rica is a laboratory, not ecotopia. Cons. Biology 9(3): 684-685.

Bunnell, F. 1995. Forest-dwelling vertebrate faunas and natural fire regimes in British Columbia: patterns and implication for conservation. Cons. Biology 9(3): 636-644.

Burkey, T. 1995. Extinction rates in archipelagoes: implications for populations in fragmented habitats. Cons. Biology 9(3): 527-541.

Caicco, S., Scott, J., Butterfield, B. and Csuti, B. 1995. A gap analysis of the management status of the vegetation of Idaho (U.S.A.). Cons. Biology 9(3): 498-511.

Carlton, J. 1995. Marine invasions and the preservation of coastal diversity. End. Species UPDATE 12((4 & 5)): 1-3.

Ceballos, G. and Brown, J. 1995. Global patterns of mammalian diversity, endemism, and endangerment. Cons. Biology 9(3): 559-568.

Chapman, C. and Chapman, L. 1995. Survival without dispersers: seedling recruitment under parents. Cons. Biology 9(3): 675-678.

Chatwin, T. 1995. In western Canada: biodiversity plots in B.C. Biodiversity News 4: 5-6. (Georgia Depression)

Chege, N. 1995. Lake Victoria: a sick giant. People & the Planet 4(2): 14-17. (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda)

Comiskey, J. and Dallmeier, F. 1995. Bisley: three post- hurricane censuses completed. Biodiversity News 4: 17-18. (Puerto Rico)

Cotterill, W. 1995. Savskill: conserving Central Africa's savannas. Biodiversity News 4: 7-8. (Biodiversity foundation)

Craib, A. 1995. Saving Malawi's silver treasure. People & the Planet 4(2): 18-21. (Ninth largest and fourth deepest lake in the world, Mozambique and Tanzania)

Dallmeier, F. 1995. Report from SI/MAB's director, Francisco Dallmeier. Biodiversity News 4: 3.

Dallmeier, F. and Comiskey, J. 1995. How the network works. Biodiversity News 4: 12-13. (SI/MAB's biodiversity measuring and monitoring process)

D'Monte, D. 1995. India's dying lakes. People & the Planet 4(2): 25-26.

Doyle, K. 1995. Wildlife super sleuths use sophisticated forensics to track poachers. E Magazine 6(2): 20-22. (National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory)

Drew, M. and Clebsch, E. 1995. Studies on the endangered Echinacea tennesseensis (Asteraceae). Castanea 60(1): 60-69.

Drysdale, C. 1995. In eastern Canada: cooperative research at Kejimkujik. Biodiversity News 4: 4-5. (Kejimkujik National Park, Canada)

Dunning, J. Jr., Borgella, R., Clements, K. and Meffe, G. 1995. Patch isolation, corridor effects, and colonization by a resident sparrow in a managed pine woodland. Cons. Biology 9(3): 542-550. (Bachman's sparrow, South Carolina)

Dupuis, L., Smith, J. and Bunnell, F. 1995. Relation of terrestrial-breeding amphibian abundance to tree-stand age. Cons. Biology 9(3): 645-654.

Echeverria, J. and Eby, R. (Eds). 1995. Let the People Judge. Island Press, Covelo, CA. 500 pp. (Wise use and the private property rights movement)

Facetti, C. 1995. Forest diversity in Paraguay. Biodiversity News 4: 9. (Itabo and Limoy Biological Reserves)

Foster, R. 1994. 50-hectare plot being established in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador. Inside CTFS Fall: 11. (Center for Tropical Forest Science)

Foster, R. 1995. Results from SI/MAB's Manu plots. Biodiversity News 4: 16. (Peru)

Fox, R. 1995. Certification: pinpointing good wood. Am. Forests 101(5 & 6): 16-17, 55-56.

Ginsberg, J., Alexander, K., Creel, S., Kat, P., Mcnutt, J. and Mills, M. 1995. Handling and survivorship of African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in five ecosystems. Cons. Biology 9(3): 665-674.

Godt, M., Hamrick, J. and Bratton, S. 1995. Genetic diversity in a threatened wetland species, Helonias bullata (Liliaceae). Cons. Biology 9(3): 596-604. (Virginia, New Jersey, Georgia, North & South Carolina)

Graham, R. 1995. Quantitative ethnobotany in Beni. Biodiversity News 4: 14-15. (Monitoring plots in Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia)

Guo-hui, K. and Zhong-liang, H. 1995. China's Dinghushan plots. Biodiversity News 4: 15. (Monitoring plots in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China)

Hart, T. and Hart, J. 1994. The Ituri Forest "Grand Placeau" project. Inside CTFS Fall: 9. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Zaire)

Haupt, L. 1995. Scientists in conservation activism. Cons. Biology 9(3): 691-693.

Hedrick, P., Hedgecock, D. and Hamelberg, S. 1995. Effective population size in winter-run chinook salmon. Cons. Biology 9(3): 615-624. (California)

Hinrichsen, D. 1995. Requiem for a dying sea. People & the Planet 4(2): 10-13. (Aral Sea, Uzbekistan)

Holmes, B. 1995. There's an endangered species on my land! Nat. Wildlife 33(4): 8-15.

Hutchings, R. 1995. Forest fragments in the Brazilian Amazon. Biodiversity News 4: 17.

Hutchison, L. and Kavanagh, K. 1995. The bird's-foot violet (Viola pedata L.) in Canada: population biology and ecology of a threatened species. Michigan Botanist 33(2): 3-16.

Hyman, J. and Wernstedt, K. 1995. A value-informed framework for interdisciplinary analysis: application to recovery planning for Snake River salmon. Cons. Biology 9(3): 625-635. (California)

Jasentuliyana, A. 1994. Sinharaja 25-hectare plot established with help of villagers and students. Inside CTFS Fall: 4-5. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Sri Lanka)

Kariyawasam, D. 1994. Balancing conservation and villagers' needs in Sinharaja. Inside CTFS Fall: 7. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Sri Lanka)

Kaye, R. 1995. Saving geese, saving himself. Nat. Wildlife 33(4): 38-43. (Goose hunting in Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge)

Khattak, G. 1995. Community involvement in resource management in the North West Frontier province of Pakistan. IUCN Forest Conservation Programme Newsletter 21: 7-9.

Linder, H. 1995. Setting conservation priorities: the importance of endemism and phylogeny in the southern African orchid genus Hershelia. Cons. Biology 9(3): 585-595. (Several rare and endangered species)

Lipske, M. 1995. Cracking down on mining pollution. Nat. Wildlife 33(4): 20-24.

Liu, J. 1994. Development of individual-based forest model from plot data. Inside CTFS Fall: 8. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Malaysia)

Lomolino, M., Creighton, J., Schnell, G. and Certain, D. 1995. Ecology and conservation of the endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus). Cons. Biology 9(3): 605-614. (Oklahoma & Arkansas)

Londono, X. 1995. Choco, Colombia. Biodiversity News 4: 19-20. (Establishment of biodiversity monitoring plots proposed at El Amargal Biological Station)

Londono, X. 1995. A new venture: Cuba's Punta Gavilanes. Biodiversity News 4: 6-7. (Monitoring biodiversity)

Losos, E. 1994. Changing forests changing agenda. Inside CTFS Fall: 1, 11. (Center for Tropical Forest Science)

Lowman, M. and Nadkarni, N. (Eds). 1995. Forest Canopies. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida. 576 pp.

Lyons, J., Navarro-Perez, S., Cochran, P., Santana, E. and Guzman-Arroyo, M. 1995. Index of biotic integrity based on fish assemblages for the conservation of streams and rivers in west- central Mexico. Cons. Biology 9(3): 569-584. (Jalisco, Michoacan)

Marsh, L., Porter, D. and Salvesen, D. (Eds.). 1995. Mitigation Banking: Theory and Practice. Island Press, Covelo, California. 225 pp.

McCormac, J., Bissell, J. and Steine, S. 1995. The status of Fraxinus tomentosa (Oleaceae) in Ohio with notes on its occurrence in Michigan and Pennsylvania. Castanea 60(1): 70-78. (Rare plant)

McCracken, C., Rose, D. and Johnson, K. 1995. Status, Management, and Commercialization of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus). WWF-US, Washington, DC.

Motavalli, J. 1995. Transforming travel. E Magazine 6(2): 38-45. (Eco-tourism, trillion-dollar industry)

Nabhan, G. 1995. The dangers of reductionism in biodiversity conservation. Cons. Biology 9(3): 479-481.

National Wildflower Research Center. 1995. Investigations into Oklahoma and Texas Native Plants: Resource Directory of Academic Personnel 1994. National Wildflower Research Center, Austin, Texas.

Newmark, W. 1995. Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Cons. Biology 9(3): 512-526.

Ng, P. K. L. 1995. A Guide to the Threatened Animals of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore. 160 pp.

Nixon, W. 1995. Can we make our forests last? Am. Forests 101(5 & 6): 14-15, 57-59.

Nurse, M., McKay, C., Young, J. and Asanga, C. 1995. Biodiversity conservation through community forestry, in the montane forests of Cameroon. IUCN Forest Conservation Programme Newsletter 21: 6-7.

Perez, R. 1994. The importance of long-term studies of tropical trees: examples from BCI. Inside CTFS Fall: 2. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Barro Colorado Island, Panama)

Price, T. 1995. Community-based management of Ron Palm in Niger. IUCN Forest Conservation Programme Newsletter 21: 9-10.

Primack, R. 1995. A Primer of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA. 200 pp.

Rabinowitz, A. 1995. Helping a species go extinct: the Sumatran rhino in Borneo. Cons. Biology 9(3): 482-488.

Randall, J. 1995. Assessment of the invasive weed problem on preserves across the United States. End. Species UPDATE 12(4 & 5): 4-6.

Ray, G. 1995. St. John's dry scrubland forest. Biodiversity News 4: 18. (Virgin Islands)

Regier, H. and Shear, H. 1995. Restoring the Great Lakes cornucopia. People & the Planet 4(2): 26-29. (USA/Canada)

Seasholes, B. 1995. Species protection and free market: mutually compatible. End. Species UPDATE 12 (4 & 5): 7-9.

Shestakov, A. 1995. Lake Baikal: a threatened jewel. People & the Planet 4(2): 22-25. (Deepest lake in the world, Russia)

Solomon, E. 1995. Sanctuary is a haven for whales in Hawaii. Sanctuary Currents Winter: 6. (Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary)

Stergios, B. 1995. First census completed in Venezuela's western llanos. Biodiversity News 4: 17.

Tan, H. T. W. 1995. A Guide to the Threatened Plants of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, Singapore. 158 pp. (Includes list of 2,282 species of vascular plants and their conservation status)

Taylor, B. 1995. The reliability of using population viability analysis for risk classification of species. Cons. Biology 9(3): 551-558.

Tenenbaum, D. 1995. Drawing a green line: Costa Rica makes audacious plans to reclaim its forests. E Magazine 6(2): 26-29. (Guanacaste Conservation Area)

Tomback, D., Clary, J., Koehler, J., Hoff, R. and Arno, S. 1995. The effects of blister rust on post-fire regeneration of whitebark pine: the Sundance burn of northern Idaho (U.S.A.). Cons. Biology 9(3): 654-664.

Voris, H. and Inger, R. 1995. Frog abundance along streams in Bornean forests. Cons. Biology 9(3): 679-683.

Wagner, F., Foresta, R., Gill, R., McCullough, D., Pelton, M., Porter, W. and Salwasser, H. 1995. Wildlife Policies in the U.S. National Parks. Island Press, Covelo, California. 300 pp.

Watkins, T. 1995. Beyond mile zero. Wilderness 58(208): 9-14, 30-31. (Arctic National Wildlife Refuge)

West, C. 1995. Sustainability of Beilschmiedia tawa- dominated forest in New Zealand: population predictions based on transition matrix model analysis. Australian J. Bot. 43(1): 51-71.

Williams, T. 1995. Torch of the Yankee salmon. Audubon 97(3): 28-35. (Restoration of Atlantic salmon in New England)

Willson, M. and Halupka, K. 1995. Anadromous fish as keystone species in vertebrate communities. Cons. Biology 9(3): 489-497.

Wise, R. 1995. Seychelles: a threatened endemic flora illustrated. Plant Talk 1: 20-21.

Withers, P., Cowling, W. and Wills, R. 1994. Plant diseases in ecosystems: threats and impacts in south-western Australia. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 77(4): 1-186.

Yang, J.-C. 1995. Taiwan. Biodiversity News 4: 19. (Seminar in 1996 on inventory and monitoring forest biodiversity)

Yide, L. and Qingbo, Z. 1995. New efforts in China: Jianfengling forest region. Biodiversity News 4: 8-9. (Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve)

Zimmerman, J. 1994. Research on impact of Hurricane Hugo on Luquillo plot begins to yield results. Inside CTFS Fall: 3. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Puerto Rico site)

Zomlefer, W. 1995. Guide to Flowering Plant Families. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 448 pp.

Zoysa, N. 1994. 10 years of inter-disciplinary research at Sinharaja. Inside CTFS Fall: 6. (Center for Tropical Forest Science: Sri Lanka)

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