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Department ofBotany



No. 148
September 1995


Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


LA SELVA, ECUADOR


La Selva Jungle Lodge in Ecuador, a longtime destination for tourists to the Amazon Basin, has announced the formation of the Neotropical Field Biology Institute. The lodge is located 100 km from the town of Coca on the Napo River in 50,000 acres of protected primary forest. The field institute is headed by Dr. P. J. DeVries, author of Butterflies of Costa Rica, who is now dividing his time between the University of Oregon and La Selva. The institute is actively soliciting field work from qualified biologists and wishes to support long-term field studies. Studies on using butterflies as species indicators have been conducted for two years, as well as research on birds and large mammals in the area's 25 microhabitats.

Because the institute is located within the lodge, which sleeps eight, work is greatly facilitated by the use of La Selva's infrastructure. Indigenous employees may be contracted to help with projects. Interested applicants should design studies which will remain operative by staff at the institute. Anyone interested in conducting field research in the Napo region should fax the Neotropical Field Biology Institute in Ecuador at 011 593 2 567 297.


VITAE CIVILIS


The Vale do Ribeira region nestled in the southeast State of Sao Paulo has a new champion, Vitae Civilis (Institute for Development, Environment, and Peace), a non-governmental, non- profit organization. The name, taken from Latin, means "for the civil society", expresses its goal to serve as a tool for building sustainable societies. The mission of the program is based on the development and promotion of actions which seek to make the protection of cultural and biological diversity compatible with the sustainable development of the Atlantic rainforest. The program seeks to reach this goal in conjunction with local communities, civil society and the government. The process includes obtaining and analyzing traditional knowledge, the generation of technology, and encouragement and activity in the implementation of scientific proposals with a basis in ecological, social, cultural and economic aspects of the legislation.

Through its three-year program, the institute develops activities, research and specific projects such as ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacologial studies of the traditional communities in the Jureia-Itatins Ecological Station and the conservation of the biodiversity of the Atlantic rainforest. Vitae Civilis also participates in activities with various governmental and non- governmental institutions in the management, planning and protection of biological and cultural diversity. For more information, contact: Gemima C.C. Born, Vitae Civilis, Caixa Postal 11260, Sao Paulo, SP, 05422-970 Brazil; Tel./Fax: 55 (11) 815-8524.


TEACHING FELLOWSHIP


The Center for International Development Research at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina is seeking proposals for two types of activities on the topic of local communities and environmentally sustainable development in Latin America during the spring of 1996. Specifically, a one-semester teaching fellowship and invitations to lead seminars or give lectures related to the above themes are being offered. The activities are part of the Latin American Outreach Project, a three-year program funded by the Tinker Foundation which aims to foster cooperation and intellectual exchange on environmental topics between Latin American institutions and their U.S counterparts.

The recipient of the teaching fellowship will be expected to teach a graduate course at Duke during the spring 1996 semester. Participants in the seminar series will deliver lectures and lead workshops over a two to three day period.

Priority will be given to Latin American applicants. For both activities, proposals should offer fresh, critical thinking on the successes, failures, and lessons to be learned from recent community-based experiences in environmentally sustainable development. Specific topics may examine a particular sector or approach, for example: community-based watershed management, sustainable agriculture, strengthening local institutions and participation, land use and similar issues.

For more information and application forms, write: Dr. Julie Johnson, Box 90237, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0237; Fax: (919) 684-2861; E-mail: cidr@pps.duke.edu.


FOREST COVER IN MINDANAO


The Environmental Research Division, Manila Observatory, has been investigating the condition of forest cover in Mindanao, Philippines, and has produced a map which provides various perspectives and analytical approaches to forest cover. Mindanao has suffered a rapid decline in forest cover due to thirty years of extensive timber extraction followed by conversion of residual forest due to rapid population growth. In the 1960s 59% of Mindanao was forests, 54% being primary forest and 5% secondary. For the mid-1970s, the figures were 17% primary, 29% secondary forest and by the mid-1980s, 10% and 18% respectively. Even though greater controls on logging have been in effect over the last five years, Mindanao continues to lose biodiversity due to forest fragmentation and impaired forest regeneration.

Copies of the map are available from the Environmental Research Division, Manila Observatory, Loyola Heights, 1108 Quezon City, P. O. Box 2232, Manila 1062, Philippines. Tel: 924- 1751; Fax: (632) 924-4414.


NEW PUBLICATIONS


The 1995 Plant Conservation Directory is now available from the Center for Plant Conservation. In this recently revised directory, the Center has compiled the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of botanical, conservation, governmental, and scientific personnel and organizations nationwide and by state that may be able to assist with plant conservation efforts. In addition, the directory identifies rare plant laws and rare and endangered plant lists by state.

To order the 1995 Plant Conservation Directory, send a check, or money order for $18.00, to Center for Plant Conservation, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299.

Alberta filmmaker Albert Karvonen's latest video, Great Northern Forest, takes viewers inside bear dens and beaver lodges, and portrays the intimate lives of the birds and large animals inhabiting Canada's boreal domain. Organized on a seasonal theme, the film describes fire and ice as the major forces of change within the forest, and then takes viewers through a sequence of wildlife close-ups. The sounds and imagery are engaging and at times totally arresting. The feat of filming such scenes is alone truly spectacular. To order a copy of the 48-minute close-captioned color video ($26.95), contact Karvonen Films Ltd., National Film Board of Canada, Ottawa.


INFORMATION HIGHWAY HI-LITES


In the April-May-June issue of the Flora of North America Newsletter, Anthony Brach has compiled two lists of URLs for World Wide Web (WWW) sites, one specifically for botanists, the other for ecologists. Both can be accessed through http://biomserv.univ-lyon1.fr/Ecology-WWW.html. Any addtions or corrections can be sent to Anthony R. Brach, Missouri Botanical Garden and/or Harvard University Herbaria, Tel.: (617) 495-3646 or 495-2365; Fax: (617) 495-9484; E-mail: brach@oeb.harvard.edu.

The PLANTS database held by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA is accessible via the Internet. The National Plant Data Center (Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is responsible for the development of plant information available through PLANTS. PLANTS contains vascular and nonvascular plant checklists and attributes provided cooperatively through the efforts of John Kartesz, Robert Egan, Robert Stotler, Barbara Crandall-Stotler, Lewis Anderson, Flora of North America, John Wiersema, and many others in the botanical and agricultural communities. A World Wide Web site is currently under development and is expected to be functional by September 1995. To access PLANTS-On LINE: telnet> plants.usda.gov. Login: plants.


MEETINGS


October 11-13. A symposium to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization, under the auspices of the United Nations, will be held in Quebec City.

Participants will be able to examine case studies and share experiences in an atmosphere that is conducive to devising concrete solutions. The innovative aspect of this meeting lies in the fact that it is bringing business people and representaives of non-governmental organizations together with political figures, scientists and academics, all working in the fields of agriculture, fisheries or forestry.

The symposium's program includes keynote speeches by renowned specialists and workshop discussions where cases drawn from the five continents will be studied in small groups. Three sub-themes will be considered separately: managing natural resources, managing markets, and managing know-how and technology.

The preliminary program provides all the information needed to register for the symposium, the exhibitions which will be presented in conjunction with the symposium, scientific and industrial excursions, and social, cultural and tourism activities.

Please address any inquiries to: 1995 FAO Symposium Secretariat, 65 Sainte-Anne Street, Suite 100, Quebec, Quebec, Canada G1R 3X5; Tel.: (418) 691-7849; Fax: (418) 691-7815.

October 22-25. The Third National Symposium on New Crops: New Opportunities, New Technologies will be held at the Adam's Mark Hotel in Indianapolis, Indiana. The three-day intensive conference will include a poster session and published proceedings to complement the two previous books from these symposia (Advances in New Crops and New Crops ). The objectives of this symposium include identifying new crops and update new crops and plant products research, development, and technologies; encouraging new directions in state, regional, and national new crop policies; and to develop strategies for commercialization. Registrants are invited to attend the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops (AAIC) technical sessions on Sunday, October 21 at no extra charge. To receive information concerning the AAIC Program, luncheon, and banquet tickets contact Dennis Ray, Department of Plant Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. For information on the Third National Symposium, contact: Continuing Education, Business Office, Purdue University, 1586 Stewart Center Rm. 110, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1586; Tel.: (317) 494-7220; Fax: (317) 494- 0567.

October 22-28. The Third Latin American Congress of Ecology will be held in Merida, Venezuela, under the auspices of the University of the Andes, in conjunction with the 25th Anniversary of the creation of the Faculty of Sciences at the University.

The principal objective of the Congress will be to offer an excellent atmosphere of international collaboration in which scientists and researchers can exchange information on advances in study on Neotropical ecology. With this in mind, it is also hoped that the conference will encourage and open new lines of investgation, establish new projects, take a different look at ecological problems, and obtain a reevaluation of investigative work done in the region.

For more information, contact, Dr. Jaime E. Pefaur, Secretario Ejecutivo, III Congreso Latinoamericano de Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela 5101; Tel.: (58) (74) 401305; Fax: (58) (74) 401286; Telex: (58)(74) 74173; E-mail: CLAE@ula.ve.

November 13-15. The International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF) is sponsoring a meeting, "Fire Effects on Threatened and Endangered Species and Habitats", in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. For more information, contact: IAWF, P. O. Box 328, Fairfield, WA 99012; Tel: (509) 283-2397.


CURRENT LITERATURE


Adams, R., Fleming, R., Change, C. C., McCarl, B. and Rosenzweig, C. 1995. A reassessment of the economic effects of global climate change on U. S. agriculture. Climatic Change 30(2): 125-145.

Allen, S. 1995. The future of California's floristic heritage on public lands: overview of the National Park Service. Madrono 42(2): 248-250.

Anon. 1995. Brazil's diverse ecosystems. Focus 17(4): 4.

Anon. 1995. North American bear trade on the rise. Focus 17(4): 6.

Anon. 1995. Spix's macaw reintroduced in Brazil. Focus 17(4): 5. (First reintroduction into the wild of the world's rarest bird)

Anon. 1995. Victory in Alaska. Focus 17(4): 1. (Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge)

Armstrong, M. 1995. Cattleyas for the hobbyist, Part 3: the bifoliates. Orchid Rev. 103(1203): 145-150. (Rarity status in the wild)

Ash, A. 1995. Effects of clear-cutting on litter parameters in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains. Castanea 60(2): 89- 97.

Asquith, A. 1995. Alien species and the extinction crisis of Hawaii's invertebrates. End. Species UPDATE 12(6): 6-11.

Auxiliadora, M., Kaplan, C., Figueiredo, M. and Gottlieb, O. 1994. Chemical diversity of plants from Brazilian cerrados. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 1): 49-54.

Bastos-Netto, D. 1994. Renewable energy, possible options for cerrado and caatinga. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 247-254.

Berry, W. 1995. Conserving communities. Orion 14(3): 48-53. (USA agriculture)

Blanchard, J. and Prado, G. 1995. Natural regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in strip clearcuts in northwest Ecuador. Biotropica 27(2): 160-167.

Blanco, A. 1995. La Reserva Nacional de Flora y Fauna Tariquia: una fabrica de agua. Yungas 5(1): 13-14. (Bolivia)

Boucher, N. 1995. Species of the sprawl. Wilderness 58(209): 11-24. (Seaside development in California threatens species)

Brown, A. and Grau, H. (Eds). 1995. Investigacion, Conservacion y Desarrollo en Selvas Subtropicales de Montana. Laboratorio de Investigaciones Ecologicas de las Yungas, Tucuman, Argentina. (Proceedings of I Reunion Regional sobre Selvas de Montanas held in 1993)

Camero, A. 1994. Base de datos de proyectos agroforestales en America Central y Republica Dominicana. Agroforesteria 1(4): 10-17.

Chadwick, D. 1995. Grizzly country. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 10-15. (Montana)

Chadwick, D. 1995. Ndoki - last place on Earth. Nat. Geographic 188(1): 2-45. (Park in Africa's Congo Basin protects wildlife)

Cheater, M. 1995. Good guys in the Badlands. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 16-23. (Debate over grazing in Arizona)

Cheng, V. 1995. 328 useful drugs are said to lie hidden in tropical forests. New York Times (The Environment) June 27: C4.

Chin, S., Corlett, R., Wee, Y. and Geh, S. 1995. Rain Forest in the City: Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore. Singapore. (Edited volume of papers on Asia's oldest reserve)

Cronk, Q. 1995. A new species and hybrid in the St. Helena endemic genus Trochetiopsis. Edinb. J. Bot. 52(2): 205-213. (Extant ebony described at specific rank)

Dobereiner, J. 1994. Ecological alternatives for cerrados and caatinga. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 205-210.

Douglas, G., Pojar, J., Meidinger, D. and McKeown, K. 1994. Rare vascular plant collections from the St. Elias Mountains, northwestern British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 108(4): 391-396.

Duckworth, J., Evans, M., Hawkins, A., Safford, R. and Wilkinson, R. 1995. The lemurs of Marojejy Strict Nature Reserve, Madagascar: a status overview with notes on ecology and threats. Int. J. Primatology 16(3): 545-560.

Dunlop, C., Leach, G. and Cowie, I. 1995. Flora of the Darwin Region. Vol. 2. Northern Terr. Bot. Bull. 20: 1- 261. (Includes conservation status)

Ecological Society of America. 1995. Strengthening the Use of Science in Achieving the Goals of the Endangered Species Act: An Assessment by the Ecological Society of America. Ecological Society of America, Washington, DC.

Eilers, L. and Roosa, D. 1994. Vascular Plants of Iowa. An Annotated Checklist and Natural History. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa. 304 pp. (Includes rarity status)

Ertter, B. 1995. The changing face of California botany. Madrono 42(2): 114-122.

Escobar, G. 1995. Rain forest flora may hold prescription for economic survival. Wash. Post July 30: A25. (Economic plants of Amazonian Brazil)

Ferren Jr., W., Magney, D. and Sholars, T. 1995. The future of California floristics and systematics: collecting guidelines and documentation techniques. Madrono 42(2): 197-210.

Ffolliott, P., Gottfried, G. and Rietveld, W. 1995. Dryland forestry for sustainable development. J. Arid Environments 2: 143-152.

Fiedler, P. 1995. Rarity in the California flora: new thoughts on old ideas. Madrono 42(2): 127-141.

Foster, R. and et al. 1994. The Tambopata-Candamo- Rio Heath Region of Southeastern Peru. A Biological Assessment. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 192 pp. (Rapid Assessment Program Working Papers, No. 6)

Foster, S. 1995. Cancer and the plant world. Herbs for Health 1(3): 71-74. (Suppl. to the Herb Companion, Vol. 7(6))

Frumhoff, P. 1995. Conserving wildlife in tropical forests managed for timber. BioScience 45(7): 456-464.

Fuentes, L. and Mistretta, O. 1995. Vernal pools in CPC California gardens. Plant Conservation 9(1): 1-2.

Geatz, R. 1995. Boom times for prairie chickens. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 30. (Galveston Bay Coastal Prairie Preserve, Texas)

Geatz, R. 1995. Great Lakes, great dunes. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 31. (Protection of Great Lakes dune area, New York)

Geatz, R. 1995. It's a small whorled, after all. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 32. (Small-whorled pogonia protected at Mt. Teneriffe, New Hampshire)

Gottlieb, O. and Renata, M. 1994. The diversity of plants. Where is it? Why is it there? What will it become? Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 1): 55-84.

Hackenberg, C. 1994. Solar energy: the alternative resource. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 271-276.

Hamilton, L., Juvik, J. and Scatena, F. (Eds). 1995. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York. 407 pp.

Hess, W. and Dice, J. 1995. Nolina cismontana (Nolanaceae), a new species name for an old taxon. Novon 5(2): 162-164. (Threatened by residential and commercial development in California; candidate for listing on US Endangered Species Act)

Horan, J. 1995. Ghost prairie of the East. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 8-9. (Piedmont prairie)

Jacobson, S. (Ed). 1995. Conserving Wildlife: International Education and Communication Approaches. Columbia University Press, New York, New York. 302 pp.

Kassas, M. 1995. Desertification: a general review. J. Arid Environments 2: 115-128.

Keeley, J. 1995. Future of California floristics and systematics: wildfire threats to the California flora. Madrono 42(2): 175-179.

Kennedy, L. 1995. On a wing and a prayer: can butterflies reveal patterns of tropical biodiversity? Quest 4(3): 3-5.

Knight, J. 1995. The future of California's floristic heritage on public lands: overview of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Madrono 42(2): 245-247.

Krakauer, J. 1995. Rocky times for Banff. Nat. Geographic 188(1): 46-69. (Effects of ecotourism on Canadian national park)

Larson, D. 1995. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands. Climatic Change 30(2): 169-180.

Leite, F., Lebre, A. and Ramalho, M. 1994. Degraded areas susceptible to desertification processes in the state of Ceara, Brazil - a second approximation. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 211-218.

Loope, L. and Medeiros, A. 1995. Strategies for long-term protection of biological diversity in rainforests of Haleakala National Park and East Maui, Hawaii. End. Species UPDATE 12(6): 1-5.

Lorence, D. and Wagner, W. 1995. Another new, nearly extinct species of Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Novon 5(2): 183-187. (Lists 5 extinct wild species)

Losos, E., Hayes, J., Phillips, A., Wilcove, D. and Alkire, C. 1995. Taxpayer-subsidized resource extraction harms species. BioScience 45(7): 446-455.

Loye, J. and Carroll, S. 1995. Birds, bugs and blood: avian parasitism and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10(6): 232-235.

Macedo, J. 1994. Prospectives for the rational use of the Brazilian cerrados for food production. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 159-166.

Margalef, R. 1994. Diversity and biodiversity - their possible meaning in relation with the wish for sustainable development. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 1): 3-14.

Marinho-Filho, J., Lima, M., Seixas, P., Monteiro, E. and Noura, M. 1994. Diversity standards and small mammal numbers: conservation of the cerrado biodiversity. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 149-158.

Martin, M. 1995. Biological conservation strategies: optimizing in situ and ex situ approaches. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10(6): 227.

Mishler, B. 1995. Plant systematics and conservation: science and society. Madrono 42(2): 103-113. (California)

Morey, S. 1995. The future of California's floristic heritage on public lands: overview of the California Department of Fish and Game. Madrono 42(2): 255-257.

Moseley, R. and Crawford, R. 1995. Fifteen-year population and habitat changes in a narrow Idaho endemic, Phlox idahonis Wherry. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 122(2): 109-114. (Rare)

Murgel, M. 1994. Geomorphological behaviours, land use and ecology of reptiles and amphibians in a central Brazilian area: their relevance to conservation. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 177-194.

Numata, M. 1995. Conservational education based on sustainability and biodiversity. Nat. History Research 3(2): 67-74.

Oliveira-Filho, A. and Ratter, J. 1995. A study of the origin of central Brazilian forests by the analysis of plant species distribution patterns. Edinb. J. Bot. 52(2): 141- 194.

Painter, E. 1995. Threats to the California flora: ungulate grazers and browers. Madrono 42(2): 180-187.

Poulsen, A. and Nielsen, I. 1995. How many ferns are there in one hectare of tropical rain forest? Am. Fern J. 85(1): 29-35. (Study in Reserva de Produccion Faunistica Cuyabeno, Amazonian Ecuador)

Raven, P. 1995. The university, the state, and the loss of plant diversity. Madrono 42(2): 295-306.

Reboucas, A. 1994. Water crisis: facts and myths. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 1): 135- 147.

Roldan, A. and Ayarde, H. 1995. Myrcianthes callicoma (Myrtaceae), una especie amenazada. Yungas 5(1): 7-8. (Argentina)

Ruesink, J., Parker, I., Groom, M. and Kareiva, P. 1995. Reducing the risks of nonindigenous species introductions. BioScience 45(7): 465-477.

Santos, J. 1994. Monitoring of Amazonian forest ecosystem: present conjuncture on the use of remote sensing technology. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 1): 109-116.

Schierenbeck, K. 1995. The threat to the California flora from invasive species, problems and possible solutions. Madrono 42(2): 168-174.

Shevock, J. 1995. The future of California's floristic heritage on public lands: overview of the USDA-Forest Service. Madrono 42(2): 251-254.

Sinokrot, B., Stefan, H., McCormick, J. and Eaton, J. 1995. Modeling of climate change effects on stream temperatures and fish habitats below dams and near groundwater inputs. Climatic Change 30(2): 181-200.

Skinner, M., Tibor, D., Bittman, R., Ertter, B., Ross, T., Boyd, S., Sanders, A., Shevock, J. and Taylor, D. 1995. Research needs for conserving California's rare plants. Madrono 42(2): 211-241.

Sodero, M. 1994. Biodiversity and agriculture: patterns of domestication of Brazilian native plant species. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 2): 219-226.

Stebbins, G. L. and Hrusa, G. F. 1995. The North Coast biodiversity arena in central California: a new scenario for research and teaching processes of evolution. Madrono 42(2): 269-294.

Stevens, W. 1995. How many species are being lost? Scientists try new yardstick. New York Times (Environment) July 25: C20.

Stinson, D. 1995. Status and conservation of birds in the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Nat. History Research 3(2): 211-218.

Stolzenburg, W. 1995. The guardian of Eden. Nature Conservancy 45(4): 24-29. (Latin American parks)

Swerdlow, J. 1995. Burma, the richest of poor countries. Nat. Geographic 188(1): 70-97. (Development of country's natural resources)

Tan, B. and Judd, W. 1995. A floristic inventory of O'Leno State Park and Northeast River Rise State Preserve, Alachua and Columbia Counties, Florida. Castanea 60(2): 141-165.

Tuttle, M. 1995. Saving North America's beleaguered bats. Nat. Geographic 188(2): 36-57.

Vieira, V. 1994. Sustainable development and water resources management in the semi-arid Northeast. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 66(Sup. 1, Part 1): 125-134.

Wallis, J. 1995. Seasonal influence on reproduction in chimpanzees of Gombe National Park. Int. J. Primatology 16(3): 435-452.

Wilken, D. 1995. Flowers in the garden: what next for California floristics? Madrono 42(2): 142-153.

Willoughby, J. 1995. The future of California's floristic heritage on public lands: overview of the Bureau of Land Management. Madrono 42(2): 242-244.

Woodman, N., Jenkinson, M. and Foster, M. (Compilers). 1995. Latin American Research Libraries in Natural History: A Survey, Second Edition. CBE, Chicago, Illinois. (Entries on 241 libraries in 29 countries)

Yoon, C. 1995. Monumental inventory of Costa Rican forest's insects is under way. New York Times (The Environment) July 11: C4.

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