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Department ofBotany

No. 150
November 1995

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Fundacion Maquipucuna, an Ecuadorian non-governmental organization concerned with conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of natural resources, has recently completed construction of ecotourist and scientific facilities at the Reserve. Only two hours northwest of Quito hugging the western slopes of the Andes, both sites are easily accessible by car. Visitors of all types - from research scientists to amateur enthusiasts are encouraged to come and learn, study and experience in the atmosphere of this private cloud forest reserve.

The Maquipucuna Reserve is 4,500 hectares, 80% of which is undisturbed cloud forest, ranging from 1,200 meters to 2,800 meters in altitude. It is surrounded by an additional 14,000 hectares of "protected forest", which is adjacent to one of the world's top ten biodiversity hotspots, the Choco Bioregion. Like many cloud forests, this region is extremely rich in epiphytes, many of which have not been identified. The total number of plant species estimated in the Reserve is close to 2,000. In addition, the Reserve contains at least 320 species of birds, 45 species of mammals, and more than 150 species of butterflies. Other groups are yet to be studied in detail. Maquipucuna also offers archaeological resources to those interested. Ceramics, burial sites and buried pathways of Pre-Inca Indians are scattered throughout the area.

Accommodations and facilities include a tourist lodge, housing up to 20 guests, situated on a clean, free-flowing river. Additionally, there is a separate scientific research station for ten people, and an adjoining laboratory. Public space is available for meetings or instruction. The Fundacion encourages educational programs and courses. Meals are served to all visitors and are based on local recipes. A network of trails allows tourists and scientists easy access to a variety of natural habitats in different stages of succession. Interpretive materials are being developed for the Reserve and library resources are available at the Fundacion's office in Quito. Anyone interested in tourist or research opportunities at Maquipucuna should contact the office in Quito: Abigail Rome, Fundacion Maquipucuna, Casilla 17-12-167, Quito, Ecuador. Tel.: (593-2) 507-200; Fax: (593-2) 507-201; E- mail:


The SI/MAB Biodiversity Program will offer two certification training programs in 1996. The first one, "1996 Biodiversity Measuring and Monitoring: In-residence Certification Training", will be held May 12 - June 14. This intensive, five-week course will provide professionals with a methodology for establishing long-term monitoring programs. During the first few days, participants will be introduced to the SI/MAB biodiversity program and other biodiversity-related efforts underway at the Smithsonian Institution. Initial lectures will be an introduction to biodiveristy issues in general and present a powerful way of analyzing the information gathered in the field. This exposure will provide a clear overview of the course and an understanding of how its careful design meets the needs of professionals who develop, carry out, and manage on-site biodiversity measuring and monitoring projects. After completing this training program, detailed knowledge about measuring and monitoring the following areas will be gained: vegetation; abiotic factors; bacteria and micro- organisms; bird populations and communities; amphibian and reptile populations; mammal populations; wildlife diseases; invertebrate populations; and freshwater fishes and aquatic invertebrates.

The second course, held September 9-20, entitled: "1996 Biodiversity Monitoring at Permanent Plots: In-residence Certification Training", is for professionals who have established (or will) long-term research plots for monitoring forest biodiversity. This is the professional certification training that meets the standards of the International Network of Biodiversity Plots. Using the SI/MAB protocol, participants will establish permanent vegetation plots quickly and easily with the added benefit of being able to analyze and communicate the results soon after the data are collected. In addition this information can be added to a variety of different monitoring databases and incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) on biodiversity for any number of plots. Upon completion of the training program, participants will have skills in: design and implementation of plot-based monitoring in forest areas; ground- truthing and transect sampling for tree species diversity; surveying and use of geographic positioning systems to locate permanent plots; tree tagging, measuring, and identification; tree mapping and field certification; data management, analysis, and interpretation using SI/MAB's BioMon biodiversity monitoring database; preparing voucher specimens and user guides; and creating the baseline for integrating multi-taxa monitoring.

The fee for the first course is US $4,000 with application deadline of March 1, 1996; second course fee is US $1,900 with application deadline of July 1, 1996. For both courses (airfare not included), tuition covers food, lodging, local transportation, books, materials, and use of field and lab equipment. For an application contact: Dr. Francisco Dallmeier, Biodiversity Measuring and Monitoring Certifications, SI/MAB Program, 1100 Jefferson Drive, SW, Suite 3123, Washington, DC 20560. Fax: (202) 786-2557; E-mail:


The Tropical Science Center in San Jose, Costa Rica is offering the Fourth Life Zone Ecology Course in the spring of 1996, April 15-May 3. The course, conducted in Spanish by Dr. Joseph Tosi, Jr. and Dr. Humberto Jimenez Saa, will visit several life zones within Costa Rica, with the objective of offering participants intensive instruction in the practical and theoretical use of the World Life Zone System of Ecological Classification developed by Dr. L.R. Holdridge, who will introduce the course.

The World Life Zone System of Ecological Classification has been continually developed and applied by the Tropical Science Center for more than thirty years. The system has served as a basis for the elaboration of life zone maps in most of Latin America and for some countries in Asia and Africa. The course will present the theoretical and conceptual aspects of the system. A more detailed description will be sent upon request.

The cost, which includes tuition and fee, materials, lodging, meals, insurance, course-related local transport, farewell dinner, and diploma, airfare not included, is US$ 2,700, or its equivalent in Costa Rican colones. Space is limited to 18 persons. Candidates will be evaluated as their applications are received. Deadline for application is January 15, 1996.

For more information, and application form, contact: Dr. Humberto Jimenez Saa, Tropical Science Center, P.O. Box 8-3870- 1000, San Jose, Costa Rica. Tel.: (506) 253-4963; Fax: (506) 225- 2649 or (506) 253-3267; E-mail:


Through special collaboration of U.S. MAB and the National Biological Service, a MAB Home Page has been developed on the Internet. The WWW address is:

The main menu includes: biosphere reserves, electronic bulletin board, current requests for proposals, history of U.S. MAB, interdisciplinary research, international programs, MABFauna/MABFlora, organization of U.S. MAB, publications and documents, and Smithsonian MAB Biodiversity Program.

The Biosphere Reserves segment contains text of a U.S. MAB biosphere reserve brochure; map, list of, and contacts for U.S. biosphere reserves; world list of biosphere reserves, and a model biosphere reserve. The Interdisciplinary Research segment contains work of the five U.S. MAB research directorates. The International Programs segment contains information on the Biosphere Reserve Integrated Monitoring Program with EuroMAB (BRIM), Northern Science Network (NSN), Ciencia y Technologia para el Desarrollo (CYTED), and the home page for UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MABnet), which contains information about MAB programs and biosphere reserves worldwide.


Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (VOCA) is seeking individuals who would like to volunteer their time and knowledge for international projects. VOCA is a private, non-profit organization founded in 1970 as the international voluntary arm of the US cooperative community.

Currently there is a critical need for ostrich producers to go to Zimbabwe, and tropical fruit producers to go to Egypt. However, the group is seeking volunteers with skills and exper. tise in the following fields: business and cooperative develop. ment and management, livestock management, farm management, commodity processing, agricultural credit and finance, plant production and protection, food processing, sustainable agricul. ture, conservation, forestry, among other management and develop. ment positions.

All project related costs are covered by VOCA, including passport, shots, flights, housing, food, and informational materials. There is no wage or fee paid to volunteers. A VOCA assignment is anywhere from two to 12 weeks, the average stay being four weeks. For more information, contact: Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance, c/o Sam Driggers, 1008 S St., Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95814. Tel.: (800) 556-1620 or (916) 556- 1620; Fax: (916) 556-1630; E-mail:


The Nature Conservancy (TNC) is in search of a director of the Jamaica and Belize Country Programs. The director will develop and implement a strategy for the conservation of biological diversity in Jamaica and Belize, in cooperation with TNC's in-country partners. The position will also require developing long range and annual plans for the country programs, identifying potential NGO and governmental partners, developing wildlands protection projects, and implementing activities. The director will focus his/her efforts on working with in-country organizations to implement the priority protected areas identified by the "Parks in Peril" program.

Some of the requirements for the position are: a graduate degree in natural resource management or related field and five years experience in international conservation working in Latin America; excellent communication skills in English and Spanish, fluency in Portuguese a plus; working knowledge of regional politics; demonstrated successful experience designing/implementing AID conservation/natural resource projects; and a demonstrated commitment to the preservation of biological diversity and to the goals and programs of The Nature Conservancy.

For a complete job announcement, contact: Paul Martin, Employment Specialist, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209.

The Tropical Science Center (TSC) has a position open for a General Director of its Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve. Candidates for this position should have had prior experience in the administration of wildland preserves and associated biological field research.

The Center is a private, non-profit Costa Rican association founded in 1962 with headquarters in San Jose, Costa Rica. In 1972, it established its Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve as a wholly-owned and administered private wildlands preserve in the Tilaran Mountains. This preserve today encompasses some 10,500 hectares of mostly undisturbed primary mountain forest. Of worldwide repute, the preserve is managed to protect its very high biodiversity, for research, and for environmental education, including ecotourism.

Requisites for the position include: biology, management of natural resources, environmental science or forestry backgrounds; five or more years experience in management of conservation areas; experience in the design of protection plans, environmental education, and ecotourism is desirable; experience in design and implementation of scientific research; ability to work harmoniously with staff members, scientists, and visitors of differing cultural and educational levels; good communication skills in Spanish and English, or other languages is a plus.

The Director must live in the Monteverde community, located in a rural area at an elevation of 1,300 meters above sea level, located approximately 3.5 hours by road from San Jose. Annual average temperature is 20C. Responsibilites include the administration and coordination of all programs and departments of MCFP, specifically the development of a program for scientific research.

Send letter stating interest in the position, resume and three references (including address and phone number), before December 31, 1995 to: Monteverde Committee, Tropical Science Center, P. O. Box 8-3870-1000, San Jose, Costa Rica. Fax: (506) 253-4963; E- mail:


Anderson, L., Bridges, E. and Orzell, S. 1995. New data on distribution and morphology for the rare Hasteola robertiorum (Asteraceae). Phytologia 78(4): 246-248. (Florida endemic)

Anon. 1995. CITES parties meet at Fort Lauderdale, USA. Plant Conservation News 2: 3.

Anon. 1995. Conserving rare species. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. September/October: 16,18. (Center for Plant Conservation conserves 18 rare plants in 6 Midwestern states)

Anon. 1995. Different country: the Smoke Hole and North Fork Mountain of West Virginia. The Nature Conservancy News (Maryland Chapter) 19(3): 4, 8. (Over 100 rare species and plant communities are known from this area)

Anon. 1995. Frosted elfin "rediscovered". The Nature Conservancy News (Maryland Chapter) 19(3): 5. (Nassawango Creek, Maryland)

Anon. 1995. Mafia Island Marine Park becomes a reality. FOCUS 17(5): 6. (Tanzania)

Anon. 1995. Report highlights global conservation challenge. World Birdwatch 17(3): 2. (Tumbesian region of Ecuador/Peru, home to 55 restricted bird species)

Anon. 1995. Russia's wildlife faces grave danger. FOCUS 17(5): 1, 6. (TRAFFIC opens offices in Russia)

Anon. 1995. SSC Plants Programme: new developments. Plant Conservation News 2: 1. Anon. 1995. WWF helps to protect Kenya's wetlands. FOCUS 17(5): 3. (Saiwa National Park and Lake Bogoria National Reserve)

Archibold, O. 1995. Ecology of World Vegetation. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York. 510 pp.

Arriagada, J. 1995. Ethnobotany of Clibadium L. (Compositae, Heliantheae) in Latin America. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 328-330.

Atkinson, P., Fay, M. and Walter, K. 1995. Development of a new micropropagation protocols database at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(1): 11.

Austin, D. 1995. Merremia discoidesperma (Convolvulaceae) seeds as medicines in Mexico. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 330-332.

Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. 1995. Endangered species conservation in Australia: a partial review and recommendations. End. Species UPDATE 12(9): 1-4.

Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. 1995. Endangered species conservation in Australia: a partial review and recommendations. End. Species UPDATE 12(9): 1-4.

Ballmer, G. 1995. What's bugging coastal sage scrub? Fremontia 23(4): 17-26. (Rich diversity of invertebrates)

Baz, A. and Garcia-Boyero, A. 1995. The effects of forest fragmentation on butterfly communities in central Spain. J. Biogeography 22(1): 129-140.

Belanger, C. 1995. A guide to ESA and CITES. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 24(3): 86-91.

Berry, M., Robertson, B. and Campbell, E. 1994. Impacts of informal settlements on south-eastern Cape coastal vegetation (South Africa). Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 4(5): 129-139.

Billups, A. 1995. Once-endangered butterfly species now thrive in the Keys. Florida Naturalist 68(3): 16. (Schaus' swallowtail)

Binder, G. 1995. Protecting Russia's biological riches. Conservation Issues 2(5): 1, 3-10.

Brick, P. 1995. Determined opposition: the wise use movement challenges environmentalism. Environment 37(8): 16-20, 36- 42.

Brown, S., Lenart, M., Mo, J. and Kong, G. 1995. Structure and organic matter dynamics of a human-impacted pine forest in a MAB reserve of subtropical China. Biotropica 27(3): 276- 289.

Buddensiek, V. 1995. The culture of juvenile freshwater pearl mussels Margaritifera margaritifera L. in cages: a contribution to conservation programmes and the knowledge of habitat requirements. Biol. Conserv. 74(1): 33-40.

Caillouet, C., Fontaine, C., Manzella-Tirpak, S. and Shaver, D. 1995. Survival of head-started Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) released into the Gulf of Mexico or adjacent bays. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1(4): 285-292.

Carey, P. and Brown, N. 1994. The use of GIS to identify sites that will become suitable for a rare orchid, Himantoglossum hircinum L., in a future changed climate. Biodiversity Letters 2(4): 117-123.

Chiron, G. 1995. The saving of doomed orchids in French Guiana. Orchid Rev. 103(1205): 251-258.

Christenson, E. 1995. Sarcanthine genera 20: Paraphalaenopsis. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 64(10): 1108-1113. (Rare species in Borneo)

Colchester, M. 1995. Gold flush. BBC Wildlife 13(10): 63. (Cyanide spill into Guyana's main river)

Coleman, R. 1995. The Wild Orchids of California. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York. 201 pp. (Lists conservation status)

Collins, B. and Anderson, K. 1994. Plant Communities of New Jersey. A Study in Landscape Diversity. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 287 pp.

Connor, J. 1995. Cleared for landing. Nature Conservancy 45(6): 16-23. (Migratory birds)

Contreras, J., Austin, D., de la Puente, F. and Diaz, J. 1995. Biodiversity of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas, Convolvulaceae) in southern Mexico. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 286- 296.

Curtin, C. 1995. Can montane landscapes recover from human disturbance? Long-term evidence from disturbed subalpine communities. Biol. Conserv. 74(1): 49-56.

Debreczy, Z. and Racz, I. 1995. New species and varieties of conifers from Mexico. Phytologia 78(4): 217-243. (Conservation measures given)

DeSimone, P. and Silver, D. 1995. The Natural Community Conservation Plan: can it protect coastal sage scrub? Fremontia 23(4): 32-36.

DeSimone, S. 1995. California's coastal sage scrub. Fremontia 23(4): 3-8. (Habitat in decline)

Dodman, T. and Katanekwa, V. 1995. The search for Zambia's jewel. World Birdwatch 17(3): 8-11. (Threatened black- cheeked lovebird)

Dolan, R. 1995. A rare, serpentine endemic Streptanthus morrisonii (Brassicaceae) species complex, revisited using isozyme analysis. Syst. Bot. 20(3): 338-346. (California endemic)

Durbin, A. 1995. Trade and the environment: the North-South divide. Environment 37(7): 16-20, 37-41.

Eisner, T., Lubchenco, J., Wilson, E., Wilcove, D. and Bean, M. 1995. Building a scientifically sound policy for protecting endangered species. Science 269(5228): 1231-1232.

Englemann, F. 1995. Brief overview of IPGRI's research activities on in vitro conservation of plant species. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(1): 9-10. (Italy)

Geatz, R. 1995. Birds of (shrinking) paradise. Nature Conservancy 45(6): 33. (Conservancy raised money to preserve 3,790 acres of threatened forest in Guatemala)

Geatz, R. 1995. Common cents conservation. Nature Conservancy 45(6): 34. (Conservancy helping to safeguard Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve in Peru)

Geatz, R. 1995. Land O'Lakes. Nature Conservancy 45(6): 31. (Mishak Lakes preserve in south-central Colorado, home to rare wetland species)

Geatz, R. 1995. Something in exchange. Nature Conservancy 45(6): 32. (Expansion of Niobrara Valley Preserve in Nebraska)

Glomb, S. 1995. Protecting coastal ecosystems. End. Species Bull. 20(5): 4-7.

Groves, M. and Simpson, R. 1995. Focussing on international carnivorous plant conservation and research: the carnivorous plant specialist group. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 24(3): 69-72. (Draft contents of action plan)

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Hays, J. 1995. A floristic survey of Falls Hollow Sandstone Glades, Pulaski County, Missouri. Phytologia 78(4): 264- 276. (3 rare and endangered species)

Hecht, A. 1995. Coastal plovers on the rise. End. Species Bull. 20(5): 14-16. (Piping plovers along the Atlantic Coast)

Heredia, B. 1995. Threatened birds in Europe. World Birdwatch 17(3): 20-21. (19 globally threatened species)

Iriondo, J., Prieto, C. and Perez-Garcia, F. 1995. In vitro regeneration of Helianthemum polygonoides Peinado et al., an endangered salt meadow species. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(1): 2-5. (Spain)

Jensen, O. and Balslev, H. 1995. Ethnobotany of the fiber palm Astrocaryum chambira (Arecaceae) in Amazonian Ecuador. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 309-319.

Kellett, M. 1995. North Woods. The ecological restoration of the North Woods. Wildflower 11(2): 32-35. (USA/Canada)

Kirkpatrick, J. and Gilfedder, L. 1995. Maintaining integrity compared with maintaining rare and threatened taxa in remnant bushland in subhumid Tasmania. Biol. Conserv. 74(1): 1-8.

Kraus, J. 1995. Florida manatee soft release. End. Species Bull. 20(5): 8-9.

Lebbie, A. and Guries, R. 1995. Ethnobotanical value and conservation of sacred groves of the Kpaa Mende in Sierra Leone. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 297-308.

Liston, A., St. Hilaire, K. and Wilson, M. 1995. Genetic diversity in populations of Kincaid's lupine, host plant of Fender's blue butterfly. Madrono 42(3): 309-322. (Butterfly endangered in Oregon)

Lynch, M., Conery, J. and Burger, R. 1995. Mutation accumulation and the extinction of small populations. Am. Naturalist 146(4): 489-518.

MacRoberts, M. and MacRoberts, B. 1995. Noteworthy vascular plant collections on the Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana. Phytologia 78(4): 291-313. (80 plants recognized as sensitive, threatened or endangered)

Mairson, A. 1995. Saving Britain's shore. Nat. Geographic 188(4): 38-57.

Malouf, P. 1995. A visit to Kinabalu Park. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 24(3): 64-69. (Home to rare Nepenthes spp. in Sabah)

Margolis, M. 1995. Treasuring the Pantanal. Int. Wildlife 25(6): 12-21. (South America's greatest wetland)

McNeely, J. 1995. Keep all the pieces: Systematics 2000 and world conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 4(5): 510-519.

Miller, D. and Warren, R. 1995. Some observations on the reintroduction of orchid species to the high mountain Atlantic rain forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Orchid Rev. 103(1205): 270-273.

Mo, J., Brown, S., Lenart, M. and Kong, G. 1995. Nutrient dynamics of a human-impacted pine forest in a MAB reserve of subtropical China. Biotropica 27(3): 290-304.

Morland, H. 1995. Looking for Grauer's gorilla. Wildlife Conserv. 98(5): 46-53. (Zaire)

Murphy, D. 1995. An overview of the National Academy of Sciences report: Science and the Endangered Species Act . End. Species UPDATE 12(9): 8-10.

Nagpal, T. 1995. Voices from the developing world: progress toward sustainable development. Environment 37(8): 10-15, 30-35.

O'Leary, J. 1995. Coastal sage scrub: threats and current status. Fremontia 23(4): 27-31.

Orians, G. 1995. Thought for the morrow: cumulative threats to the environment. Environment 37(7): 6-14, 33-35.

O'Riordan, T. 1995. Frameworks for choice: core beliefs and the environment. Environment 37(8): 4-9, 25-29.

Owens, L., Patrick, L. and Moyers, J. 1995. Beach mouse summit. End. Species Bull. 20(5): 12-13. (Alabama and Florida)

Parsons, P. 1995. Evolutionary response to drought stress: conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 74(1): 21-28.

Paul, A. and Cox, P. 1995. An ethnobotanical survey of the uses for Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae) in Haiti. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 249-256.

Paz y Mino C., G., Balslev, H. and Valencia, R. 1995. Useful lianas of the Siona-Secoya Indians from Amazonian Ecuador. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 269-275.

Pearce, F. 1995. On the origin of revolution. New Scientist 1997: 28-29. (Man's effect on Galapagos species)

Petersen, K. 1995. A reason to hope. Wildlife Conserv. 98(5): 36-46, 65. (Endemic kestrel on Mauritius)

Price, O., Woinarski, J., Liddle, D. and Russell-Smith, J. 1995. Patterns of species composition and reserve design for a fragmented estate: monsoon rainforests in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 74(1): 9-20.

Rattner, R. 1995. Make way for manatees. Wildlife Conserv. 98(5): 22-29. (Florida)

Reed, H. 1995. Saiga antelope threatened by massive trade. TRAFFIC USA 14(2): 1-2. (Southeast Asia)

Richie, D. 1995. The Fish and Wildlife Diversity Funding Initiative: an attempt to prevent endangered species listings. End. Species UPDATE 12(9): 5-6. (Users fees on outdoor equipment to fund species conservation)

Richmond, G. and Ghisalberti, E. 1995. Cultural, food, medicinal uses and potential applications of Myoporum species (Myoporaceae). Econ. Bot. 49(3): 276-285. (Australia)

Rodner, C. 1995. Sites to save: Henri Pittier National Park, Venezuela. World Birdwatch 17(3): 6-7. (571 bird species)

Rodriguez, A. 1995. Airplants: a survey of the genus Tillandsia. The New Plantsman 2(2): 72-88. (6 spp. listed on CITES)

Sadler, J. and Dugmore, A. 1995. Habitat distribution of terrestrial Coleoptera in Iceland as indicated by numerical analysis. J. Biogeography 22(1): 141-148.

Saul, S. 1995. Songbirds sing again in California. End. Species Bull. 20(5): 10-11. (Least Bell's vireo making a comeback)

Schmalzel, R., Reichenbacher, F. and Rutman, S. 1995. Demographic study of the rare Coryphantha robbinsorum (Cactaceae) in southeastern Arizona. Madrono 42(3): 332- 348.

Schmeda-Hirschmann, G. 1995. Madia sativa, a potential oil crop of central Chile. Econ. Bot. 49(3): 257-259.

Shoup, C. 1995. Amur tiger remains in grave danger. TRAFFIC USA 14(2): 4. (Russia)

Siu, L. and Weatherhead, M. 1995. Tissue culture of the camellias of Hong Kong. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(1): 6-8. (3 rare species)

Sunquist, F. 1995. End of the ark? Int. Wildlife 25(6): 22-29. (Captive breeding programs at zoos)

Vaughan, R. 1995. The two worlds of Fiji. Nat. Geographic 188(4): 114-137.

Vitousek, P., Lope, L. and Adsersen, H. (Eds). 1995. Islands. Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer, New York, New York. 238 pp. (Ecological Studies 115)

Von Quirolo, D. 1995. The living coral reef - beautiful, alive, fragile, and ...endangered. Florida Naturalist 68(3): 17.

Wege, D. 1995. Key areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. World Birdwatch 17(3): 12-16. (New book)

White, S. 1995. Disturbance and dynamics in coastal sage scrub. Fremontia 23(4): 9-16. (Habitat in decline)

Zink, R. and Kale, H. 1995. Conservation genetics of the extinct dusky seaside sparrow Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens. Biol. Conserv. 74(1): 69-72.

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