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Department ofBotany

No. 151
December/January 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Based at The Royal Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, the Conifer Conservation Programme was launched in April 1991 as a unique initiative in ex situ conservation. The program's work, which is funded by the Sainsbury Family Trusts, is mainly concerned with the conservation of temperate conifers.

Many conifer species, especially those occurring in small local populations, are particularly vulnerable to disturbance and exploitation due to various forms of extraction and clearing. Factoring into their demise is the cross-pollinating with non- native commercial conifer species, thus causing genetic contamination of already rare species. According to IUCN - the World Conservation Union, of the world's 662 known conifer species, 364 are listed as threatened. Although there are relatively few conifer species, together they represent a uniquely important group of plants. Apart from being an important component of many natural habitats they are vital to man for many obvious and not-so-obvious reasons: timber used in construction, fuel, paper pulp, shelter belts and reclamation work, chemicals and pharmaceutical products, and contributions to scientific research on plant evolution.

The goals of the Conifer Conservation Programme are to establish a network of safe sites throughout the United Kingdom and abroad for the conservation of conifers and their associated species, protecting them from threats of extraction and introduced genetic tampering. In creating a National Strategic Reserve, the Programme would use these sites as a resource for future breeding programs to assist reintroduction back into the wild, and scientific research into conifer biology and ecology. Educational programs designed to increase public awareness of these issues have also been developed. In the campaign to maintain and safeguard the threatened conifers and their habitats, the Conifer Conservation Programme actively organizes overseas plant collecting expeditions to sample from wild populations; propagates cultivated plants which in many cases represent genetic material which no longer exists in the wild; conducts educational programs to highlight the importance of conserving conifers and their habitats; and encourages international collaborative programs with scientific and horticultural institutions. For more information contact: Martin Gardner, Conifer Conservation Programme Co-ordinator, c/o Royal Botanic Garden, Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, Scotland; Tel.: (44) 131 552 717 ext. 479; Fax: (44) 131 552 0382; E-mail:; or Philip Thomas, Research Officer, Conifer Conservation Programme at the above address; E-mail:


Access the Internet, and turn to the National Wildlife Federation's (NWF) new homepage on the World Wide Web. "For National Wildlife to get its message across, we have to go where the people are," explains Dave Michaud, the Director of National Wildlife's Office of Grassroots Action. "And more and more, people are turning on the Web to get information. In going online, the Federation is only doing what it has always done--making the most critical and up-to-date information on environmental issues available to the greatest number of people. At the same time, the Federation wants to put out the word on how it as an organization is responding to what has proven to be and what will continue to be the most single important issue of our time--creating and preserving a healthy environment."

To accomplish this, the Federation has broken its homepage into a number of departments aimed at supplying the greatest variety of information to the broadest possible audience. For example, the "In the Classroom" section provides teachers and students background information and activities for the classroom, while a comprehensive index to National Wildlife , =International Wildlife , and Ranger Rick can be found in the "On-line Library". Lying at the heart of the NWF's Web pages is the Action Page. Here is where you can get background information on such issues as clean water, endangered species, takings, the farm bill, foreign assistance, and public lands, you will also get the most current intelligence on what the Congress, the Administration, and the courts are doing on these critical issues. Included are "how tips" on everything from writing a letter to Congress to working with your local media.

To reach the National Wildlife Federation's homepage, the address is


A database on California plant distribution is now available from the U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. The California Flora Database contains nomenclature, geographic and ecological information for 6,717 California vascular plant taxa, as well as additional habitat information for rare taxa and species of the Sierra Nevada. Each species-level taxon listed in Munz and Keck's 1968 A California Flora and Supplement is referenced in the database, plus additional records for infraspecific taxa listed in the California Native Plant Society's Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California.

The database is provided as a 2.2 mg ASCII file designed for easy import into the user's database software. The file is available for anonymous ftp at: For more information contact: Ann Dennis, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, P.O. Box 245, Berkeley, CA 94701; E-mail:


The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) seeks an Instructor of Tropical Biology for a two-year commitment to lead four offerings of OTS' eight-week graduate field course,"Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach in Costa Rica". The position is two-thirds time with full Duke University benefits. Qualifications: Ph.D., knowledge of Costa Rica, excellent organizational skills, ability to communicate in Spanish and English, are required. Anticipated start date is November, 1996, with first course in January, 1997.

Also sought by the OTS is a Director for the Undergraduate Semester Abroad Program in Tropical Biology. This is a full-time position to develop and lead a new permanent program opening fall 1997 and based in OTS field stations. Responsibilities include administration, recruiting students and faculty, external relations, planning, etc. English, Spanish, leadership ability, and doctorate degree are required. Review starts in February, and anticipated start date is May, 1996.

For full details on either position, contact OTS Search, Box 90630, Durham, NC, 27708-0639; E-mail:


The Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund was established by the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society to help protect the world's threatened wildlife. Each year the Fund awards grants for up to $1,000 to individuals or institutions working in conservation biology.

Projects and programs that enhance biodiversity and maintain ecosystems receive the highest funding priority. Field studies, environmental education programs, development of techniques that can be used in a natural environment and captive propagation programs that stress an integrative and/or multi-disciplinary approach to conservation are also appropriate. Proposals for single species preservation, initial surveys, or seed money for technique development are not appropriate.

Recipients are required to acknowledge the Roger Williams Park Zoo and the Rhode Island Zoological Society in any publications that result from the project. Recipients must also submit a progress report which includes an update on the status of the project. This report is due one year after funding.

Limit your application to a two page curriculum vitae. All proposals must be submitted by May 1, 1996. Applications will be reviewed by a committee of zoo, zoo society, and outside advisors. Grants will be awarded in July, 1996. For further information, contact: Dr. Anne Savage, Director of Research, Roger Williams Park Zoo, Elmwood Ave., Providence, RI 02905; Tel.: (401) 785-3510; Fax: (401) 941-3988; E-mail: BI599132@BROWNVM.BROWN.EDU.


The Biodiversity Support Program (BSP), a consortium of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy and World Resources Institute, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), is soliciting proposals under its 1995 Conservation Impact Grants Program for applied field-based research and analysis relevant to the conservation of biological diversity in selected USAID-assisted countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

Conservation Impact Grants should aim to produce knowledge that will offer solutions to specific conservation and development challenges. To be most competitive, proposed research should result in conclusions that will have direct conservation impact and/or policy implications. Projects to be supported may be primarily ecological, economic, anthropological or socio-political in focus, or may utilize an interdisciplinary methodology that combines two or three of these approaches. Proposals dealing exclusively with the ecology and/or the behavior of a single species are generally discouraged, although they may be appropriate in particular cases. Proposals will only be considered if the principal investigator is from a developing country. However, a portion of the project budget may support the collaborative efforts of a U.S. (or other developed country) researcher.

The deadline for submission of proposals is March 15, 1996. The maximum grant awarded will be US $15,000. For information and a copy of the request for proposals, contact: Conservation Impact Grants Competition, Biodiversity Support Program, c/o World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th St., N.W., Washington, DC 20037; Tel.: (202) 778-9793 or 822-3462; Fax: (202) 293-9211 or 861-8324; E- mail:


This is the first and only call for submission of abstracts for the international conference, "Sustaining Ecosystems and People in Temperate and Boreal Forests", integrating conservation of biological diversity with social and economic goals, to be held in Victoria, British Columbia, September 8-13, 1996.

Submissions should: describe actual working examples of managing for sustainability; be interdisciplinary in nature, including aspects of ecological, economic, and social values; fit into one of three "scales" of interest, i.e. national/regional, sub-regional/watershed or stand.

Abstracts describing case studies of managing for sustainability that are not selected for oral presentations will be presented at a poster session. All abstracts for presentations relevant to the conference themes of "Updates on National and International Issues" and "Principles and Concepts of Ecosystems and Human Values" will be presented at a poster session. For more information on conference format, themes, and proceedings, contact: Connections Victoria Ltd., P.O. Box 40046, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 3N3; Tel.: (604) 382-0332; Fax: (604) 382-2076; E-mail: Submit abstracts no later than March 15, 1996 to the above address.


BirdLife International's commitment to setting global priorities for bird conservation takes a major step forward with the publication of its Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics.

Alarming figures of bird habitat destruction and extinction underlined the urgent need for the identification of priority sites for the conservation of Neotropical species. Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics answers this most urgent need. The book identifies 596 areas that are the most important places currently known for the conservation of the 290 globally threatened birds in the Neotropics (including Mexico, Central and South America, and the "Neotropical" Pacific Islands. Fundamental to the concept of key areas is the adequate representation of each threatened species within one or more areas. A simple set of criteria is devised, so that, for most species, three most important sites from which they are known qualify as key areas.

The book is produced in a simple, easy-to-use format, aiming to make the information it holds readily accessible to planners, decision-makers and managers involved in conservation issues in the Neotropics. Key Areas is a plea for action that is essential in order to prevent multiple bird extinction.

Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics by D.C. Wege and A.J. Long (1995) can be ordered from: Smithsonian Institution Press, P. O. Box 960, Herndon, VA 22070-0960; Tel.: (800) 782-4612 ($32, plus shipping) or BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 0NA, England; Tel.: (44) 1223 277318; Fax:(44) 1223 277200; E-mail: (22.00 pounds Sterling, plus shipping).


Akeroyd, J. 1995. Protecting the flora of Poland's miniature Alps. Plant Talk 3: 18-20. (Tatra Mountains in the Carpathians)

Akeroyd, J. 1995. Raymond Fosberg. Island man who pioneered plant conservation, 1908-1993. Plant Talk 3: 5.

Akeroyd, J. and Wyse Jackson, P. (Compilers). 1995. A Handbook for Botanic Gardens on the Reintroduction of Plants to the Wild. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, London. 31 pp.

Amoroso, J. and Judd, W. 1995. A floristic study of the Cedar Key Scrub State Reserve, Levy County, Florida. Castanea 60(3): 210-232. (Scrub, salt marsh habitat with abundance given for each 449 vascular species)

Anderson, I. 1995. World's frogs may croak without IVF. New Scientist 1998: 9. (In vitro fertilization)

Anon. 1995. Australia's woodchip controversy. Plant Talk 3: 10. (Logging of Eucalyptus forests)

Anon. 1995. Focus on biodiversity in the Gulf of Guinea. Plant Talk 3: 15. (Home to 195 endemic plant species)

Anon. 1995. Medicinal plants: medicinal and useful plants of Alagoas. Plantas do Nordeste Newsletter 8: 1. (Brazil)

Anon. 1995. Mixed fortunes for protected areas in Russia. Plant Talk 3: 31-32.

Anon. 1995. New network moves ahead in United States. Plant Talk 3: 12. (Native Plant Conservation Initiative)

Anon. 1995. Pond scum or food of the gods? Plant Talk 3: 13. (Algae, natural plant resource)

Anon. 1995. Potato blight: an old problem lives on. Plant Talk 3: 14. (Ireland's 1995 potato crop down by 15%)

Anon. 1995. Ray of hope shines on Clayoquot Sound. Plant Talk 3: 12. (Conservation of old growth forest on Vancouver Island)

Anon. 1995. Sarawak dam threatens forests. Plant Talk 3: 11.

Anon. 1995. Threat to unique conifers of New Caledonia. Plant Talk 3: 10-11. (Of the island's 44 conifer species, 43 are endemic, of which 35 are under threat)

Anon. 1995. A unique forest protected. Plant Talk 3: 32. (Virgin Komi Forests, Russia)

Backhouse, G. and Jeanes, J. 1995. The Orchids of Victoria. The Miegunyah Press, Victoria, Australia. 388 pp. (Conservation status by IUCN category)

Balakrishnan, M., Borgstrom, R. and Bie, S. (Eds). 1994. Tropical Ecosystems: A Synthesis of Tropical Ecology and Conservation. International Science Publisher, Lebanon, New Hampshire. 441 pp.

Boling, R. 1995. Horticulture in hell. Am. Forests 101(9): 48-49. (30-acre paradise of trees and medicinal plants in Carrefour, Port-au-Prince, Haiti)

Bowles, M. and Wheland, C. (Eds). 1995. Restoration of Endangered Species. Conceptual Issues, Planning and Implementation. Cambridge University Press, New York. 408 pp.

Bradley, G., Wortman, D. and Holderness, J. 1995. Natural area planning: a case study in Washington State, USA. Nat. Areas J. 15(4): 339-346.

Brooks, D., McLennan, D., Carpenter, J., Weller, S. and Coddington, J. 1995. Systematics, ecology, and behavior. BioScience 45(10): 687-695.

Brush, S. and Stabinsky, D. (Eds). 1995. Valuing Local Knowledge. Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights. Island Press, Covelo, California. 330 pp.

Bullock, S., Mooney, H. and Medina, E. (Eds). 1995. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Cambridge University Press, New York. 512 pp.

Callenbach, E. 1995. Bring Back the Buffalo! A Sustainable Future for America's Great Plains. Island Press, Covelo, California. 288 pp.

Cerovsky, J. 1995. Endangered Plants. Aventinum, Praha, Czech Republic. 176 pp. (Plants of Central and Northern Europe)

Chapin, F. and Korner, C. (Eds). 1995. Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 332 pp.

Cherevchenko, T. and Gaponenko, N. 1995. M.M. Grishko Central Botanical Garden of the National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 20-22. (Ukraine)

Chiron, G. 1995. A conservation network for orchids from French Guiana. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 23-25.

Churchill, S., Balslev, H., Forero, E. and Luteyn, J. (Eds). 1995. Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forests. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 702 pp. (Proceedings of the Neotropical Montane Forest Biodiversity and Conservation Symposium, June 1993)

Collinson, N., Biggs, J., Corfield, A., Hodson, M., Walker, D., Whitfield, M. and Williams, P. 1995. Temporary and permanent ponds: an assessment of the effects of drying out on the conservation value of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Biol. Conservation 74(2): 125-134.

Common, M. 1995. Sustainability and Policy. Limits to Economics. Cambridge University Press, New York. 360 pp.

Craighead, J., Sumner, J. and Mitchell, J. 1995. The Grizzly Bears of Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1959-1992. Island Press, Covelo, California. 560 pp.

Cronk, Q. and Fuller, J. 1995. Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, New York. 256 pp.

Davis, G. 1995. Systematics and public health. BioScience 45(10): 704-714.

Day, K. 1995. Rain forest remedies. Washington Post September 19: E1, E4. (Drug companies turning to tribal healers for medicines)

Delforge, P. 1995. Collins Photo Guide. Orchids of Britain & Europe. HarperCollins, London. 480 pp. (Chapter on conservation)

Dinga, L. 1995. The Botanic Garden of Tirana, Albania. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 39.

Du Plessis, M. 1995. The effects of fuelwood removal on the diversity of some cavity-using birds and mammals in South Africa. Biol. Conservation 74(2): 77-82.

Edwards, V. 1995. Dealing in Diversity. America's Market for Nature Conservation. Cambridge University Press, New York. 200 pp.

Faber-Langendoen, D. and Davis, M. 1995. Effects of fire frequency on tree canopy cover at Allison Savanna, east-central Minnesota, USA. Nat. Areas J. 15(4): 319-328.

Frankel, O., Brown, A. and Burdon, J. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, New York. 320 pp.

Gillett, G., Howell, J. and Leschke, H. 1995. A Flora of Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, California. 216 pp. (Revised 1961 edition; rarity status listed)

Gomez-Limon, F. and de Lucio, J. 1995. Recreational activities and loss of diversity in grasslands in Alta Manzanares Natural Park, Spain. Biol. Conservation 74(2): 99-106.

Gotlieb, Y. 1995. Development, Environment, and Global Dysfunction: Toward Sustainable Recovery. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 250 pp.

Gowdy, J. and O'Hara, S. 1995. Economic Theory for Environmentalists. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 208 pp.

Guerrant, E. and McMahon, L. 1995. Saving seeds for the future. Plant Talk 3: 21-23. (Seed banks)

Hawkins, T. and Richard, E. 1995. A floristic study of two bogs on Crowley's Ridge in Greene County, Arkansas. Castanea 60(3): 233-244. (3 rare species)

Hendler, G., Miller, J., Pawson, D. and Kier, P. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins and Allies. Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 392 pp.

Jafari, M. 1995. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR), Iran. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 40-41.

Jones, C. and Lawton, J. (Eds). 1995. Linking Species and Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, New York. 389 pp.

Jones, D. 1995. Palms Throughout the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 432 pp.

Joosse, A. 1995. Utrecht University Botanic Gardens - science, interpretation, and care. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 26-28.

Jorge, M. 1995. Exploring ecotourism in the Dominican Republic. Marine Conservation News 7(4): 16.

Lauder, G., Huey, R., Monson, R. and Jensen, R. 1995. Systematics and the study of organismal form and function. BioScience 45(10): 696-704.

Lawton, J. and May, R. (Eds). 1995. Extinction Rates. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 248 pp.

Lemonick, M. 1995. Can the Galapagos survive? Time Magazine 146(18): 80-82.

Leon, C. 1995. Planta Europa: a new voice for saving Europe's plants. Plant Talk 3: 9.

Ludwig, D. 1995. Assessment and management of wildlife diversity in an urban setting. Nat. Areas J. 15(4): 353- 361. (Illinois)

Mann, B. 1995. Quantification of illicit fish harvesting in the Lake St Lucia Game Reserve, South Africa. Biol. Conservation 74(2): 107-114.

Mann, C. and Plummer, M. 1995. Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 302 pp.

Markon, C. 1995. History and use of remote sensing for conservation and management of federal lands in Alaska, USA. Nat. Areas J. 15(4): 329-338.

Martin, J., Waldren, S. and O'Sullivan, A. 1995. The Irish rare and threatened plant seed bank, and its use in the conservation of Irish biodiversity. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 50-52.

Maser, C. 1995. Resolving Environmental Conflict: Towards Sustainable Community Development. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 250 pp.

Maunder, M., Orr, D., Staniforth, M. and Parry, B. 1995. The cultivation and repatriation of Alsinidendron trinerve, a threatened Hawai'ian endemic. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 42-43.

Meggers, B. 1995. Amazonia. Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 192 pp. (New edition)

Miller, D. and Rossman, A. 1995. Systematics, biodiversity, and agriculture. BioScience 45(10): 680-686.

Nickens, E. 1995. Is forest management harming songbirds? Am. Forests 101(9): 18-21, 41-42.

Nixon, W. 1995. Hot cars & hardwoods. Am. Forests 101(9): 28-31, 69. (New York City forest restoration)

Olin, P. 1995. Funding botanic gardens and arboreta in the 21st century. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 46-49.

Parfit, M. 1995. Diminishing returns. Nat. Geographic 188(5): 2-37. (World fisheries in turmoil)

Perrings, C., Maler, K. G., Folke, C., Holling, C. and Jansson, B. O. (Eds). 1995. Biodiversity Loss. Economic and Ecological Issues. Cambridge University Press, New York. 320 pp.

Platt, R. 1995. Land Use and Society. Geography, Law, and Public Policy. Island Press, Covelo, California. 425 pp.

Pollard, E. and Yates, T. 1995. Monitoring Butterflies for Ecology and Conservation. Chapman & Hall, New York. 288 pp.

Rae, J. 1995. Aspects of the population and reproductive ecology of the endangered fragrant prickly-apple cactus [Cereus eriophorus var. fragrans (Small) L. Benson]. Castanea 60(3): 255-269. (Florida)

Rao, P. 1995. Conservation of the endangered Kaempferia siphonantha King ex Baker in the Andaman-Nicobar archipelago. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 44-45.

Robison, H. and Allen, R. 1995. Only in Arkansas: A Study of the Endemic Plants and Animals of the State. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville. 121 pp.

Rosenzweig, M. 1995. Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, New York. 464 pp.

Savage, J. 1995. Systematics and the biodiversity crisis. BioScience 45(10): 673-679.

Schultz, J. 1995. Ecozones of the World: Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 449 pp.

Simpson, B. and Cracraft, J. 1995. Systematics: the science of biodiversity. BioScience 45(10): 670-672.

Snape, W. (Ed). 1995. Biodiversity and the Law. Island Press, Covelo, California. 350 pp.

Sochaczewski, P. 1995. Narcotic slime that nibbles a watershed. Plant Talk 3: 24-25. (Sakau of Pohnpei)

Stevens, W. 1995. The forest primeval isn't what it used to be. New York Times September 24: E4. (USA)

Stewart, C. and Porter, D. 1995. RAPD profiling in biological conservation: an application to estimating clonal variation in rare and endangered Iliamna in Virginia. Biol. Conservation 74(2): 135-142.

Stone, C. and Pratt, L. 1994. Hawaii's Plants and Animals: Biological Sketches of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 135 pp.

Sutherland, E. and Hill, D. (Eds). 1995. Managing Habitats for Conservation. Cambridge University Press, New York. 320 pp.

Svjazeva, O. and Firsov, G. 1995. Arboretum of Komarov Botanical Institute in St Petersburg, Russia. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 17-19.

Swaminathan, M. 1995. Farmers' rights. Plant Talk 3: 16-17. (Saving India's genetic diversity)

Swanson, T. (Ed). 1995. The Economics and Ecology of Biodiversity Decline. The Forces Driving Global Change. Cambridge University Press, New York. 170 pp.

Swanson, T. (Ed). 1995. Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity Conservation. A Multidisciplinary Analysis of the Values of Medicinal Plants. Cambridge University Press, New York. 320 pp.

Synge, H. 1995. The Biodiversity Convention explained. Part 3. Conservation provisions. Plant Talk 3: 26-28.

van den Wollenberg, B. 1995. The Tresor-project of the newly established regional office of BGCI in The Netherlands. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 29-31.

Vaughan, R. 1994. Endangered Species Act Handbook. Government Institutes, Inc., Rockville, Maryland. 165 pp.

Vitousek, P., Loope, L. and Adsersen, H. (Eds). 1995. Islands: Biological Diversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 238 pp.

Vovides, A., Cortez, M., Iglesias, C. and Lascurian, M. 1995. The Jardin Botanico Francisco Javier Clavijero in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(5): 32- 38.

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