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Department ofBotany

No. 152
February 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


In 1989, the Government of Guyana proposed a unique initiative at the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It offered about 400,000 hectares of unexploited Amazonian forests in the central part of Guyana for a joint Commonwealth project that would help conserve biodiversity, conduct research leading to sustainable and equitable use of tropical rainforest resources, and integrate environmental and developmental concerns in operation plans which could be applied to similar situations on a national, regional and even global scale.

The idea was greeted enthusiastically, and the Iwokrama International Rain Forest Programme was born. It aims to establish an international center for research and training at the University of Guyana; an environmental communication unit for database development, information exchange, publications and dissemination of research results; an Amazonian rainforest wilderness reserve within the program area; and a sustainable use zone in the remaining forest area.

The establishment of an Amazonian Rain Forest Wilderness Reserve in the program site will provide a store-house of biological diversity/genetic resources which can be used for research and the development of biotechnology. The Wilderness Preserve will also answer the need for in situ conservation of biological resources and the protection of ecosystems. Conservation and the sustainable use of biological resources are key objectives of the International Convention on Biological Diversity.

The Program will also chronicle the knowledge of Amerindians on the use and conservation of biological diversity and help articulate methods of recognizing and rewarding intellectual property rights related to such knowledge. Coupled with this aspect of the Program, an environmental education and training program will be established. An international environmental communications center, which will be a unit of the International Centre for Research and Training, will develop innovative methods for environmental education, training and the dissemination of information on the sustainable use of rainforest resources.

The Iwokrama International Rain Forest Programme invites organizations, aid agencies, scientists, NGOs, graduate students and other interested people to join this unique venture. For more information, contact Prem Srivastava, Research and Development Manager, Iwokrama International Rain Forest Programme, c/o Guyana Natural Resources Agency, P.O. Box 1074, Georgetown, Guyana; Fax 592-2-59199.


The Iwokrama International Rain Forest Programme offers facilities for research in a remote pristine forest area 300 km south of Georgetown. Currently the Iwokrama Programme is in its start-up phase and welcomes researchers who would help improve the scientific foundations of sustainable utilization of the forest. At present research is needed in the following fields: general characterization of the physical characteristics of the site; characterization of the flora and fauna; forest ecology with special emphasis on regeneration of timber trees; forest type classification and mapping; and identification and development of non-timber forest products.

Iwokrama makes available the facilities of a field station located near Kurupukari on the left bank of the Essequibo River. Lodging and meals at the field station, transportation and field guides can be provided at modest rates. Researchers must provide all of their own funding.

Iwokrama will evaluate and select proposals on the basis of space available and relation to the aims of the Programme. There is special interest in developing long-term collaborative arrangements with established institutions doing practical research in tropical forests.

Interested institutions or individuals are invited to send a profile of their proposed research to: Director General, Iwokrama International Rain Forest Programme, P.O. Box 1074, 41 Brickdam, Georgetown, Guyana; Tel.: 592-2-51504; Fax: 592-2-59199.


The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) is offering a three-week course open to all qualified applicants. Held August 1-21, 1996, this course in Tropical Diversity will be conducted in Costa Rica at the OTS field stations in classic lowland rainforest (La Selva), seasonally dry forest (Palo Verde), and at a mid-elevation site (Las Cruces). The objectives of this course will be to study the diversity of plants, animals and biotic interactions found in the three types of tropical forest at the OTS' various field stations.

After one day of orientation, and introductory lectures in San Jose, the class will operate entirely in the field where the schedule will include a detailed introduction and orientation walks conducted by scientists, several days of field problems culminating in experience in scientific research, writing and independent exploration, lectures and discussions, and in-depth presentations on current research topics. Participants' grades are determined by performance in course activities and the quality of oral and written reports. All participants receive grades and transcripts granted by the University of Costa Rica. Successful completion of the course carries three graduate semester hours of credit.

Enrollment is limited to 22 students. Participants are selected on the basis of background and goals related to the objectives of the course. This course typically enrolls students from a variety of backgrounds ranging from advanced undergraduates (juniors or seniors) to established biology faculty seeking an introduction to tropical biology.

Application deadline is April 15, 1996 (or until all places are filled); announcement of selections is May 15, 1996. Apply to and request application materials from: Organization for Tropical Studies, Box 90630, Durham, NC 27708-0630; Tel.: (919) 684-5774; Fax: (919) 684-5661; E-mail: Costs include a $25 application fee; a course fee of $1,500 (OTS member students), $2,450 (non-OTS member students); personal expenses and international travel are the responsibility of the student.


The Venezuelan Guayana is a botanically rich and geologically ancient part of northern South America that is home to nearly 10,000 species of vascular plants. This area is dominated by massive table mountains, locally known as tepuis, that tower over surrounding rain forest and savannas. The flora includes many endemic species and genera, with much of the area still in pristine condition.

The Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana is the first full scientific account of the plants of the region, which is located in the southeastern half of Venezuela and is larger in area than the state of California. This work was initiated by the late Julian A. Steyermark, a prolific plant collector and author of numerous botanical works. The project is now directed by Paul E. Berry, with editorial assistance from Bruce K. Holst and Kay Yatskievych. More than 180 botanists from around the world are contributing to the flora, which will occupy 11 volumes when completed. Over 5,000 line drawings completed by Venezuelan botanical artist Bruno Manara accompany the floristic treatments.

Volume 1 is an illustrated general introduction to the flora area, with chapters on geography, history of botanical exploration, vegetation types, conservation, and floristics and endemism. A newly developed key to the families of seed plants is provided, as well as 44 pages of color plates and two oversized color maps showing topography and vegetation types in the flora area.

Volume 2 begins the alphabetical sequence of family treatments, first within the ferns and fern allies, then followed by the initial 11 families of seed plants (Acanthaceae to Araceae). The treatments are designed to facilitate identification of plants in the region by providing keys to the genera and species, full family and genus descriptions, and habit illustrations of over half the species treated.

The Flora can be ordered from Missouri Botanical Garden, Department Eleven, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299; Tel.: (314) 577-9534; Fax: (314) 577-9594; E-mail: Volume 1: $52.50 (U.S.), $54.50(non-U.S.); Volume 2: $67.50 (U.S.), $69.50 (non-U.S.). Prices include postage (surface). Add $3.00 handling fee per order.


April 17-19, 1996. The Second Annual Conference on Ecotourism and Conservation will be held in La Ceiba, Honduras, co-sponsored by the Honduras Information Network, Continental Airlines, and Eco-Escuela Spanish language school. National and International speakers will address the combined issues of eco- tourism and conservation. The conference will offer an opportunity to network and receive information on marketing tourism programs.

To register, in Honduras, contact Yvette Pearson: P.O. 797, La Ceiba, Honduras; Fax: 504-43-0700; E-mail: In the U.S., contact Tom Ellis, P.O. 33462, Kerrville, TX 78029; Tel.: (210) 792-4397; Fax (210) 792-5552; E-mail: Registration before April 1, $185, after April 1, $205.

May 19-22,1996. The Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) will sponsor a symposium on "Global Genetic Resources: Access, Ownership and Intellectual Property Rights". Held in Beltsville, Maryland, the purpose of the twenty-first symposium is to explore issues related to ownership of, and access to, genetic resources and biological specimens as they affect the ability of scientists to do their job of providing knowledge to benefit the people of the world. While most scientists desire free, international distribution of germplasm and scientific information on biodiversity, current forces and trends are leading away from this position. A mutually beneficial compromise is needed and this meeting will explore these possibilities.

A pre-symposium ASC Workshop on Government Relations for Institution Leaders will be held the Saturday afternoon, and Sunday morning of the Symposium. The workshop is intended for leaders who are interested in learning how they and their institutions can be more effective voices for their institution, their community, and issues of concern.

Registration fees include meetings, published proceedings, banquet, lunch and evening social. Before April 1,1996 the fee is $195, after April 1, $225; $100 for student, spouse, and one-day registration; an additional $65 for the ASC Pre-symposium Workshop. For information and registration, contact: Beltsville Symposium XXI/ASC Annual Meeting, Attn. Virginia Hupfer, Bldg. 003, Rm. 220, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705-2350; Tel.: (301) 504-6108; Fax: (301) 504-6357.


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Broad, W. 1995. The world's deep, cold sea floors harbor a riotous diversity of life. New York Times(Science Times) October 17: C1, C10. (Current estimates: 10-100 million species)

Brothers, C. 1995. Ever green in Ecuador. Sanctuary 35(2): 13-14. (Tagua, an alternative product in Ecuador, helps the economy)

Brush, S., Kesseli, R., Ortega, R., Cisneros, P., Zimmerer, K. and Quiros, C. 1995. Potato diversity in the Andean center of crop domestication. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1189-1198.

Busing, R., Halpern, C. and Spies, T. 1995. Ecology of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) in western Oregon and Washington. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1199-1207.

Chan, S., Ishihara, A., Lu, D., Phipps, M. and Mills, J. 1995. Observations on the whale meat trade in East Asia. Traffic Bull. 15(3): 107-115.

Clark, T., Reading, R. and Backhouse, G. 1995. Prototyping for successful conservation: the eastern barred bandicoot program. End. Species UPDATE 12(10 & 11): 5-7, 10. (USA/Canada)

Cohen, J. 1996. Grappling over the Galapagos. Zoogoer 25(1): 6-13. (Sea cucumbers of Ecuadorian islands)

Couper-Johnston, R. 1995. Million-dollar baby. BBC Wildlife 13(11): 16-20. (Panda breeding)

Davis, M. (Ed). 1996. Eastern Old-Growth Forests. Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery. Island Press, Covelo, California. 420 pp.

Demers, M., Simpson, J., Boerner, R., Silva, A., Berns, L. and Artigas, F. 1995. Fencerows, edges, and implications of changing connectivity illustrated by two contiguous Ohio landscapes. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1159-1168.

Dharmasena, C. 1995. A case for the establishment of safari parks. Loris 20(5): 208-211.

Duran, R. 1995. Pseudophoenix sargentii: an endangered palm species. Principes 39(4): 219-224. (Caribbean, Mexico, USA, Belize)

Fa, J., Juste, J., Perez del Val, J. and Castroviejo, J. 1995. Impact of market hunting on mammal species in Equatorial Guinea. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1107-1115.

Fearnside, P. and Ferraz, J. 1995. A conservation gap analysis of Brazil's Amazonian vegetation. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1134-1147.

Fitzgibbon, C., Mogaka, H. and Fanshawe, J. 1995. Subsistence hunting in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya, and its effects on mammal populations. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1116-1126.

Fleischer, R., Fuller, G. and Ledig, D. 1995. Genetic structure of endangered clapper rail (Rallus longirostris) populations in Southern California. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1234-1243.

Fox, J., Krummel, J., Yarnasarn, S., Ekasingh, M. and Podger, N. 1995. Land use and landscape dynamics in northern Thailand: assessing change in three upland watersheds. Ambio 24(6): 328-334.

Frankel, O. 1995. Landraces in transit - the threat perceived. DIVERSITY 11(3): 14-15.

Gallagher, J. and Strauss, D. 1995. Calvin Ross Sperling, 1957-1995. DIVERSITY 11(3): 12-13. (Economic botanist)

Giezentanner, B. 1995. The lost world found. Sanctuary 35(2): 10-12. (Remote park in Bolivia)

Glick, D. 1996. Cinderella story. Nat. Wildlife 34(2): 42-46. (Chattanooga, once a polluted city, is a model for sustainable development)

Gnanapala, R. 1995. Environmental conservation in ancient Sri Lanka and India. Loris 20(5): 216.

Gray, E. 1995. DNA fingerprinting reveals a lack of genetic variation in northern populations of the western pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata). Conservation Biology 9(5): 1244-1254.

Griffths, R. 1995. Frogs leap into the news. BBC Wildlife 13(11): 24. (Agile frog, candidate for rarest frog in the British Isles)

Hagan, J. 1995. Environmentalism and the science of conservation biology. Conservation Biology 9(5): 975-976.

Hanfee, F. 1995. Notes on freshwater turtle exploitation, Uttar Pradesh, India. Traffic Bull. 15(3): 120-121.

Hedrick, P. 1995. Gene flow and genetic restoration: the Florida panther as a case study. Conservation Biology 9(5): 996-1007.

Hemley, G. 1995. Species of special concern. Focus 17(6): 4-5. (Whales, tigers, rhinos, elephants, sharks threatened by illegal trade)

Hernandez, H. and Barcenas, R. 1995. Endangered cacti in the Chihuahuan Desert: I. Distribution patterns. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1176-1188.

Hicks, D. and Mauchamp, A. 1995. Size-dependent predation by feral mammals on Galapagos Opuntia. Noticias de Galapagos 55: 15-17.

Hirtz, A. 1995. The last frontier. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 64(12): 1318-1325. (Ecuador, home to over 3,200 species of orchids, undergoing deforestation)

Hoggarth, M., Rice, D. and Lee, D. 1995. Discovery of the federally endangered freshwater mussel, Epioblasma obliquata obliquata (Rafinesque, 1820) (Unionidae), in Ohio. Ohio J. Science 95(4): 298-299.

Holdgate, M. 1995. Pathways to sustainability: the evolving role of transnational institutions. Environment 37(9): 16- 20, 38-42.

Hutto, R. 1995. Composition of bird communities following stand-replacement fires in northern Rocky Mountain (U.S.A.) conifer forests. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1041-1058.

Jackson, P. 1995. Cats in jams. BBC Wildlife 13(11): 61. (Wild cats threatened)

Kakabadse, Y. 1995. Harnessing the winds of change. Conservation Issues 2(6): 9. (Latin America policies)

Kenney, J., Smith, J., Starfield, A. and McDougal, C. 1995. The long-term effects of tiger poaching on population viability. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1127-1133. (Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal)

Kinnaird, M. 1995. Indonesia's hornbill haven. Natural History 105(1): 40-45.

Knick, S. and Rotenberry, J. 1995. Landscape characteristics of fragmented shrubsteppe habitats and breeding passerine birds. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1059-1071. (Idaho)

La Pierre, Y. 1995. Showdown on Santa Rosa. Am. Horticulturist 74(12): 16-23. (Cattle grazing threatens rare plants on Santa Rosa Island, California)

Lapin, M. and Barnes, B. 1995. Using the landscape ecosystem approach to assess species and ecosystem diversity. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1148-1158. (Northern Michigan)

Maehr, D. and Cox, J. 1995. Landscape features and panthers in Florida. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1008-1019.

Margolis, M. 1996. Single, lonely parrot seeks companionship. Int. Wildlife 26(1): 50-54. (Spix's macaw, South America)

Mathews, J. 1996. Lusting after black gold. Nat. Wildlife 34(2): 15. (Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska)

McCormick, S. and Derbort, J. 1996. Partnerships for The Nature Conservancy. Fremontia 24(1): 12-15. (Projects to safeguard California's biological diversity)

McIvor, D., Bissonette, J. and Drew, G. 1995. Taxonomic and conservation status of the Yuma mountain lion. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1033-1040. (American Southwest)

Means, M. and Johnson, J. 1995. Movement of threatened Ozark cavefish in Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas. Southwestern Naturalist 40(3): 308-313.

Miller, P. 1995. Selective breeding programs for rare alleles: examples from the Przewalski's horse and California condor pedigrees. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1262-1273.

Mitchell, J. 1995. Monteverde migration. Sanctuary 35(2): 8-9. (Costa Rica)

Mittermeier, R. and Bowles, I. 1995. Suriname crisis illustrates global threat to biodiversity. Tropinet 6(4): 1.

Monks, V. 1996. Environmental regulations. Who needs them? Nat. Wildlife 34(2): 24-31. (USA)

Montenegro, G., Gomez, M., Iturriaga, L. and Timmermann, B. 1994. Potencialidad de la flora nativa chilena como fuente de productos naturales de uso medicinal. Rojasiana 2(2): 49- 66. (73 native plants analyzed)

Moore, M. 1995. Fall of the monarch. Washington Post January 7(World News): A21. (Mexican snowstorm kills millions of monarchs)

Murphy, L. 1996. Strangers in paradise. Nature Conservancy 46(1): 28-33. (Alien plants and animals in Hawaii)

Nagelkerke, L., Mina, M., Wudneh, T., Sibbing, F. and Osse, J. 1995. In Lake Tana, a unique fish fauna needs protection. BioScience 45(11): 772-775. (Ethiopia)

Nilsson, S., Arup, U., Baranowski, R. and Ekman, S. 1995. Tree-dependent lichens and beetles as indicators in conservation forests. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1208-1215. (Sweden)

Papastavrou, V. 1995. Gentle giant's furry fate. BBC Wildlife 13(11): 26. (Steller's sea cow)

Pearlstine, L., Brandt, L., Kitchens, W. and Mazzotti, F. 1995. Impacts of citrus development on habitats of southwest Florida. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1020-1032.

Phillips, O. and Meilleur, B. 1995. Survey by CPC reveals "extraordinary" contributions of wild plants to U.S. economy. DIVERSITY 11(3): 10-11. (CPD, Center for Plant Conservation)

Poly, W. and Miltner, R. 1995. Recent records of the endangered western banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus menona, in the Portage River Basin, Ohio. Ohio J. Science 95(4): 294-297.

Price, P., Diniz, I., Morais, H. and Marques, E. 1995. The abundance of insect herbivore species in the tropics: the high local richness of rare species. Biotropica 27(4): 468-478.

Primack, R. 1995. A Primer of Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 200 pp.

Prober, S. and Thiele, K. 1995. Conservation of the grassy white box woodlands: relative contributions of size and disturbance to floristic composition and diversity remnants. Australian J. Bot. 43(2): 349-366.

Raeburn, P. 1995. The Last Harvest: The Genetic Gamble That Threatens to Destroy American Agriculture. Simon & Schuster, New York. 255 pp.

Rangel Ch., J. O. (Ed). 1995. Colombia. Diversidad Biotica I. Clima. Centros de Concentracion de Especies. Fauna Reptiles, Aracnidos, Himenopteros. Editorial Guadalupe Ltda., Santafe de Bogota, Colombia. 442 pp.

Reiner, R. 1996. The Cosumnes River Preserve: 1987-95. Fertile ground for new conservation ideas. Fremontia 24(1): 16-19. (California)

Roberts, C. 1995. Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs. Conservation Biology 9(5): 988- 995.

Rockwell, R. and Barrowclough, G. 1995. Effective population size and lifetime reproductive success. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1225-1233.

Salvesen, D. 1996. Flying back from the brink. Zoogoer 25(1): 24-28. (Peregrine falcons)

Sandison, M. 1995. Application of the CITES-listing criteria to plants. Traffic Bull. 15(3): 122-124.

Sandison, M. 1995. The international trade in rainsticks. Traffic Bull. 15(3): 129-131. (Musical instruments and curiosities made from cacti in Chile and South America)

Sawhill, J. 1996. Conservation science comes of age. Nature Conservancy 46(1): 5-9.

Scheidegger, C. 1995. Early development of transplanted isidioid soredia of Lobaria pulmonaria in an endangered population. Lichenologist 27(5): 361-374. (Swiss Alps)

Schelhas, J. and Greenberg, R. (Eds). 1995. Forest Patches in Tropical Landscapes. Island Press, Covelo, California. 375 pp.

Schieck, S., Lertzman, K., Nyberg, B. and Page, R. 1995. Effects of patch size on birds in old-growth montane forests. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1072-1084. (Ontario, Canada)

Scott, J. and Yeoh, P. 1995. The rediscovery and distribution of Rumex drummondii (Polygonaceae) in south- western Australia. Australian J. Bot. 43(2): 397-405. (Thought to be extinct)

Shafroth, P., Auble, G. and Scot, M. 1995. Germination and establishment of the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall subsp. monilifera) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Conservation Biology 9(5): 1169-1175. (Great Plains, USA)

Sheck, R. 1995. Conservation country. Sanctuary 35(2): 15-17. (Costa Rica)

Sims, G. 1996. Paradox of the arctic fox. Nat. Wildlife 34(2): 16-22.

Snell, H., Stone, P. and Snell, H. 1995. Geographical characteristics on the Galapagos Islands. Noticias de Galapagos 55: 18-24.

Sperling, L. and Loevinsohn, M. 1995. New division of labor between farmers and breeders unites conservation and development. DIVERSITY 11(3): 5-7.

Stapleton, R. 1996. Ecology on the run. Nature Conservancy 46(1): 10-17. (Rapid ecological assessment)

Stein, B. 1996. Putting nature on the map. Nature Conservancy 46(1): 24-28. (Mapping patterns of biodiversity)

Stolzenburg, W. 1996. Building a better refuge. Nature Conservancy 46(1): 18-23. (Using new blueprints, habitat architects are designing nature reserves to last)

Stouffer, P. and Bierregaard, R. 1995. Effects of forest fragmentation on understory hummingbirds in Amazonian Brazil. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1085-1094.

Stow, C., Carpenter, S., Madenjian, C., Eby, L. and Jackson, L. 1995. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption. BioScience 45(11): 752-758. (Lake Michigan)

Taberlet, P., Swenson, J., Sandegren, F. and Bjarvall, A. 1995. Localization of a contact zone between two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages of the brown bear Ursus arctos in Scandinavia. Conservation Biology 9(5): 1255-1261.

Tans, P. and Bakwin, P. 1995. Climate change and carbon dioxide. Ambio 24(6): 376-378.

Trippel, E. 1995. Age at maturity as a stress indicator in fisheries. BioScience 45(11): 759-771. (Northwest Atlantic)

Ulrich, W. 1995. Dam crazy in Bangkok. BBC Wildlife 13(11): 64-65. (Proposal to build a dam in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, part of Thailand's only natural World Heritage Site)

Vasey, M. 1996. The perils of Potentilla hickmanii. Fremontia 24(1): 3-11. (Critically endangered species in California)

Veiga, M. and Smith, J. 1995. Gold-mining activities in the Amazon: clean-up techniques and remedial procedures for mercury pollution. Ambio 24(6): 371-375.

Vincent, A. 1995. Trade in seahorses for traditional Chinese medicines, aquarium fishes and curios. Traffic Bull. 15(3): 125-128.

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