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Department ofBotany

No. 154
April 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The Biological Conservation Newsletter can now be accessed through the Smithsonian Institution's World Wide Web site at Then select Botany and publications. The most recent issue of the newsletter is posted along with the past 34 issues. The cumulative conservation bibliography files, containing nearly 10,000 references to literature on conservation biology, can be searched or browsed. These references have been obtained from a weekly review of the new journals and books received by the Smithsonian Institutions' Botany and Natural History libraries and from suggestions submitted by subscribers to the newsletter.

There are two ways to search the conservation bibliography. The "Search" option will retrieve all the entries that meet the search criteria. Entries are returned as individual documents. A list is presented showing the first line of each entry. One must open each "document" to view the complete text. The "Select" option builds a single document with a maximun of 200 entries from the bibliography. The document can be browsed on the screen, down loaded as a file or printed. The master file has been broken up into smaller files to facilitate retrieval. These files are available for browsing and are named for the issues of the Biological Conservation Newsletter where they were first reported.

If any subscriber would rather access the newsletter electronically, please send a message to the editor at the address given on the last page of the newsletter and your name will be deleted from the mailing list to receive a printed copy.


SEPASAL (Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands) is a major and unique database on useful plants of drylands and is maintained at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. It began in 1981. The database contains information on approximately 6,000 useful dryland species, excluding major crops. It is widely used by aid agencies, development organizations, governmental and non- governmental organizations and individual research workers and growers. SEPASAL is also used to target species for germplasm collection and storage for research, biodiversity conservation and utilization.

Data fields include: scientific name (including synonyms), plant family, vernacular and trade names, plant description, geographical distribution (to country or state level) and status (native or introduced, etc.), distribution map, conservation status, life cycle and regeneration, uses of plants (adopting an international standard classification, using as a reference Cook's Economic Botany Data Collection Standard), use-related properties and chemical analyses, ecological data including climatic tolerances, soil preferences, topography and associated species, production, seed sources, and color images. All the information will be linked to data sources.

The SEPASAL team is now revising the details held on each taxon in the database using extensive information held in manual files and other sources. At the same time, data sources are being attached to items of information. The expanded data sets will enable more accurate assessments of the economic value and the potential of individual plant species, and will also allow detailed answers to be provided more easily on a wider range of inquiries than has been possible to date. Work is currently underway on the Burseraceae (which includes the frankincense tree), Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) and Ebenaceae (ebony family). Legumes, grasses, amaranths and chenopods are among a list of 30 priority groups which will be worked upon initially.

Two other databases are maintained by the Centre for Economic Botany. The Economic Botany Bibliographic Database (EBBD) currently contains citations to more than 150,000 references dealing with plants of economic value (including those of drylands), while the Contacts' Database has records of over 1,000 organizations and projects mostly concerned with drylands.

Inquiries are welcome and are free to NGOs involved in development work. Charges are made to commercial inquirers. For more information, please contact: SEPASAL, Centre for Economic Botany, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, U.K.; Tel.: (44)-181-332-5772/5704; Fax: (44)-181-332-5278; E-mail:


To increase the visibility of the contributions of ethnobotany, and to foster and give due recognition to those who further the field, The Healing Forest Conservancy presents an annual award to a scientist, practitioner or organization that has made an outstanding contribution to ethnobotany or to indigenous peoples issues related to ethnobotany. The award honors the name of Richard Evans Schultes, widely recognized as one of the most distinguished figures in the field.

This award will be presented at the joint meeting of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society of Ethnopharmacology July 1-6. Please submit nominations along with a statement of the candidate's qualifications, by May 1 to: Katy Moran, Director, The Healing Forest Conservancy, 3521 S Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20007; Fax: (202) 333-3438.


The Center for Field Research is inviting proposals for 1997 field grants awarded by its affiliate Earthwatch. Earthwatch is an international non-profit organization dedicated to sponsoring research and promoting public education in the sciences and humanities.

All funds awarded by Earthwatch are derived from the contributions of Earthwatch members who pay for the opportunity to join scientists in the field and assist with data collection and other research tasks. On average, each volunteer contributes $600- $900 towards the field grant and spends 12 to 16 days in the field. Grants range from $8,000-$100,000 depending on the project length and number of volunteers involved.

Preliminary proposals for Earthwatch field grants should be submitted at least 13 months in advance of anticipated field dates. Full proposals are invited upon review of preliminary proposals.

Information about Earthwatch field grants is available from: Dr. Andy Hudson, Director, The Center for Field Research, 680 Mt. Auburn St., Watertown, MA 02172; Tel.: (617) 926-8200; Fax: (617) 926-8532; E-mail: or


WWF, the world's largest independent conservation organization, has just launched its World Wide Web site, the WWF Global Network. This site provides comprehensive news and information on all aspects of conservation and the environment. Topics include: forests, climate change, marine issues, pollution, species and sustainable development. The address is

The International Society of Environmental Ethics maintains an ongoing and online bibliography in environmental ethics, the largest database of its kind. It can be searched rapidly by name, title or keyword. It can be accessed on the World Wide Web at, or two 3.5" diskettes (IBM or Macintosh) can be purchased for $5 from Holmes Rolston, III, Department of Philosophy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523.


Plant and animal monitoring programs are in widespread use by many land managers and conservation biologists. But how effective are these programs? Can they deliver the precision necessary to detect the types of expected changes? A DOS-based free-ware package is now available to address these questions. It estimates the statistical power of monitoring programs relative to the number of plots monitored, magnitude and variation in the index monitored, plot weighting schemes, duration and interval of monitoring, significance level, and many other factors. The software is appropriate for local- or regional-scale monitoring programs where less than 250 plots are being monitored. This well documented and intuitive program is available at the National Biological Survey's Inventory and Monitoring web and ftp site. Three items are available: the monitor program itself, a manual for the program in Word Perfect 5.1 format, and a manual for the program in ascii text format. These are available at the following addresses: (click on the software site), or ftp: For further information, contact: James B. Gibbs, Dept. of Biology, 419 OML, P.O. Box 208104, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8104; E-mail:


The Center for the Study of Tropical Birds (CSTB, Inc.) was established in 1987 as a nonprofit corporation devoted to neotropical bird conservation. In 1995 it began publication of the newsletter, COZCACUAUHTLI. Initial distribution was only to CSTB board members and major contributors. However, the quarterly newsletter is now available to all individuals with an interest in in situ tropical bird conservation in Mexico and Central America. To subscribe, send a donation of $12 (to defray mailing costs and printing), to CSTB, Inc., 218 Conway Dr., San Antonio, TX 78209-1716.


The Nature Conservancy is seeking qualified applicants for the position of Director, Conservation Systems Department. This is a senior position responsible for providing leadership and strategic guidance for the development of the next generation of The Nature Conservancy's biodiversity information management systems. The Director is responsible for development and implementation of computer technologies for scientific information needs (e.g., biological, ecological, and land management data) of The Nature Conservancy and its partners, particularly the National Heritage Network. The Director is responsible for managing and providing technical leadership to teams involved in technology research and development, conservation information engineering, software design, biodiversity information management technologies, user technical support, spatial systems (GIS and remote sensing), internet- working, and systems-level integration. The Director will assess the needs of The Nature Conservancy and collaborators; develop and implement plans for scalable next-generation biodiversity information systems; manage a department with 30 professional staff and associated budgets; represent the Division and The Nature Conservancy with relevant external groups, including standard setting bodies; and raise funds as needed.

Requirements include extensive experience as an information management professional in natural resources, with at least five years as senior information systems manager; experience with developing systems and disseminating standards, methods, and technologies for use by a distributed collection of programs and collaborators; proven leadership and management experience; and excellent communication, organization and planning skills. Familiarity with the Natural Heritage Network and the heritage methodology is highly desirable.

For more information about the Heritage information systems, please see the information on the Natural Heritage Home Page at or visit the Conservancy's Home Page at

Review of applications will begin immediately and continue until the position is filled. Please submit a letter of application and resume to Carol Hodge, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209. Internet:


May 6-7. An important new conference on the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and its impact on growth and development will be held in Washington, D.C. It is sponsored by CLE International, a provider of continuing education and professional programs. Keynote speaker Mollie H. Beattie, Director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will discuss the ESA. Other topics to be presented include: how the listing process works, the consultation process and recovery planning, the enforcement process and penalties, new habitat conservation planning initiatives, the private practitioner's viewpoint, property rights, plus many others. This conference will be invaluable to lawyers and legal staff, government officials, city planners, consultants, and landowners.

The tuition fee of $495 per person (or $425 each for two or more registrants from the same firm) includes attendance at all sessions, course materials, continental breakfasts, and coffee breaks. Special governmental group rates and special rates for full-time judges and law students are available.

For more information, or to register, contact: CLE International, 1541 Race St., Suite 100, Denver, CO, 80206; Tel.: (800) 873-7130; Fax: (303) 321-6320.

June 2-5. The Monroe Wall Symposium entitled "Harnessing Biodiversity for Therapeutic Drugs and Foods: Developing Products for the 21st Century" will be held at the Hyatt Regency, New Brunswick, New Jersey. This timely symposium offers a uniquely comprehensive coverage of advances relevant to the total discovery and development process for the production of pharmaceuticals and healthful foods from biological resources.

Registration before May 17 is $625; $675 after May 17 ($600 for multiple registrants from the same company). Fees include meals and an evening banquet. To register,contact: Keith Wilson, Office of Continuing Professional Education, Cook College, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 231, New Brunswick, NJ 08903; Tel.: (908) 932-9271; Fax: (908) 932-1187; E-mail:


Akeroyd, J. 1996. Nature revealed in porcelain. Plant Talk 4: 14-17. (Rare plant sculpture)

Alexander, I., Swaine, M. and Watling, R. (Eds.). 1995. Essays on the Ecology of the Guinea-Congo Rain Forest. Royal Society of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, England. 356 pp. (Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Vol. 104)

Anon. 1996. Belize acres protected. Plant Talk 4: 32. (Programme of Belize buys area in the Peten forest)

Anon. 1996. British Columbia creates important new park. Arborvitae 2: 4. (Stein Valley)

Anon. 1996. German trade in medicinal plants revealed. Plant Talk 4: 11. [Largest importer of plant drugs in Europe (1,560 different species)]

Anon. 1996. The great dam of China: enhanced prosperity or ecological catastrophe? Plant Talk 4: 9. (Yangtze River dam)

Anon. 1995. Latin America maize project leaves untapped legacy of agricultural riches. DIVERSITY 11(4): 6.

Anon. 1996. Moves to protect unique flora of Hawai'i. Plant Talk 4: 13. (Hawaii office of Center for Plant Conservation sets out a survival plan for 110 of the country's critically endangered plants)

Anon. 1995. National Academy of Sciences panels find dramatic decline in marine life - call for 10-year biodiversity research program. DIVERSITY 11(4): 13-14.

Anon. 1995. A treasury of sweet potato diversity safeguarded by Indonesia's Waga-Waga community. DIVERSITY 11(4): 11- 12.

Anon. 1996. WWF project takes off in Russian Pechoro-Illych reserve. Arborvitae 2: 4.

Arkell, J. 1996. South Africa's rarest shrub lives! Plant Talk 4: 28-29. (Raspalia trigyna)

Bandyopadhyay, J. 1996. Water towers of the world. People & Planet 5(1): 12-13. (80% of the volume of freshwater on which humanity depends is generated in the mountains and uplands)

Bernbaum, E. 1996. Secrets of the sacred hills. People & Planet 5(1): 10-11. (Nepal)

Biltonen, M. 1995/96. Beyond the big outside. Wild Earth 5(4): 40-42. (Preliminary Minnesota Biosphere recovery proposal)

Boulos, L. 1995. Flora of Egypt Checklist. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo. 287 pp. (61 endemic plants)

Bowen, S. 1996. Bringing the Inca canals back to life. People & Planet 5(1): 18-19. (Peruvian Andes)

Broekhoven, G., Gathaara, G., Kigenyi, F. and Salehe, J. 1996. Forest conservation in East Africa. Arborvitae 2: 14.

Brooks, C. 1996. War and wildlife in Georgia. Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 12. (Russia)

Chatterton, P. 1996. Forest crisis in the South Pacific. Arborvitae 2: 8-9.

Cowling, R. and Richardson, D. 1995. South Africa's Unique Floral Kingdom. Fernwood Press, Cape Town. 156 pp.

Cushman, Jr. 1996. Clinton backing vast effort to restore Florida swamps. New York Times February 18: A1, A26. (Everglades)

Dallmeier, F. and Aguirre, A. 1995. Smithsonian Institution and UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere program measure and monitor forest biodiversity. DIVERSITY 11(4): 5-6.

Davila, P. and Sosa, V. 1994. El conocimiento floristico de Mexico. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 55: 21-28. (Florisitic knowledge of Mexico)

Dean, W. 1995. With Broadax and Fireband: the Destruction of the Brazil Atlantic Forest. University of California Press, Berkeley. 482 pp.

Denniston, D. 1996. People and mountains. People & Planet 5(1): 6-9.

Dirzo, R. and Raven, P. 1994. Un inventario biologico para Mexico. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 55: 29-34. (Biological inventory of Mexico)

Duffus, D. and Baird, R. 1995. Killer whales, whalewatching and management: a status report. Whalewatcher 29(2): 14- 17. (J. of the American Cetacean Society)

Dwyer, L., Murphy, D., Johnson, S. and O'Connell, M. 1995. Avoiding the trainwreck: observations from the frontlines of natural community conservation planning in southern California. End. Species UPDATE 12(12): 5-7.

Eidsvik, H. 1996. Nature in Plitvice undamaged. Plant Talk 4: 12. (Lakes and forests of Croatia's Plitvice Lakes National Park unharmed by war)

Eleftheriadou, E. and Raus, Th. 1996. The vascular flora of the nature reserve Frakto Virgin Forest of Nomos Dramas (E. Makedonia, Greece. Willdenowia 25(2): 455-486.

Fay, M. 1996. Micropropagation as a tool in plant conservation. Plant Talk 4: 22-23.

Fisher, J. 1996. Saguaros under seige. Wildflower 12(1): 28-29. (Sonoran Desert, Arizona)

Foreman, D. 1995/96. Wilderness areas and national parks. Wild Earth 5(4): 50-63. (Foundation for an ecological nature reserve network)

Freyfogle, E. 1995/96. Land ownership, private and wild. Wild Earth 5(4): 71-77.

Freyfogle, E. 1995. Wildlife habitat and private ownership. End. Species UPDATE 12(12): 8-10.

Gilmour, D. 1996. Forest conservation in Central Asia. Arborvitae 2: 10.

Green, M. and Jayasuriya, M. 1996. Lost and found. Sri Lanka's rare and endemic plants revealed. Plant Talk 4: 18-21. (One-fourth of the 3,100 species are endemic)

Gupta, A. 1996. Spectacled langurs face local extinction. Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 9. (Northeast India)

Halloy, S. 1995. Status of New Zealand biodiversity research and resources: how much do we know? J. Royal Soc. New Zealand 25(1): 55-80.

Hanotte, O. and Teale, A. 1995. New international livestock institute applies molecular genetics to African livestock biodiversity conservation and breeding. DIVERSITY 11(4): 3-4.

Hawthorne, W. and Musah, A. 1995. Forest Protection in Ghana. IUCN and ODA, Cambridge, England. 100 pp.

Herring, B. and Judd, W. 1995. A floristic study of Ichetucknee Springs State Park, Suwannee and Columbia counties, Florida. Castanea 60(4): 318-369. (Rare species)

Heywood, V. and Watson, R. (Eds.). 1995. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 1140 pp.

Hoefsloot, H. and Onyango, G. 1996. Mount Elgon National Park. Arborvitae 2: 15. (Uganda)

Job, D. 1995. A Guide to Grants, Fellowships, and Scholarships in International Forestry and Natural Resources. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 114 pp.

Johns, D. and Soule, M. 1995/96. Getting from here to there. Wild Earth 5(4): 32-36. (Outline of the wildlands reserve design process)

Karesh, W. 1996. Rhino relations. Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 36-43. (Northern white rhinos)

Kendall, S. 1996. Protecting the "heart of the world". People & Planet 5(1): 20-21. (Kogi Indians of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia)

Klungness, K. and Scarborough, K. 1995/96. ROAD-RIP and The Wildlands Project. Wild Earth 5(4): 64-67. (Preserving and restoring roadless landscapes)

Marren, P. 1996. Back from the brink in Britain. Plant Talk 4: 24-25. (Plantlife group works to save the most threatened species in Britain)

Martinez-Alfaro, M. 1994. Estado actual de las investigaciones etnobotanicas en Mexico. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 55: 65-74. (The present status of ethnobotanical research in Mexico)

McClellan, R. 1995/96. Mapping reserves wins commitment. Wild Earth 5(4): 30-31. (Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project)

McNeely, J. 1996. The world's governments discuss biodiversity. What did they achieve? Plant Talk 4: 10. (Second Session of the Conference of the Parties)

Mirsky, S. 1996. Lonely lemurs. Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 11. (Duke Primate Center's trip to Madagascar to capture the only diademed sifaka in captivity)

Misra, S. 1996. Save the Himalayas. People & Planet 5(1): 26-27.

Morrison, P., Snetsinger, S. and Frost, E. 1995/96. Preliminary results of a biodiversity analysis in the Greater North Cascades ecosystem. Wild Earth 5(4): 43-45. (Washington/British Columbia border)

Norton, B., Hutchins, M., Stevens, E. and Maple, T. (Eds.). 1995. Ethics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 432 pp.

Noss, R. 1995/96. What should endangered ecosystems mean to the Wildlands Project. Wild Earth 5(4): 20-29. (USA)

Painter, M. and Durham, W. (Eds.). 1995. Equity and Environmental Destruction in Latin America. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Palmer, M. 1996. Saving China's holy mountains. People & Planet 5(1): 12-13. (Threatened by tourists)

Pitcher, T. and Hart, P. (Eds.). 1995. The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, England. 601 pp.

Podolsky, R. 1995. Satellite prospecting: estimating "hot spots" of biodiversity from digital earth imagery. DIVERSITY 11(4): 16-17.

Powell, G., Bjork, R., Rodriguez, M. and Barborak, J. 1995/96. Life zones at risk. Wild Earth 5(4): 46-51. (Gap analysis in Costa Rica)

Pratt, J. 1996. A Himalayan dream. People & Planet 5(1): 22-25. (Makalu-Barun National Park in Nepal and adjoining Qomolangma Nature Preserve in China, one of the largest areas under protection in the world)

Price, M. 1996. Taming the tourists. People & Planet 5(1): 16-17. (Ecotourism effects on mountain systems)

Quero, H. 1994. Las palmas de Mexico: presente y futuro. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 55: 123-128. (Palms of Mexico: present and future)

Rose, D. and Gaski, A. (Eds.). 1995. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Trade of Bear Parts for Medicinal Use. WWF-US, Washington, DC. 167 pp.

Roy, M. and Fischer, H. 1995. Bitterroot grizzly recovery: a community-based alternative. End. Species UPDATE 12(12): 1-4. (USA)

Ruter, J., Krewer, G. and Faircloth, W. 1995. A new location for Elliottia racemosa Muhl. ex Ell. (Ericaceae) in southwest Georgia. Castanea 60(4): 370-337.

Sarmiento, F. 1995. Naming and knowing an Ecuadorian landscape: a case study of the Maquipucuna Reserve. The George Wright Forum 12(1): 15-22.

Sarmiento, F. 1995. Restoration of equatorial Andes: the challenge for conservation of Tropandean landscapes. In Churchill, S., Balslev, H., Forero, E., Luteyn, J., (Eds.), Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Cloud Forests. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. Pp. 637- 651.

Sarmiento, F. and Carroll, C. 1995. El conflicto Peru- Ecuador: un poco de historia y una modesta propuesta para el cese de hostilidades. Yungas 5(1): 14-16.

Sayen, J. 1995/96. A second chance for the northern forests. Wild Earth 5(4): 37-38.

Schaller, G. 1996. Tibetan red deer rediscovered. Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 8.

Sharma, M., Newstrom-Lloyd, L. and Neupane, K. 1995. Nepal's new chayote genebank offers great potential for food production in marginal lands. DIVERSITY 11(4): 7-8.

Shoup, C. 1996. Coral commerce concerns conservationists. TRAFFIC USA 15(1): 1-4. (US and Indonesia largest traders)

Sochaczewski, P. 1996. James Duke. Barefoot in the forest. Plant Talk 4: 5. (Ethnobotanist)

Synge, H. 1996. The Biodiversity Convention explained. Part 4. Sustainable use and other provisions. Plant Talk 4: 26- 27.

Tiwari, J. and Damania, A. 1995. The dedicated Vishnoi people translate conservation ethic into a force for rescuing indigenous wildlife in the Indian desert. DIVERSITY 11(4): 10-11.

Vance-Borland, K., Noss, R., Strittholt, J., Frost, P., Carroll, C. and Nawa, R. 1995/96. A biodiversity conservation plan for the Klamath/Siskiyou region. Wild Earth 5(4): 52- 59. (California/Oregon)

Vazquez, A., Cuevas, R., Cochrane, T., Iltis, H., Michel, F. and Guzman, L. 1995. Flora de Manantlan. Plantas Vasculares de la Reserve de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlan. Sida Botanical Miscellany 13. Fort Worth, Texas. 315 pp. (2,774 species, including 200 regional endemics)

Wagner, W. and Funk, V. (Eds.). 1995. Hawaiian Biogeography: Evolution on a Hot Spot Archipelago. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 464 pp.

Watson, R., Heywood, V., Baste, I., Dias, B., Gamez, R., Janetos, T., Reid, W. and Ruark, G. (Eds.). 1995. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Summary for Policy-Makers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 46 pp.

Wege, D. and Long, A. 1995. Key Areas for Threatened Birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, England. 370 pp.

Weiss, R. 1996. Tracking a dwindling desert denizen. Washington Post March 18: A3. (Desert tortoises in Joshua Tree National Park, California)

Wilcove, D. 1996. Is there a cure for the blues? Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 44-51. (South America's blue macaws threatened by parrot fanciers)

Windsor, D. 1995/96. Endangered interrelationships: the ecological cost of parasites lost. Wild Earth 5(4): 78-83.

Yates, D. 1996. Hidden wilderness. Wildlife Conservation 99(2): 20-27. (New York City wetlands)

Zakri, A. (Ed.). 1995. Prospects in Biodiversity Prospecting. Genetics Society of Malaysia and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 287 pp.

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