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Department ofBotany

No. 155
May 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The story of The Seacology Foundation begins with the award- winning botanist, Dr. Paul Alan Cox, who has been preserving island rainforests, coral reefs and native Polynesian culture in the South Pacific for many years. In 1989, Professor Cox raised the necessary funds to save the 30,000 acre Falealupo Rainforest in Western Samoa from logging, creating one of the world's first indigenously controlled rainforest reserves. For this achievement he was honored by the Samoans, who conferred upon him one of the highest chiefs titles of Samoa, Nafanua, and by King Gustav and Queen Sylvia of Sweden, for whom he presented a command lecture in Stockholm. Since that date, he has been instrumental in creating three new preserves, totalling 65,000 acres of lowland rainforest. Cox and his colleagues have also led the fight against the poaching of Pacific flying foxes, resulting in an international ban on commerce in flying foxes. He is known for his studies of the screw- pine family, Pandanaceae, and for his work on water pollination of seagrasses.

Preservation of island rainforests, which are under threat by logging companies of the Pacific Rim, is important to each of us. These rainforests not only help serve as the lungs of the earth, but deforestation of these tropical islands is tragically destroying a 2,000-year-old way of life. With few fish to catch and little soil to grow food, the villagers cannot survive for long.

These island rainforests are a natural apothecary. Their unique plants, 40% of which are found nowhere else in the world, may hold possible cures for diseases that plague humanity. Over 100 medicinally active plants gathered by Seacology scientists from the rainforests of the South Pacific are currently under study at the National Cancer Institute as treatments and cures for serious diseases such as AIDS and cancer.

As their only asset, these indigenous people are forced to sell their rainforests to meet the basic health and educational needs of their children. However, through the unique method devised by The Seacology Foundation, over 65,000 acres of Samoan rainforest have been preserved by setting up nature preserves with governmental protection from logging.

One-hundred percent of the money raised by The Seacology Foundation, primarily through private donations, goes directly to building schools, hospitals, installing safe water supplies and meeting other needs of the villagers. In exchange for these public works, the village councils sign covenants which make it possible to put the rainforest acreage into nature preserves with governmental protection from logging. The villagers retain full rights to the use of the rainforests so that their way of life, their 2,000-year-old culture, might continue.

It only takes $5.00 to save an entire acre of priceless rainforest. Interested readers may write for information, to: The Seacology Foundation, PO Box 4000, Springville, UT 84663; Tel.: (801) 489-1728; Fax: (801) 489-1700.


Scientists in the Department of Zoology at the Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica (IES) are interested in identifying collections in North America which house specimens of Arachnida, Acarina, Nematoda, Trematoda, Cestoda, Crustacea, Miriapoda or Annelida of Cuban origin. They are also interested in contacting other scientists whose work involves the study of Caribbean (especially Cuban) non-insect invertebrates. Please contact: Dra. Naomi Cuervo Pineda, Subdirectora Zoologia, Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica, Carretera Varona Km. 3.5, A.P. 10800, Capdevila, Boyeros, Habana, Cuba; Fax: 537 33 - 8054, or contact, Elizabeth Hathway, Association of Systematics Collections, Tel.: (202) 835- 9050; Fax: (202) 835-7334; E-mail:


The Netherlands Committee of IUCN - the World Conservation Union administers funds from the Dutch government for a Small Grants Programme to implement the government's Tropical Rainforest Policy. The central objective of the program is "to encourage the preservation of the tropical rainforest through balanced and sustainable land and forest use, with a view to halting the current rapid deforestation process along with other environmental damage and degradation". The program supports NGO projects aimed at the conservation and sustainable management of tropical rainforests. Currently around 50 projects are underway in a range of countries, addressing issues as diverse as indigenous property rights, non- timber forest products, timber certification, environmental education, lobbying and policy making.

All projects must contribute to the preservation of tropical rainforests, including evergreen moist lowland, montane and cloud forests, plus tropical mangroves and riverine forests. Projects must also comply with IUCN objectives regarding the conservation of nature and sustainable use resources. Proposals are invited from environmental NGOs and indigenous peoples' organizations either based in or closely linked with tropical countries. The fund is not available for western consultants. Project proposals must clearly state objectives and activities, provide indicators for evaluation and monitoring and indicate where the activities will take place. Maximum assistance for projects cannot exceed US$75,000. Proposals must address priority conservation areas or themes, take account of the needs and views of the local population including gender aspects, and if possible be linked to existing management structures and programs.

Projects are invited covering protection and management of tropical rainforests, encouragement of sustainable land use and forestry, reforestation, marketing of non-timber forest products, networking activities, enabling local communities to protect tropical rainforests and participate in policy-making, enhancing political and social support for tropical rainforest protection and training activities relating to the above.

Detailed information is available from Rietje Grit, secretary of the Small Grants NC-IUCN/TRP or Willem Ferwerda, at Netherlands Committee for IUCN, Plantage Middenlaan 2B, 1018 DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Tel.: 31-20-626-1732; Fax: 31-20-627-9349; E-mail:


The Leatherback Conservation and Management Project takes place in the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, at Gandoca Beach, which is part of the Gandoca/Manzanillo National Wildlife Refuge. The project is sponsored by ANAI and the MINAE (Ministerio de Ambiente y Energia). The project encompasses three components: scientific research and protection, environmental education and community participation.

For the scientific research, the program has a Project Director, Didiher Chacon, who, along with volunteers, collects the information on the nesting habits of the leatherback turtle as well as runs a program for the protection of turtle eggs. Volunteers working with the project are involved in nightly patrols along the beach (removing eggs that are in danger from high tides, animals or people to the hatchery). The project has three nurseries along the beach, for nest incubation, in order to protect the turtle eggs from poachers. Volunteers are also involved in collecting data on the turtles, including the measuring and tagging of nesting turtles.

The nesting season extends from early March to the end of July, with the nesting peak in April and May. This is the period when volunteer assistance is most needed. The project has a range of accommodation options for anyone who would like to help, from using ANAI's facilities at the project camp to accommodation in houses within the local community, to bringing along your own tent.

For more information, please contact: Asociacion ANAI, Apartado 170-2070, Sabanilla de Montes de Oca, Costa Rica; Tel.: (506) 224-3570; Fax: (506) 253-7524.


COCUYO is a new newsletter about the activities of scientists who study the invertebrates of Cuba. It is produced by editors Julio A. Genaro and Jorge L. Fontenla of the Museo Nacional de Historia (MNHN) in Havana and published and mailed with support from the RARE Center for Tropical Conservation in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The editors are interested in contributions from those who study Cuban invertebrate fauna. This newsletter is also available for exchange from the MNHN. To contribute articles on research of Cuban invertebrate fauna, to participate in an exchange or for more information about COCUYO, contact: Julio A. Genaro, Museo Nacional de Historia, Obispo #61, Esquina a Oficios, Habana Vieja 10100 Cuba; Fax: 537 62-0353.

The Urban Open Space Manager is a new quarterly newsletter about wildlife and nature conservation in urban, suburban, and urbanizing areas that presents substantive articles covering research, planning, design, education, and management. It provides useful, practical information to land managers and planners, landscape architects, biologists, and others interested in wildlife and nature conservation in the metropolitan environment.

Publication of The Urban Open Space Manager began in 1996. The second issue will be distributed in May. If interested in being placed on the mailing list (no cost), please respond with name and complete postal mailing address to Lowell Adams at Natural Resources Management, 1459 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, Tel.: (301) 405-1178; Fax: (301) 314-9023; E-mail:

Saving the Tiger: A Conservation Strategy, a Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) policy report, is now available. The WCS policy report outlines reasons why the tiger's status has become more tenuous since the 1970s, when international attention mobilized conservation efforts.

This report not only evaluates the past and ongoing efforts to save the tiger, but offers a strategy for reversing the current decline of tigers and ensuring their long term existence in the wild. This requires that the immediate threats to tigers be addressed in a multifaceted approach that includes scientifically- based research and monitoring, improving on-the-ground protection and management of tigers and their prey. This report offers an approach and a complete set of actions that are required in both range states and consumer nations in order to secure the long-term future of high priority tiger populations.

To receive a copy of the tiger report, please contact: Dorene Bolz, Senior Policy Analyst, WCS, 185th St. and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10460; E-mail: Please note that there will be a charge of $5.00 per copy for requests over five reports.

World Wildlife Fund-Greece is proud to announce the publication of The Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, edited by D. Phitos, A. Strid, S. Snogerup and W. Greuter. The book contains descriptions and information on the status, distribution, habitat, ecology and conservation measures taken or proposed for 263 species and subspecies of vascular plants from the Greek flora.

This work is a tribute to the great wealth of the Greek flora, which exhibits about 5,700 species of higher plants, a number which compares to that of tropical areas. In addition, 13% of the flora is endemic while many species are endemic to the Balkans.

The book is distributed by: Koeltz Scientific Books, PO Box 1360, D-61453, Konigstein, Germany; Tel.: (49) 6174 93720; Fax: (49) 6174 937240; E-mail: The price of the book is the equivalent of 40 British Pounds.

For more information, please contact: Yorgos Moussouris, Projects Manager, WWF Greece, Philellinon 26, GR 105, 58 Athens, Greece; Tel.: (30) 3314893; Fax: (30) 3247578.


The James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 3 Division of Endangered Species presents "Saving Endangered Species, Saving Ourselves," a traveling exhibition designed to explore how endangered species are often warning signals of environmental problems that harm many other species, including humans.

Large photomurals invite visitors to experience some of the beauty and diversity of native ecosystems. Large before-and-after maps show the original distribution of forests, prairies and wetlands, and how little of these environments still remains. Through photos, text, specimens, models and a variety of interactives, the principal causes of endangerment and the often- confusing legal and biological terminology that attend endangered species are presented. Additionally, the exhibit features a life- sized figure of USFWS Director Mollie Beattie, who answers typical visitor questions about the Endangered Species Act. The exhibition concludes with descriptions of a number of ecosystem protection efforts that are being developed by partnerships among government agencies, private conservation groups and local citizens. Visitors also can discover how they can help save species through proper land management, healthy lifestyles and conservation activism.

The exhibition requires approximately 750 square feet, however a smaller 250 square foot version may also be available. The fee for the exhibit is $1,500. For more information, please contact: James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, Touring Exhibition Service, 10 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, MN 55455; Tel.: (612) 624-3849.


June 19-21. Along with the Western Section of The Wildlife Society and California Chapter of the Society for Ecological Restoration, the California Native Plant Society is sponsoring a conference on vernal pool conservation. For more information or registration materials, contact Mr. William Hull, Executive Secretary of the Wildlife Society, PO Box 21638, Oakland, CA, 94620; Tel.: (510) 465-4962.


Abisai, G. and Raquel, G. 1995. Riquezas de las familias Agavaceae y Nolinaceae en Mexico. Bol. Soc. Bot. Mex. 56: 7-24. (Richness of the Agavaceae and Nolinaceae in Mexico)

Anon. 1996. The AZA's conservation programs: how are they organized? End. Species UPDATE 13(1 & 2): 10-12. (American Zoo and Aquarium Association)

Anon. 1996. NWF urges Mexico to close toxic dump to protect rare cacti species. Int. Wildlife 26(2): 6. (National Wildlife Federation urges Mexican government not to reopen a toxic waste site in the Chihuahua Desert)

Anon. 1996. Reserve promises new protection for Asia's turtles. FOUCS 18(1): 1, 7. (Turtle Islands Heritage Protected Area (Philippines, Malaysia))

Anon. 1996. Sideling Hill Creek. The Nature Conservancy News 20(1): 7. (Inventory of Aaron Straus Wilderness Area in Maryland reveals rare plants and animals)

Anon. 1996. Turkey Camp shale complex protected. The Nature Conservancy News 20(1): 2. (Preserves nearly pristine shale communities in Maryland)

Anon. 1995. Workshop sobre a conservacao dos morcegos brasileiros. Chiroptera Neotropical 1(2): 24-29. (List of Brazilian species)

Ashiotis, A. 1995. Socio-economic challenges for sustainable tourism in the Mediterranean Basin. Naturopa 78: 6-7.

Bahre, C. 1995. Human disturbance and vegetation in Arizona's Chiricahua Mountains in 1902. Desert Plants 11(4): 39-45.

Baillie, J., Callahan, D. and Gardenfors, U. 1995. A closer look at the IUCN Red List of Categories. Species 25: 30- 36.

Balick, M. 1996. Transforming ethnobotany for the new millennium. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83(1): 58-66.

Baumheier, R. 1995. Impact of population trends: the German forests. Naturopa 78: 12.

Belanger, C. 1995. A guide to ESA and CITES. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 24(3): 86-91.

Brakefield, T. 1996. Losing our stripes. Int. Wildlife 26(2): 52-57. (Threatened Sumatran tigers)

Brevoort, P. 1996. The U.S. botanical market - an overview. HerbalGram 36: 49-57.

Burkhard, D. and Newman, D. 1996. Legal boundaries and fragmentation of Georgia's (USA) nature reserves. Nat. Areas J. 16(1): 24-35.

Carauta, J. and Rocha, R. 1996. Biota em risco de extincao. Albertoa 4(6): 61-75. (New IUCN categories of threat applied to Brazilian flora)

Cerovsky, J. 1995. Endangered Plants. London, Sunburst Books. 176 pp. (Europe)

Churchill, S. 1996. Distribution, habitat and status of the Carpentarian rock-rat, Zyzomys palatalis. Wildlife Research 23(1): 77-92. (Australia)

Clark, T. 1996. Learning as a strategy for improving endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 13(1 & 2): 5-6, 22-24.

Cohen, P. 1996. Protecting sheep "puts birds at risk". New Scientist 149(2016): 5. (Poisonous collars for sheep to kill predatory coyotes, are hazard to endangered birds, USA)

Colligan, M. and Nickerson, P. 1996. Status of anadromous Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the United States. End. Species UPDATE 13(1 & 2): 1-4, 24-26.

Collins, M. 1995. Placing a bet on the desert tortoise. End. Species Bull. 20(6): 12-13. (Nevada)

Daniels, R. 1996. Landscape ecology and conservation of birds in the Western Ghats, South India. Ibis 138(1): 64- 69.

Daniels, R. and Vencatesan, J. 1995. Traditional ecological knowledge and sustainable use of natural resources. Current Science 69(7): 569-570. (India)

Diefenbacher-Krall, A. 1996. Paleo- and historical-ecology of the Cutler Grasslands, Cutler, Maine (USA): implications for future management. Nat. Areas J. 16(1): 3-13.

Drew, L. 1996. Caring about Alaska: who does? and why? Nat. Wildlife 34(3): 30-41.

Ferrari, S., Lopes, M., Neto, E. and et al. 1995. Primates and conservation in the Guajara-Mirim State Park, Rondonia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 3(3): 81-82.

Gadgil, M. and Devasia, P. 1995. Intellectual property rights and biological resources: specifying geographical origins and prior knowledge of uses. Current Science 69(8): 637- 639. (India)

Geatz, R. 1996. Angling for a nature preserve. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 33. (Richmond hatchery and 500 acres of ecologically sensitive land in Rhode Island protected)

Geatz, R. 1996. Cut carbon, not forests. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 32. (Rio Bravo Carbon Sequestration Pilot Project, Belize)

Geatz, R. 1996. Darkness on the mountain. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 31. (Mt. Livermore included in Sierra del Cielo Preserve, Texas)

Geatz, R. 1996. An island for a song. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 30. (South William Island, South Carolina included in the ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve)

Geatz, R. 1996. Loess is more. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 31. (Stevenson Family Preserve, Iowa)

Gillespie, G. and Hollis, G. 1996. Distribution and habitat of the spotted tree frog, Litoria spenceri Dubois (Anura: Hylidae), and an assessment of potential causes of population declines. Wildlife Research 23(1): 49-76. (Australia)

Gragson, T. and Tillett, S. 1995. Aportes a la etnobotanica de Venezuela 2. Etnobotanica de los Pume. Ernstia 5(3): 89-120.

Griffiths, A. 1996. The paradox of Rattus tunneyi: the endangerment of a native pest. Wildlife Research 23(1): 1- 22. (Australia)

Groves, H. and Simpson, R. 1995. Focussing on international CP Conservation and Research: The Carnivorous Plant Specialist Group. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 24(3): 69-72.

Hansen, C. 1995. Multi-species plan for forest habitat. End. Species Bull. 20(6): 6-9. (Habitat Conservation Plan, Washington)

Hickey, B. 1995. Propagation of three rare and endangered vygies. British Cactus & Succ. J. 13(4): 141-146. (South Africa)

Hoeger, S. 1995. Ecological restoration. News from Hudsonia 11(3): 1-5.

Howard, S. 1996. Autonomia y derechos territoriales de los sumos en BOSAWAS: el caso de Sikilta. Wani (Revista del Caribe Nicaraguense) 18: 3-18. (Regional autonomy and conflicts over land resources in the BOSAWAS National Natural Resource Reserve, Nicaragua)

Howard, W. 1996. 60 years of conservation. Nat. Wildlife 34(3): 12-21.

Irvine, K. 1996. Understanding proposed changes to the Endangered Species Act: the case of the marbled murrelet. End. Species UPDATE 13(1 & 2): 17-21. (California to Alaska)

Keenan, J. 1996. Pretty in pink. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 16-23. (Latin American flamingos)

Kelso, B. 1995. A summary of "marine invertebrates of the South Pacific: an examination of the trade". Species 25: 37-39.

Krell, R., Michaelsen, T. and Nachtergaele, F. 1995. Sustainable management of rural areas and preservation of a natural environment. Naturopa 78: 4-5.

LaClaire, L. 1995. Red Hills salamander. End. Species Bull. 20(6): 20-21. (Habitat Conservation Plan)

Lambert, F. 1995. Endangered species in Southeast Asia. Species 25: 26-30.

LaRoe, E., Farris, G., Puckett, C., Doran, P. and Mac, M. (Eds.). 1995. Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC. 530 pp.

Lippman, T. 1996. On Amazon, Christopher stands up for environment. The Washington Post March 5: A9. (Secretary of State recommends conservation policies)

Lipske, M. 1996. Finding a future for an endangered bird. Nat. Wildlife 34(3): 42-45. (Red-cockaded woodpecker in the Southeast, USA)

Magnusson, W. 1995. Reintroducao: uma ferramenta conservacionista ou brinquedo perigoso? Neotropical Primates 3(3): 82-83.

Maurer, B. and Villard, M. 1996. Continental scale ecology and neotropical migratory birds: how to detect declines amid the noise. Ecology 77(1): 1-2.

McGowan, P., Dowell, S., Carroll, J., Aebischer, N. and WPA/Birdlife/SSC Partridge, Quail and Francolin Specialist Group (Compilers). 1995. Partridges, Quails, Francolins, Snowcocks, and Guineafowl: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 1995- 1999. IUCN, Cambridge, England. 102 pp.

McGowan, P. and Garson, P. (Compilers). 1996. Pheasants: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 1995-1999. IUCN, Cambridge, England.

Meyer, C. and Foster, C. 1996. A Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Belize. Krieger Publishing Co., Melbourne, Florida. 96 pp. (33 species)

Miller, S. and Eldredge, L. 1996. Numbers of Hawaiian species: supplement 1. Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 45: 8-17. (22,056 species recorded from the Hawaiian Islands and surrounding waters)

Mohamed-Yassen, Y., Barringer, S. and Splittstoesser, W. 1995. Micropropagation of the endangered succulent, Stapelia semota, by axillary proliferation. Cactus & Succ. J. (U.S.) 67(6): 366-368. (Tropical Africa)

Monks, V. 1996. Capitol games. Nat. Wildlife 34(3): 22-29. (US Congress weakening country's environmental laws)

Musinsky, J. 1995. Usando un SIG para el diseno de corredores de vida silvestre en Monteverde, Costa Rica. Signatura 2(1): 4-5, 11-12. (Newsletter of Conservation International)

Nabhan, G. 1996. The parable of the poppy & the bee. Why should we save those spineless critters? Nature Conservancy 46(2): 11-15. (Pollinators)

National Wildlife Federation. 1996. 1996 Conservation Direc. tory. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC. 552 pp.

Nemecek, S. 1996. Rescuing an endangered tree. Scientific American 274(3): 22. (Torreya taxifolia, one of the rarest trees in North America)

Olivieri, S., Bowles, I., Cavalcanti, R., da Fonseca, G., Mittermeier, R. and Rodstrom, C. 1995. Talleres para la definicion de prioridades regionales de conservacion. Signatura 2(1): 3, 7-9. (Newsletter of Conservation International)

Olmos, F. and Martuscelli, P. 1995. Habitat and distribution of the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with notes on its natural history. Neotropical Primates 3(3): 75-81.

Pearce, F. 1996. Only stern words can save world's fish. New Scientist 149(2016): 4. (Ocean harvest)

Polhemus, D. 1996. The orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly, Magalagrion xanthomelas (Odonata: Coenagrionidae): clarifying the current range of a threatened species. Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 45: 30-53.

Povilitis, T. 1996. The Gila River-Sky Island Bioregion: a call for bold conservation action. Nat. Areas J. 16(1): 62-66. (Area in southern Arizona and New Mexico ranks among the most ecologically diverse in North America)

Raines, C. 1995. Negotiating for conservation. End. Species Bull. 20(6): 22-23. (Habitat Conservation Plan)

Robinson, M. 1996. Colorado endangered species protection bill introduced. End. Species UPDATE 13(1 & 2): 26.

Rutzler, K. and Feller, I. 1996. Caribbean mangrove swamps. Scientific Am. 274(3): 94-99. (Belize)

Rylands, A., Mittermeier, R. and Luna, E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and conservation status according to the Mace- Land system. Neotropical Primates 3(Supp.): 113-160.

Schneider, D. 1996. Rain forest crunch. Scientific Am. 274(3): 19. (Amazonian forests may have been smaller in the last ice age)

Scott, G. 1995. Canada's Vegetation. A World Perspective. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal and Kingston, Canada. 361 pp.

Sherry, T. and Holmes, R. 1996. Winter habitat quality, population limitation, and conservation of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant birds. Ecology 77(1): 36-48.

Sinclair, R. 1996. Preserving paradise. Washingtonian Magazine 31(5): 37-43. (The Nature Conservancy)

Stauffer, F., Bastardo, X. and Rodriquez, D. 1995. Lista preliminar de las palmas (Arecaceae) del Parque Nacional Henri Pittier, Estados Aragua y Carabobo, Venezuela. Ernstia 5(3): 121-132.

Stevens, B., Hutchins, M. and Maple, T. 1996. Zoos, aquariums, and endangered species conservation. End. Species UPDATE 13(1 & 2): 7-9.

Stolzenburg, W. 1996. Conservation vacation. Nature Conservancy 46(2): 24-29. (Interns work in Tensleep Preserve, Wyoming)

Stone, R. and IUCN/SSC Insectivore, Tree Shrew, and Elephant Shrew Specialist Group (Compilers). 1996. Eurasian Insectivores and Tree Shrews: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Cambridge, England.

Swift, S. 1996. The status of Gasteracantha mammosa (Araneae: Araneidae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 46: 39-40. (Population declining)

The Nature Conservancy. 1996. Priorities for Conservation: 1996 Annual Report Card for U.S. Plant and Animal Species. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 17 pp.

Thomas, L. 1996. Monitoring long-term population change: why are there so many analysis methods? Ecology 77(1): 49-58.

Trajano, E. 1995. Protecting caves for the bats or bats for the caves? Chiroptera Neotropical 1(2): 19-22.

Vane-Wright, R. 1996. Systematics and the conservation of biological diversity. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83(1): 47- 57.

Webb, G. 1996. Scientists calculate at least 328 new drugs could be developed from tropical rain forests. HerbalGram 36: 2-3.

Wilkinson, J. 1995. Good news for owls & jobs. End. Species Bull. 20(6): 10-11. (Habitat Conservation Plan to protect threatened northern spotted owl in Oregon)

Wilson, E. O. 1996. Hawaii: a world without social insects. Bishop Museum Occ. Papers 45: 3-7.

Wuethrich, B. 1996. Into dangerous waters. Int. Wildlife 26(2): 44-51. (Protection of sea turtles)

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