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Department ofBotany

No. 157
July 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


Recent reorganization within the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department division that focuses on conservation of endangered resources has resulted in a single program. The Endangered Resources Branch (ERB) of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department has merged the former National Heritage Program with the Endangered Species Program. The Biological Conservation Database (BCD) continues to provide the core source of information used by the ERB. With more than 3,500 annual users, the BCD provides an essential service to Texas landowners, other conservationists, consultants, and government agencies.

Texas is unique among western states in its size and in the high percentage of privately owned land within its borders. Only about three percent of the land area in Texas is publicly owned. These fundamental factors must be considered in the development of natural resource conservation strategies in the state. This also means that a great percentage of Texas's biological diversity occurs on privately owned land. A 1995 law was passed requiring written permission from landowners before agency personnel or others could collect natural resource data on privately owned property. There had been a several-year trend during which it had become increasingly difficult to collect such data on private land. The need for written permission also applies to the Department's ability to store the data in heritage (or other) database and to report and publicize data in a way that would identify property. This law is thought by some to be a positive development in that many landowners who are not well- informed about their choices will actually make the choice to allow data collection on their property.

The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, including the ERB, does not have funds for land acquisition for the purpose of biodiversity conservation at this time. Instead, a principal goal of the ERB is to supply quality, practical information on the state's resources to as many users as possible. This information will complement the stewardship interest that already exists with most of the landowners, and which, in a real sense, is the reason for the persistence of much of Texas's biological diversity.

The Endangered Resources Branch is working on other strategies to encourage conservation among private landowners. One is the development of a "safe harbor" habitat conservation plan for endangered woodpeckers in East Texas. Branch staff also are working with landowners in South Texas to develop a cooperative agreement to voluntarily conserve an endangered plant. Another is an effort, assisted by state universities, to develop an importance index for the natural communities of Texas (which are tracked in the BCD) based on the occurrence of endangered/threatened species within the communities and the respective rarity of the communities themselves. This, in turn, provides a measure of "conservation value." When communities with high conservation value are identified, the Branch will alert public leaders and landowners, stressing that they have done a good job in conserving local endangered resources and that Texas Parks and Wildlife Department staff are available if assistance is needed. Beginning this year, conservation easements will be formally encouraged and an incentive program may be established.

In all, the future looks bright for endangered resource conservation in Texas. For a state with a long history of ranching and some past land abuses, this is good news. And in the current social climate that emphasizes landowners' rights, it is encouraging to find that landowners are interested in cooperating in the effort to conserve biological diversity.

For more information, write: Gary Graham, Chief, Endangered Resources Branch, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, Texas 78744. (Source: Natural Areas Journal 16(2), 1996)


Located in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico, the Rancho Los Colorados Biological Station is available for individuals interested in the study and/or observation of subtropical flora and fauna. Under an agreement with the ranch owner the "Center for the Study of Tropical Birds, Inc. (CSTB)" is facilitating research and birdwatching activities at the ranch. Botanical, entomological as well as vertebrate ecological studies are especially desired. Limited financial and/or logistical support is available. For additional information, write CSTB, 218 Conway Dr., San Antonio, TX 78209-1716; Tel.: (210) 828-5306; Fax: (210) 818-9732.


Green Gold is an international company based in India which supplies forestry, horticultural, floricultural and agricultural seeds to government forestry departments, development agencies, NGOs and scientists around the world. Staffed by a team of professional foresters and scientists, seeds offered are of known origin and are collected wherever possible from plus trees. Green Gold specializes in the supply of top quality "neem" (Azadirachta indica) in the form of seeds and stem cuttings from plus trees, "neem" oil and "neem" biopesticides. A catalog of more than 250 multipurpose Indian tree species is available upon request from Green Gold International, 14071/5, Prabhat Nagar, Dholewal, Ludhiana 141003, India; Tel.: 0091-1662-32326; Fax: 0091-1662-32120.


On June 8, 1996, the American Museum of Natural History launched its site on the World Wide Web (found at, as part of its ongoing effort to expand its educational reach and bring its vast resources to the widest public possible. The Museum's Web site contains a wide range of material, from general information on the Museum and its programs to detailed information on exhibits, scientific research, and educational programs. Of special interest to educators, the "Education" section provides an overview of educational offerings at the Museum. This section will soon include a science "I.Q" quiz ("Sci-Q"), a teachers' guide to "Expedition: Treasures", and a range of other resources and activities for teachers, other adults, and children.

The Museum's Web site makes use of "Java", a programming language that enables the site to function in a manner much like a CD-ROM, allowing users to interact with "virtual exhibits" complete with movement, sound, video, images, and text.

The National Biological Service has identified several World Wide Web sites, available through the National Biological Information Infrastructure, that provide data and/or information relating to U.S. national parks. The listing of these sites can be accessed on the World Wide Web at


The Sierra Club Green Guide: Everybody's Desk Reference to Environmental Information, by Andrew J. Feldman, is an essential reference and networking tool providing complete access to the vast array of organizations and services that offer information on environmental issues, including toxic substances, solid and hazardous waste, endangered species, environmental justice, sustainable communities, air and water quality, and alternative energy sources. Encyclopedic in its scope, the Green Guide, offers the reader in-depth evaluations of and introductions to the 1,200 most useful informational sources, with 250 online sources, more than 100 on the Internet alone. The Sierra Club Green Guide sets a new standard for environmental reference works by introducing an extensive cross- referencing system which enables readers to find resources quickly and efficiently.

In addition to serving as an essential professional desk reference, the guide is a primer for ecologically friendly living, covering the full range of "green living" issues, including eco- travel, funding resources, employment opportunities, environmental education and socially responsible investing.

It is available at bookstores, or by direct mail ($25.00, plus $6.00 postage and handling) from: Sierra Club Store Orders, 730 Polk St., San Francisco, CA 94109, or call 1-800-935-1056.

Change is one constant and dynamic force that is continuously influencing faunal diversity in forests around the world. The design of strategies to conserve forest species and habitats is needed in many parts of the world today. A new publication, Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes, edited by R.M DeGraaf and R.I. Miller, serves to coalesce the knowledge of conservation scientists in different parts of the world in regard to the current influence of environmental change on forest fauna.

The book highlights the status of key vertebrates inhabiting the world's forests and the past and current effects that environmental change exerts upon these populations. The evidence of changes in forested ecosystems are proposed. Several chapters concern the current methods used in the verification of the impacts of change and disturbance on forest wildlife. These methods will help to identify priority forested areas for conservation. Finally, the integration of landscape ecology and its application to forest wildlife conservation is demonstrated.

For more information, or to order ($59.95), contact Kerry Mariconda, Chapman & Hall, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003; Tel.: 1-800-842-3636; Fax: (606) 525-7778; E-mail: For ordering outside the U.S. and Canada, write: Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London, SE1 8HN, England; Tel.: 44 171-865-0066.


The Nature Conservancy has an opening for a chief zoologist in the Conservation Science and Stewardship Department (CS & S) of the Latin America and Caribbean Division (LACD). The zoologist is responsible for the zoology program and for coordinating zoology activities related to information for conservation action, in situ conservation, and outreach. These responsibilities include: 1) continuing zoology programs relating to the generation, analysis, and maintenance of biodiversity information such as Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA), and central database development; and 2) contributing to the department's new, ecoregional approaches to biodiversity conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean. He/she will coordinate training and technical assistance for all LACD partners, as well as raise funds for these programs and activities.

The chief zoologist is part of a newly established multi- disciplinary science unit of CS & S. This unit employs a spatially explicit, ecoregional approach to conservation planning, which is consistent with the Conservancy's new conservation framework. The incumbent will work also with the director of the Migratory Bird Initiative (MBI) to ensure a cross departmental consistency of approach and capture of the MBI derived information into central science databases.

Qualifications include: advanced degree in zoology, preferably a Ph.D. with a good working knowledge of vertebrate systematics, animal ecology, and conservation science; 2) competency with database software, animal survey methods and GIS; 3) fluency both written and oral in English and Spanish; 4) excellent speaking and writing abilities; and 5) willingness to travel overseas for extended periods.

For more information, contact Paul Martin, The Nature Conservancy, Human Resources, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209; Tel.: (703) 841-5300.

The Smithsonian Institution's Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program (BDG) is looking for an interim manager to run the Centre for the Study of Biological Diversity (CSBD) on the campus of, and in cooperation with, the University of Guyana (UG) in Georgetown. The BDG is a field-oriented endeavor that has been in operation since 1983. Its goal is to study, document, and preserve the biological diversity of the Guianas. Originally confined to botany, it has since expanded to include faunal and general biodiversity studies as well.

The CSBD opened in June 1992 and houses a herbarium, a zoological collection, small library, GIS center, and staff offices. The interim manager is the focal point for all biological diversity activities for the BDG Program. Because of the nature of the program, a biologist with a good knowledge of field research and taxonomy and who would be willing to work under what are, at the present time, less than optimal conditions, is preferred.

This job is a half-time contract position with the anticipation that the interim manager will conduct his own research during the other half of the time. It is preferable that the position be filled for two years, starting October/November, 1996.

For more information, contact Dr. V.A. Funk, Dept. of Botany, NHB 166, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 20560; Tel.: (202) 357-2560; Fax: (202) 786-2563; E-mail:, or Carol L. Kelloff at the above address, Tel.: (202) 786-2518; E- mail:

The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) has an opening for co-coordinator of the course, "Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach", which will be held January-March, 1997 in Costa Rica. The co-coordinator works with the OTS Instructor of Tropical Biology, Dr. Deedra McClearn, to lead the eight-week OTS flagship course with 22 motivated graduate students from institutions that are members of the OTS consortium. The course is intellectually and physically demanding. The co-coordinator is expected to travel through the course itinerary on a separate trip or by arriving early enough to do so, as well as to carry out course preparation tasks beforehand and follow-up after the course. Qualifications include: Ph.D. in an appropriate aspect of tropical biology; substantial field experience, preferably in Costa Rica; knowledge of OTS courses or similar offerings; excellent teaching abilities (lectures, research design, data analysis); a proficiency in Spanish; and first aid certification (can be obtained following acceptance of position). Travel and subsistence costs are covered by OTS and an honorarium is provided.

To apply, or for more information, contact Dr. Shaun Bennett, Academic Director, OTS, Box 90633, Durham, NC 27708-0633; Tel.: (919) 684-5774; E-mail: Applications will be considered until the position is filled.


September 2-5. "Reproductive Biology 96", an international conference, will be held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Its aims are to develop the use of reproductive characters in systematics, to explore the role of pollinator selection in breeding system evolution, and to evaluate the significance of plant reproductive systems in terms of conservation strategies and sustainable agriculture. For more information, contact: Dr. Simon Owens, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, England.

September 2-6. The World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, "Science for Better Management and Understanding", will be held in Cairns, Far North Queensland, Australia. The conference will provide a unique opportunity for natural scientists, social scientists, forest conservation managers, traditional land owners, government policy makers, tourism operators and the community to work together more effectively to better understand and protect some of the world's most outstanding natural and cultural heritage sites. For more information, contact: Conference Secretariat, World Heritage Tropical Forests Conference, PO Box 1280, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia; Tel.: 617 369 0477; Fax: 617 369 3369; E-mail:

September 2-6. The National Museums of Kenya will host the "Fifth International Congress of Ethnobiology" in Nairobi, Kenya. The theme will be ethnobiology and conservation of cultural and biological diversity. It will provide a forum for the review of research results that contribute to the theory and practical development of various fields of ethnobiology. Contact Christine H. S. Kabuye for more information at: National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel.: 256 2 742131-4 or 254 2 742161-4; Fax: 254 2 741424; E-mail:

Septemeber 7-11. "Teaching for the 21st Century: Botanic Garden Education for a New Millennium", sponsored by Brooklyn Botanic Garden and Botanic Gardens Conservation International, will be held at Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, New York. At this conference, botanic garden educators from around the world will gather to evaluate the success of their environmental education programs and to begin planning future joint efforts. For more information, contact: Third International Congress on Education in Botanic Gardens, Attention: Lucy Jones, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1000 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11225-1099.


Akeroyd, J. 1996. Spotlight on Turkey's important plant areas. Plant Talk 5: 20-23.

Anon. 1996. AZA Taxon Advisory Group profile: bears. End. Species UPDATE 13(4 & 5): 10-11. (Utilizing captive populations for public education and to support conservation)

Anon. 1996. Bohemian sand pink is back from the brink. Plant Talk 5: 28.

Anon. 1996. Call to expand Poland's Bialowieza Forest. Plant Talk 5: 12.

Anon. 1996. Conservation spotlight: American burying beetles make a home at Roger Williams Park Zoo. End. Species UPDATE 13(4 & 5): 12. (Rhode Island)

Anon. 1996. Crotalaria longipes in the Nilgris and Kolli Hills, S. India. Plant Talk 5: 27-28.

Anon. 1996. International help for Sarajevo Botanic Garden. Plant Talk 5: 14. (Devastated by war)

Anon. 1996. Switzerland's last known population of Viola elatior. Plant Talk 5: 27.

Anon. 1996. US inventory shows threat to flora. Plant Talk 5: 13. (The Nature Conservancy's latest report for US plants & animals)

Arnold, A. 1996. Maryland oyster roundtable: beyond the distributive barrier. RESOLVE 27: 1, 8-10.

Barrett, S. 1996. Disease threatens green sea turtles. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 8-9.

Benson, A. 1996. The exotic zebra mussel. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 14-15.

Bogan, M., O'Shea, T. and Ellison, L. 1996. Diversity and conservation of bats in North America. End. Species UPDATE 13(4 & 5): 1-4, 14.

Bonnie, R. and Bean, M. 1996. Habitat trading for red cockaded woodpeckers: enhancing recovery, reducing conflicts. End. Species UPDATE 13(4 & 5): 7-9.

Booth, W. 1996. Ecosystem paradoxically glows at former atomic bomb factory site. Washington Post May 26: A3. (Savannah River site one of the most intact and biologically vigorous ecosystems in southern USA)

Borissenko, A. and Kruskop, S. 1996. An introduction to bat conservation in Russia. Russian Conservation News 6: 29- 30.

Brooks, D. 1996. Some observations on primates in Paraguay. Neotropical Primates 4(1): 15-19.

Brown, A. and Grau, H. (Eds). 1995. Investigacion, Conservacion y Desarrollo en Selvas Subtropicales de Montana. Laboratorio de Investigaciones Ecologicas de las Yungas, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina. 270 pp.

Brown, N., Jamieson, H. and Hitchcock, A. 1996. Conservation through cultivation. The Garden 121(5): 265-267. (Kirstenbosch Nat. Botanic Garden, Cape Town, South Africa)

Campbell, F. 1996. The invasion of the exotics. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 12-13.

Cherfas, J. 1996. Forbidden fruit and vegetables. Plant Talk 5: 17-19. (Legislation damages crop diversity)

Cherp, O. 1996. Environmental impact assessment and sustainable development in Russia. Russian Conservation News 6: 12-14.

Clark, C. 1996. Marine reserves and the precautionary management of fisheries. Ecol. Applications 6(2): 369.

Constantino, L. 1996. Las mariposas: importantes indicadoras ecologicas. El Hilero 2(5): 21-22. (Colombia)

Davidson, D., Newmark, W., Sites, J., Shiozawa, D., Rickart, E., Harper, K. and Keiter, R. 1996. Selecting wilderness areas to conserve Utah's biological diversity. Great Basin Naturalist 56(2): 95-118.

DeGraaf, R. and Miller, R. (Eds). 1996. Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes. Chapman & Hall, New York, New York. 648 pp.

di Castri, F. and Younes, T. (Eds). 1996. Biodiversity, Science and Development. CAB International, Wallingford, England. 672 pp.

Di Silvestro, R. 1996. What's killing the Swainson's hawk? Int. Wildlife 26(3): 38-43. (Pesticide poisoning in Chile)

Dobson, A. 1996. Conservation and Biodiversity. Scientific American Library, New York, New York.

Flack, S. and Chipley, R. (Eds). 1996. Troubled Waters: Protecting Our Aquatic Heritage. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, D.C. 17 pp. (USA)

Folke, C. 1996. Conservation, driving forces, and institutions. Ecol. Applications 6(2): 370.

Fontes, M. and Oliveira Filho, A. 1996. The muriqui in the Parque Estadual de Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais. Neotropical Primates 4(1): 23-25. (Brazil)

Hartfield, P. and Butler, R. 1996. Fishing mussels. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 18-19. (70% in need of protection)

Hay, A. 1996. Cultivated aroids aid biodiversity research. Plant Talk 5: 24-26.

Highfield, A. and Bayley, J. 1996. The trade in tortoise- derived souvenir products in Morocco. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(1): 33-35.

Hilborn, R. 1996. Do principles for conservation help managers? Ecol. Applications 6(2): 364.

Homoya, M. 1996. The return of short's goldenrod. Solidago shortii, Kentucky. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 24-25.

Jones, C. 1996. Relative reproductive success in the mantled howler monkey: implications for conservation. Neotropical Primates 4(1): 21-23. (Central America)

Kuzmin, S. 1996. Regional IUCN group addresses the decline of amphibian species in the CIS. Russian Conservation News 6: 30.

Levin, S. 1996. Conservation of wild living resources. Ecol. Applications 6(2): 337.

Lop, A. 1996. Importancia ambiental y economica de las plantas aromaticas y medicinales. Quercus 122: 14-16. (Spain)

Lyon, L. 1996. Pesticide impacts. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 4-6.

Mangel, M. and et al. 1996. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecol. Applications 6(2): 338.

Martin, T., Paine, C. and Hochachka, W. 1996. The Breeding Biology Research and Monitoring Database (BBIRD) Program. End. Species UPDATE 13(4 & 5): 5-6. (Nongame birds)

Menner, A. 1996. Present strategies to ensure a future for protected areas in Russia. Russian Conservation News 6: 10-12.

Miller, B., Reading, R. and Forrest, S. 1996. Prairie Night. Black-footed Ferrets and the Recovery of Endangered Species. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 320 pp.

Morell, V. 1996. Hope rises for Africa's wild dog. Int. Wildlife 26(3): 28-37. (Endangered)

Mulliken, T. 1996. Status of the Queen conch fishery in the Caribbean. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(1): 17-28.

Nelson Sutherland, C., Gamarra Gamarra, R. and Fernandez Casas, J. 1996. Hondurensis plantarum vascularium catalogus. Pteridophyta. Fontqueria 43(1-2): 1-143. (Checklist of the ferns of Honduras)

Nemecek, S. 1996. Rescuing an endangered tree. Scientific Am. 274(3): 22. (Torreya taxifolia, North America)

Neves, R. 1996. Rescuing Ohio River mussels. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 16-17. (11 extinct; 46 threatened)

Novikova, N. 1996. The tugai of the Aral Sea region is dying. Can it be restored? Russian Conservation News 6: 22-23. (Woodland communities)

Oliver, I. and Beattie, A. 1996. Designing a cost-effective invertebrate survey: a test of methods for rapid assessment of biodiversity. Ecol. Applications 6(2): 594-607.

Olson, M. 1996. Charting a course for sustainability. Environment 38(4): 10-15, 30-36. (USA)

Ostergren, D. 1996. Russian Zapovednik system continues to expand! Russian Conservation News 6: 3-4. (93 parks)

Ovsyanikov, N. 1996. New threats to the polar bear. Russian Conservation News 6: 24-25. (Poaching)

Pearce, F. 1996. Global warming: yes, the latest temperature figures do look bad. Plant Talk 5: 11.

Pengeroth, D. 1996. Long-term planning for owls. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 20-21.

Pereira, R., Goncalves, A., Melo, F. and Feio, R. 1995. Primates from the vicinity of Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 171-173. (Fragmented forests)

Primack, R. 1996. Return of a native. Nat. History 105(5): 46-47. (Pink lady's slipper orchids, USA)

Raustiala, K. and Victor, D. 1996. Biodiversity since Rio: the future of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Environment 38(4): 16-20, 37-45. (USA)

Reed, H. 1996. Review of rattlesnake exploitation needed. TRAFFIC USA 15(2): 1-2. (USA)

Riebsame, W. 1996. Ending the range wars? Environment 38(4): 4-9, 27-29.

Rodriquez-Luna, E., Cortes Ortiz, L. and Canales Espinosa, D. 1996. El trafico de monos arana en Mexico: el estudio de un caso. Neotropical Primates 4(1): 8-13.

Sayers, R. 1996. Candidate notice is revised. End. Species Bull. 21(2): 7.

Schaller, G. 1996. Realm of the snow antelope. Nat. History 105(5): 48-53. (Tibet)

Schmidt, B. 1996. Migratory fishes and Hudson River tributaries. News from Hudsonia 12(1): 1-5.

Schmitt, R. and Osenberg, C. (Eds). 1996. Detecting Ecological Impacts. Concepts and Applications in Coastal Habitats. Academic Press, New York, New York. 401 pp.

Sekhran, N. and Miller, S. (Eds). 1995. Papua New Guinea Country Study on Biological Diversity. Department of Environment and Conservation, Papua New Guinea. 438 pp. (Country contains 400,000 species of fungi, plants and animals)

Strahan, R. (Ed). 1996. Mammals of Australia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 383 pp. (Lists conservation status for each species)

Synge, H. 1996. The Biodiversity Convention explained. Part 5. Access to genetic resources and technology issues. Plant Talk 5: 29-32.

Tishkov, A. 1996. To find and preserve: on creating a Red Data Book for endangered ecosystems. Russian Conservation News 6: 20.

Torre, S., Utreras, V. and Campos, F. 1995. An overview of primatological studies in Ecuador: primate of the Cuyabeno Reserve. Neotropical Primates 3(4): 169-171.

Tyler, P. 1996. Mongolia is devastated by fires of epic scope. New York Times (Int.) June 9: 14. (Nearly one-fifth of the coniferous forests ravaged by fires)

Vargas, N. and Solano G., C. 1996. Evaluacion del estado de dos poblaciones de Saguinus leucopus para determinar areas potenciales de conservacion en un sector del Valle del Magdalena Medio, Colombia. Neotropical Primates 4(1): 13-15.

Wagner, F. 1996. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources: another perspective. Ecol. Applications 6(2): 365.

Weber, M. 1996. Dispute resolution in marine fisheries management. RESOLVE 27: 3-7.

Wenjun, L., Fuller, T. and Sung, W. 1996. A survey of wildlife trade in Guangxi and Guangdong, China. TRAFFIC Bull. 16(1): 9-16.

World Resources Institute. 1996. World Resources 1996- 1997. A Guide to the Global Environment. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. 384 pp.

Yakovlev, A. and Musabaev, B. 1996. Bar-headed goose of Kirgizia: threats to its survival, potential for its preservation. Russian Conservation News 6: 28.

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