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Department ofBotany

No. 159
September 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


In collaboration with local non-profit organizations, Rainforest Alliance's Smart Wood Program has launched the Latin American phase of its worldwide effort to create an international network of non-profit forest certifiers, the Smart Wood Network. As the world's oldest and largest forest certification program, Smart Wood has long benefited from the professional and cultural insight of local conservation and forestry groups in its forest assessments. Now through "teaming agreements", carefully selected, trained, and monitored nonprofit groups will establish Smart Wood certification programs in their regions.

The first groups to sign teaming agreements with Smart Wood are CIMAR (Centro de Investigacion de Manejo de Recursos Naturales Renovables) of Santa Cruz, Bolivia; IMAFLORA (Instituto de Manejo e Certificacao Florestal e Agricola) of Sao Paulo, Brazil; CCMSS (Consejo Civil Mexicano para Silvicultura Sostenible) of Mexico City; and Fundacion Ambio of San Jose, Costa Rica.

Through the Smart Wood Network, the Smart Wood Progam expects to bring forest management certification opportunities to forestry operations of all scales, from small community forests to large industrial forests, and in all regions of the world. For more information on the Smart Wood Program, contact; Helena Albuquerque, Rainforest Alliance, 64 Bleecker Street, New York, NY 10012; Tel.: (212) 677-1900; Fax: (212) 677-2187; E-mail:


A DOS-based software package designed to evaluate the effectiveness of plant and animal monitoring programs is now available, free of charge, at the National Biological Survey's Inventory and Monitoring web and ftp site. The package estimates such factors as the statistical power of monitoring programs relative to the number of plots monitored, the magnitude and variation in the index monitored, plot weighting schemes, and duration and interval of monitoring. Software is appropriate for local or regional scale monitoring programs with less than 250 monitoring plots. The monitor program, a manual for the program in Word Perfect 5.1 format, and a manual for the program in ascii text format are available at the following addresses: (click on the software site), or ftp: For further information, contact: James Gibbs, Dept. of Biology, 419 OML, P.O. Box 208104, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8104.


The Spring issue of Plants & People, the newsletter of the Society for Economy Botany, included a very useful list of undergraduate and graduate programs in economic botany and ethnobotany. With many students desiring to pursue these fields, this list is helpful in providing names, addresses and telephone numbers of contacts at institutions and universities in the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Latin America. To join the Society contact Don Ugent (E-mail: or to receive the list, contact: Trish Flaster, 1180 Crestmoor Drive, Boulder, CO 80303; Tel.: (303)494-1555; Fax: (303) 494-2555; E-mail:


The Green Disk, a journal of contemporary environmental issues published bimonthly on computer disk, has launched a Web site at: The site allows visitors to browse a review issue of the journal, see sample listings from the Guide to Environmental Computing and explore eBase v5.1 (an 8,500 page keyword-searchable environmental encyclopedia).

The Botanic Gardens Micropropagation News is now available only on the World Wide Web at This newsletter, begun in 1990, contains articles on micropropagation of rare and endangered plant species at micropropagation units and institutions around the world.

Ocean Voice International, a non-profit organization devoted to conserving the diversity of marine life, is accessible through its World Wide Web site at:


Two new books highlighting the importance of indigenous knowledge were recently published. In Plants, People, and Culture Michael J. Balick and Paul Alan Cox, two of the world's leading ethnobotanists, argue that the very roots of human culture are deeply intertwined with plants. Beginning with the prehistoric use of plants by hunter-gatherers and the development of agriculture, the authors reveal how studies of plant use by indigenous peoples is the key to understanding the history of human civilization. Many intriguing first-hand stories of fieldwork are presented based on the authors' research conducted in the tropics, with Michael Balick focussing in Central and South America and the Caribbean, and Paul Cox in Oceania and Southeast Asia.

Studies of cultures from the Arctic Circle to the Pueblo Indians of southwestern United States have revealed how indigenous societies have used plants for medicines, recreational drugs, food, and bodily ornaments to name a few. Western societies are the recipient of this knowledge gained by ethnobotanists such as Balick and Cox from years of living and studying with indigenous groups. For example, one out of four prescription drugs was discovered from studies of plants used by indigenous peoples for healing, and today ethnobotanical searches for new remedies for AIDS, inflammation, and cancer are proceeding at a rapid rate.

Not only is biodiversity being destroyed at a rapid rate, but the knowledge of indigenous cultures is also being lost. The last chapter presents examples of projects which preserve not only rich tropical biodiversity, but the preservation of cultures. For example, one project of Balick's has been to inventory, understand and conserve as much ethnobotanical data in Belize before habitats and existing cultures are lost. As a result, a parcel of lowland tropical forest was set aside as the Ix Chel Forest Reserve. Similarly, Cox was instrumental in assisting villagers in Samoa to establish the Falealupo Reserve on the western tip of Savaii Island which was threatened by logging. The Falealupo rain forest is one of the last tracts of lowland rain forest remaining in Samoa and contains numerous economic plants which have been used by indigenous peoples such as for medicines and cosmetics.

Plants, People, and Culture is published by W. H. Freeman Publishers, in the Scientific American book series, and can be purchased for $32.95 from the publisher at 41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010; Tel.: (212) 576-9400; Fax: (212) 689- 2383.

The second book, Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest. Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health , edited by Michael Balick, Elaine Elisabetsky and Sarah Laird, is a compilation of invited papers on the importance of tropical biodiversity, primarily plants, in the provision of primary health care as well as in the development of pharmaceutical products. According to World Health Organization estimates, some 80% of people living in developing countries rely on wild harvested plants for some aspect of their primary health care. More than fifty authors, with expertise in botany, anthropology, technology, pharmacology, and more, call attention to the ways in which the natural habitats of these plants can be protected from damage or destruction. They provide detailed information on establishing drug discovery efforts, laying the groundwork for a basic pool of knowledge for pharmaceutical companies and smaller- scale entrepreneurs. The book also explores the ethical issue of intellectual property rights pertaining to tropical resources and their diverse medicinal uses.

To order, contact Columbia University Press, 136 South Broadway, Irvington, NY 10533; Tel.: (800) 944-8648; Fax: (800) 944-1844. Price: $75 (hardcover); $35 (paper).


The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Latin America and Caribbean Division is recruiting for a Paraguay and Chile Country Program Director who will develop and implement a strategy for the conservation of biological diversity in Paraguay and Chile, in cooperation with TNC's in country partners. The Director will develop long range and annual plans for the country programs, identify potential NGO and governmental partners, develop wildlands protection projects, and raise funds to meet program expenses.

Qualifications include: 1) graduate degree in natural resource management or related field and 3-5 years field experience in international conservation working in Latin America in one or more of the following fields: park and protected areas management (preferred), non-profit institutional development and wildlands project design. Familiarity with financial management, NGO development and fund raising skills desirable; 2) excellent communications skills and fluency in English and Spanish required; 3)extensive, direct field experience in Paraguay and Chile and a working knowledge of politics, society and environmental community of Paraguay and Chile preferred; 4) a broad knowledge of ecosystem types and associated land management practices and issues in Latin America; and 5) willingness to travel frequently.

For more information, contact: Jennifer Diaz, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 North Lynn Street, Arlington, VA 22209; Tel: (703) 841-5300.


November 1-3. The fifth session of the Global Biodiversity Forum will be convened in Buenos Aires, Argentina immediately prior to the third meeting of the Conference to the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Forum will focus on three themes: agricultural biodiversity, investing in biodiversity, and integrating biodiversity into land-use planning and management. For more information, contact: Caroline Martinet, Global Biodiversity Forum 5 - Buenos Aires, 380 St. Antoine Street West, Suite 3200, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2Y 3X7; Tel.: (514) 287-9704; Fax: (514) 287-9057; E-mail:

November 21-22. The International Business Communications' Third Annual "Medicinal Plants" international conference will bring together representatives of the botanical, phytopharmaceutical and natural products discovery industries in Washington, D.C. This conference will explore the new paradigm for developing products from botanical sources. Results from 12 case studies and strategies from savvy firms that are utilizing and profiting from the biodiversity of medicinal plants will be presented. For more information, contact: Claudia da Costa at International Business Communications, Tel.: (508) 481-6400 ext. 414; Fax: (508) 481-4473; E-mail:


Anon. 1996. American box turtles in Louisiana face export threat. FOCUS 18(4): 3.

Anon. 1996. Balancing the needs of people and nature: WWF's population initiative. FOCUS 18(4): 6.

Anon. 1996. Conservation through tradition in Papua New Guinea. FOCUS 18(4): 4-5.

Anon. 1996. Conservation spotlight: Wyoming toad. End. Species UPDATE 13(6): 9. (In decline)

Anon. 1996. Crocodiles bouncing back in Venezuela. FOCUS 18(4): 3.

Anon. 1996. Last stand of Costa Rica's green macaw. The Canopy May/June: 4. (Nearly extinct in Costa Rica)

Anon. 1996. Migration study may aid elephant conservation. FOCUS 18(4): 3.

Anon. 1996. Preserving and documenting threatened plants of the Philippines. DIVERSITY 12(2): 19. (Flora of the Philippines)

Anon. 1996. Protecting Brazil's forests through education. FOCUS 18(4): 2.

Anon. 1996. Serendipity gives birth to the Botanical Research Institute of Texas - a regional institute with a global impact. DIVERSITY 12(2): 18-19. (Flora of Texas and Philippines projects)

Anon. 1996. Theft of endangered tortoises a severe blow to species. FOCUS 18(4): 6. (Nearly half of the hatchlings from the only breeding group of Madagascar's rare ploughshare tortoise in captivity were stolen)

Anon. 1996. World Bank in forefront of linking biodiversity conservation to agricultural development. DIVERSITY 12(2): 3-4.

Anon. 1996. WWF launches global campaign to protect world's forests. FOCUS 18(4): 1. ("Forests for Life" campaign encourages nations to set aside in protected areas at least 10% of their original forests)

Balcom, B. and Yahner, R. 1996. Microhabitat and landscape characteristics associated with the threatened Allegheny woodrat. Conservation Biology 10(2): 515-525. (Northeastern USA)

Bergoffen, M. 1996. Does NEPA apply to critical habitat designations? Ninth and Tenth Circuit courts disagree. End. Species UPDATE 13(6): 6-7. (USA)

Britten, H. and Rust, R. 1996. Population structure of a sand dune-obligate beetle, Eusattus muricatus, and its implications for dune management. Conservation Biology 10(2): 647-652.

Brown, S. 1996. Present and potential roles of forests in the global climate change debate. Unasylva 47(185): 3-10.

Brownlow, C. 1996. Molecular taxonomy and the conservation of the red wolf and other endangered carnivores. Conservation Biology 10(2): 390-396.

Canfield, J. 1996. Progress in plant protection. End. Species Bull. 21(4): 12-15. (20 years of progress)

Cardoso da Silva, J., Uhl, C. and Murray, G. 1996. Plant succession, landscape management, and the ecology of frugivorous birds in abandoned Amazonian pastures. Conservation Biology 10(2): 491-503.

Carey, J. 1996. Looking for lessons from loons. Nat. Wildlife 34(5): 12-19. (Effects of certain pollutants on wildlife)

Chapman, L., Chapman, C., Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., Chandler, M., Kaufman, L. and Keiter, A. 1996. Refugia for endangered fishes from an introduced predator in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. Conservation Biology 10(2): 554-561.

Chase, M. 1996. Mexipedium xerophyticum. Curtis' Bot. Mag. 13(3): 130-133. (Endangered orchid, Mexico)

Christensen, J. 1996. Helping a river help itself. Nature Conservancy 46(5): 8-9. (Truckee River, Nevada)

Cort, C. 1996. A survey of the use of natural heritage data in local land-use planning. Conservation Biology 10(2): 632-637. (USA)

Creel, S. and Creel, N. 1996. Limitation of African wild dogs by competition with larger carnivores. Conservation Biology 10(2): 526-538.

Crowder, A., Ripley, E. and Redmann, R. 1996. Environmental Effects of Mining. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 360 pp.

Cunningham, A. 1996. Disease risks of wildlife translocations. Conservation Biology 10(2): 349-353.

Davit, C. 1996. Research in Vietnam. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 84: 22-23. (Missouri researchers document flora of 12, 000 species)

Determan, R. 1996. Orchids in Atlanta. Orchids July: 698-703. (Propagation of rare & endangered plants, including orchids)

Dobson, A. 1995. Conservation and Biodiversity. W.H. Freeman, New York, New York. 256 pp.

Drost, C. and Fellers, G. 1996. Collapse of a regional frog fauna in the Yosemite area of the California Sierra Nevada, USA. Conservation Biology 10(2): 414-425.

Fascione, N. 1996. AZA Taxon Advisory Group profile: bats. End. Species UPDATE 13(6): 8. (USA)

Feinsilver, J. and Chapela, I. 1996. Will biodiversity prospecting for pharmaceuticals strike "green gold"? DIVERSITY 12(2): 20-21.

Fox, C., Yonzon, P. and Podger, N. 1996. Mapping conflicts between biodiversity and human needs in Langtang National Park, Nepal. Conservation Biology 10(2): 562-569.

Frankel, O., Brown, A. and Burdon, J. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. 299 pp.

Garcia-Moreno, J., Matocq, M., Roy, M., Geffen, E. and Wayne, R. 1996. Relationships and genetic purity of the endangered Mexican wolf based on analysis of microsatellite loci. Conservation Biology 10(2): 376-389. (USA/Mexico)

Gaston, K. and Blackburn, T. 1996. Conservation implications of geographic range size-body size relationships. Conservation Biology 10(2): 638-646.

Geatz, R. 1996. Four friends' fen. Nature Conservancy 46(5): 32. (Sharon Fen Preserve, Oregon)

Geatz, R. 1996. How to make an American quilt. Nature Conservancy 46(5): 31. (Smoke Hole/North Fork Mountain Bioreserve, West Virginia, home to rare species)

Geatz, R. 1996. Where the (cow)boys are. Nature Conservancy 46(5): 30. (Latt Maxcy Kissimmee Prairie Preserve, Florida: rare natural community)

Goldberg, C. 1996. Glint of hope for a grove of redwoods. New York Times (National) April 21: 16. (Headwaters Grove, California saved from loggers)

Gotlieb, Y. 1996. Development, Environment, and Global Dysfunction. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 250 pp.

Gowdy, J. and O'Hara, S. 1996. Economic Theory for Environmentalists. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 200 pp.

Gray, G. 1996. Carbon debt: we all have one. Am. Forests 102(3): 22-23, 26, 38-40. (Climate change) Hahn, W. and Grifo, F. 1996. Molecular markers in plant conservation genetics. In Sobral, B., Ed., The Impact of Plant Molecular Genetics. Birkhauser, Boston, Massachusetts. Pp. 113-136.

Hannan, R. 1996. A closer look at recovery. End. Species Bull. 21(4): 16-17. (Endangered birds recovery over the past 20 years)

Hanski, I., Moilanen, A., Pakkala, T. and Kuussaari, M. 1996. The quantitative incidence function model and persistence of an endangered butterfly metapopulation. Conservation Biology 10(2): 578-590.

Hart, J. and Hall, J. 1996. Status of eastern Zaire's forest parks and reserves. Conservation Biology 10(2): 316-327.

Hart, T., Hart, J. and Hall, J. 1996. Conservation in the declining nation state: a view from eastern Zaire. Conservation Biology 10(2): 685-686.

Heinen, J. 1996. Human behavior, incentives, and protected area management. Conservation Biology 10(2): 681-684.

Hipes, D. and Jackson, D. 1996. Rare vertebrate fauna of Camp Blanding Training Site, a potential landscape linkage in northeastern Florida. Florida Scientist 59(2): 96-114.

Holling, C. and Meffe, G. 1996. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10(2): 328-337.

Ibrahim, Y. 1996. Village in Finland faces a gold rush fed by margarine. New York Times July 23: D1, D6. (Extract from pine trees used in margarine lowers levels of blood cholesterol)

Johnson, S., Bjorndal, K. and Bolten, A. 1996. Effects of organized turtle watches on loggerhead (Caretta caretta) nesting behavior and hatchling production in Florida. Conservation Biology 10(2): 570-577.

Kenworthy, T. 1996. The Grand (Canyon) plan: automobiles are out, quiet is in. Washington Post August 11: A3. (Limits on number of visitors)

Laurance, W., McDonald, K. and Speare, R. 1996. Epidemic disease and the catastrophic decline of Australian rain forest frogs. Conservation Biology 10(2): 406-413.

Lee, G. 1996. Slash-and-burn farming could claim almost half of tropical forests, report says. Washington Post August 5: A11. (Report by Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)

Lele, S. and Norgaard, R. 1996. Sustainability and the scientist's burden. Conservation Biology 10(2): 354-365.

Listman, G., Srinivasan, G., Taba, S. and Smale, M. 1996. Mexican and CIMMYT researchers "transform diversity" of highland maize to benefit farmers with high-yielding seed. DIVERSITY 12(2): 11-12.

Little, J. 1996. Forest communities become partners in management. Am. Forests 102(3): 17-21, 40.

Little, J. 1996. Fungi & ferns: market thriving for nontimber forest products. Am. Forests 102(3): 20.

Lledo, M., Crespo, M. and Amo-Marco, J. 1996. Micropropagation of Limonium thiniense Erben (Plumbaginaceae) using herbarium material. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(2): 18-21. (Threatened endemic plant, Spain)

Long, A. and Heath, M. 1991. Flora of the El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico: a preliminary floristic inventory and the plant communities of Polygon I. Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Auton. Mexico, Ser. Bot. 62(2): 133-172.

Martin, D. 1996. Tracking and cataloguing the wild flora. New York Times (Metro Report) July 21: 21, 26. (New York Metropolitan Flora Project)

Maser, C. 1996. Resolving Environmental Conflict: Towards Sustainable Community Development. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida. 250 pp.

Maxfield, B. 1996. The Hawaiian Islands, 20 years later. End. Species Bull. 21(4): 18-21.

McBride, T. 1996. In situ insights: does the isolation model pose barriers to conservation and agricultural development? DIVERSITY 12(2): 13.

Means, D., Palis, J. and Baggett, M. 1996. Effects of slash pine silviculture on a Florida population of flatwoods salamander. Conservation Biology 10(2): 426-437.

Nantel, P., Gagnon, D. and Nault, A. 1996. Population viability analysis of American ginseng and wild leek harvested in stochastic environments. Conservation Biology 10(2): 608- 621.

Neel, M., Clegg, J. and Ellstrand, N. 1996. Isozyme variation in Echinocereus engelmannii var. munzii (Cactaceae). Conservation Biology 10(2): 622-631. (Rare in California)

Phillips, C., Dimmick, W. and Carr, J. 1996. Conservation genetics of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Conservation Biology 10(2): 397-405. (North America)

Pierson, E., Elmqvist, T., Rainey, E. and Cox, P. 1996. Effects of tropical cyclonic storms on flying fox populations on the South Pacific Islands of Samoa. Conservation Biology 10(2): 438-451.

Planty-Tabacchi, A., Tabacchi, E., Naiman, R., Deferrari, C. and Decamps, H. 1996. Invasibility of species-rich communities in riparian zones. Conservation Biology 10(2): 598-607.

Rahr, G. 1996. Oregon Heritage Stocks Program creates "early warning system". DIVERSITY 12(2): 17-18. (Conservation of native fish stocks)

Rhoades, R. and Nazarea, V. 1996. Local-global (dis)articulations in plant genetic resources conservation. DIVERSITY 12(2): 5-6.

Rice, A. 1996. Web of life. Nature Conservancy 46(5): 24-29. (Conservation on the Internet)

Sauer, J., Pendleton, G. and Peterjohn, B. 1996. Evaluating causes of population change in North American insectivorous songbirds. Conservation Biology 10(2): 465-478.

Scheel, D., Vincent, T. and Cameron, G. 1996. Global warming and the species richness of bats in Texas. Conservation Biology 10(2): 452-464.

Shaw, R., Close, B. and Schnell, L. 1995. Rediscovery of Solanum incompletum Dunal (Solanaceae) on the U.S. Army's Pohakuloa Training area, Hawaii. Phytologia 79(5): 372- 381. (USA endangered plant)

Sierra, R. 1996. La deforestacion en el Noroccidente del Ecuador, 1983-1993. EcoCiencia, Quito, Ecuador.

Silvertown, J., Franco, M. and Menges, E. 1996. Interpretation of elasticity matrices as an aid to the management of plant populations for conservation. Conservation Biology 10(2): 591-597.

Simmons, R. 1996. Population declines, viable breeding areas, and management options for flamingos in southern Africa. Conservation Biology 10(2): 504-514.

Snyder, N., Derrickson, S., Beissinger, S., Wiley, J., Smith, T., Toone, W. and Miller, B. 1996. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery. Conservation Biology 10(2): 338-348.

Stolzenburg, W. 1996. Out of sight, out of mind. Nature Conservancy 46(5): 16-23. (Bats residing in US mines)

Stoner, K. 1996. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in northeastern Costa Rica: implications for conservation biology. Conservation Biology 10(2): 539-546.

Taji, A., Williams, R. and Sheather, W. 1996. Comparative anatomy of four rare Australian plants grown in vitro. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(2): 22-25.

Thigpen, J. 1996. The savior of "Green Hell". Nature Conservancy 46(5): 10-15. (Paraguay's Chaco)

Thomas, L. and Martin, K. 1996. The importance of analysis method for breeding bird survey population trend estimates. Conservation Biology 10(2): 479-490. (British Columbia, Canada)

Valdes-Cogliano, S. 1996. Working with states to conserve wetlands. End. Species Bull. 21(4): 24-26. (USA)

Walsh, N. 1996. Has the ESA killed good land stewardship on America's farms and ranches? End. Species UPDATE 13(6): 11-13.

Warren, C., Peek, J., Servheen, L. and Zager, P. 1996. Habitat use and movements of two ecotypes of translocated caribou in Idaho and British Columbia. Conservation Biology 10(2): 547-553.

Weiner, H. 1996. Endangered Natural Heritage Act: strengthening amendments to the current ESA. End. Species UPDATE 13(6): 4-5, 14. (USA)

Williams, C. 1996. Finding common ground: conservationists and regulated interests pursue ESA reform together. End. Species UPDATE 13(6): 1-3. (USA)

Witte, H. 1994. Present and past vegetation and climate in the Northern Andes (Cordillera Central, Colombia): a quantitative approach. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 269 pp. (Ph.D. thesis)

Worthington, L. 1996. Germplasm research provides arsenal for protecting world food supplies of potato and wheat from disease threats. DIVERSITY 12(2): 8-10.

Yahnke, C., Johnson, W., Geffen, E., Smith, D., Hertel, F., Roy, M., Bonacic, C., Fuller, T., Van Valkenburgh, B. and Wayne, R. 1996. Darwin's fox: a distinct endangered species in a vanishing habitat. Conservation Biology 10(2): 366-375. (Chiloe Island, Chile)

Yanno, M. 1996. New hope for the Schaus swallowtail. End. Species Bull. 21(4): 22-23. (Release of butterflies at 7 protected sites in Florida)

Young, S. (Ed.). 1996. New York Natural Heritage Program Rare Plant Status List. New York Natural Heritage Program, Latham, New York. 71 pp.

Zapartan, M. 1996. Conservation of Leontopodium alpinum using in vitro techniques in Romania. Bot. Gardens Micropropagation News 2(2): 26-28.

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