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Department ofBotany

No. 160
October 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


A biodiversity workshop to design a report recommending a plan for short- and long-term assessment, monitoring and conservation of the lower Urubamba basin was held in Lima, Peru September 2-4. The workshop was organized by Biodiversity Programs, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution and supported in part by Shell Prospecting and Development (Peru) B.V. The two-day workshop brought together scientists, government, and non-government organizations and indigenous representatives knowledgeable about the biology, ecology, geology and sociology of the region. The region encompasses the Urubamba River valley of the Ucayali watershed, between the northern spurs of the Vilcabamba Mountains to the west and the Urubamba Mountains to the east. Much of the area has been identified by the Republic of Peru for gas and natural gas liquids development.

The Smithsonian has extensive experience and knowledge in the study of the natural history of Peru, deriving most recently from the work of the BIOLAT (Biodiversity in Latin America) program, which centered on a standardized biological inventory protocol in the area of Pakitza, in the Manu Reserve Zone. In its ten years of operation, the BIOLAT program supported hundreds of students and scientists in biological diversity inventories. Research derived from this field work is contained in a landmark 680-page volume Manu: The Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru soon to be published by the Editorial Horizonte. The workshop addressed a variety of topics from floristic diversity, native populations, and biodiversity conservation to socio-environmental management as part of Chevron's exploration of the lower Urubamba area.

The workshop determined several themes of central importance to the planning and monitoring for the lower Urubamba and identified specialist working groups to prepare recommendations. These will be available immediately for use by planners in the government and private sector. Further information may be obtained by E-mail at: or by Fax: (202) 786-2934.


The forest canopies of the Western Samoan island of Savai'i are the setting of the first official conservation project of Selby Gardens, according to Margaret Lowman, director of their Department of Research and Conservation. Assistance provided through a joint project with Dr. Paul Cox of Brigham Young University will allow the village of Falealupo to generate a cash income from their rain forests without logging them.

Facing the prospect of having to log its entire tropical rain forest to finance the approximately $80,000 cost of building a village school, mandated by the Samoan government, the village was rescued by a donation from the Seacology Foundation of the United States. The island rain forest is not only an example of one of the most threatened ecosystems in the tropics, it is also a treasure trove of medicinal and economic plants, the breeding ground for the endangered flying fox and a sacred site for Samoan culture.

In an attempt to raise a small cash income from the rain forest the village chiefs asked Selby Gardens to assist in creating a canopy walkway to develop ecotourism on their island. After meeting with chiefs and designing the walkway, staff returned with a building plan and a collection of Savai'i medicinal plants for the Selby herbarium. The Seacology Foundation approved the building plan and is providing the funds for the walkway construction.

The unique ecotourism venture may well serve as a prototype for other rain forest regions and encourage the development of ecotourism as a sustainable use of rain forests. (Source: Marie Selby Bot. Garden Bull. 23(1), 1996)


The Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, a new charitable foundation dedicated exclusively to primate conservation, has been created to contribute to global biodiversity conservation by providing strategically targeted, catalytic support for the conservation of endangered nonhuman primates and their natural habitats.

Project guidelines are as follows, with preference being given to projects that have one or more of the following characteristics: 1) projects focusing on endangered nonhuman primates living in their natural habitats; 2) primate projects being conducted in areas of high overall biodiversity and under great threat (e.g. threatened "hotspots", "megadiversity countries") to ensure maximum multiplier effect for each project; 3) projects being carried out by nationals from tropical countries to increase local capacity for implementing biodiversity conservation; 4) projects that strengthen international networks of field-based primate specialists and enhance their capacity to be successful conservationists; and 5) projects that result in publication of information on endangered primate species in a format that is useful both to experts and the general public.

Projects should contribute to at least one, and preferably more, of the following themes: 1) enhancement of scientific understanding/knowledge of the target species/ecosystem; 2) improved protection of a key species, habitat, or reserved area; 3) demonstration of economic benefit achieved through conservation of a species and its habitat, as compared to loss thereof; 4) increased public awareness or educational impact resulting from the project in question; and 5) improved local capacity to carry out future conservation efforts through training or practical experience obtained through project participation.

Russell Mittermeier currently serves as the President of the Board of Directors. Inquiries on how to apply for support from the foundation can be sent directly to him at: Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Rd., Great Falls, VA 22066, USA; Fax: (703) 759-6879.


The Tambopata Reserve Society - Research and Monitoring Studies (TReeS-Ramos), a British non-governmental organization, is presently organizing a two-year study in the southern rainforests of Peru. TReeS-Ramos, which has been working in this area for the last ten years (particularly in and around the rainforest reserve of Tambopata/Candamo in the Department of Madre de Dios), is undertaking research and funding a number of local conservation and ethnobiological initiatives, as well as lobbying for greater conservation awareness of this area both nationally and internationally.

The rainforest reserve of Tambopata-Candamo extends over 1.4 million hectares of subtropical forest incorporating seven distinct forest types. The reserve spans a wide range of altitudes (250 m to 3,500 m) and receives an average of 2,500 mm of rainfall per year. It contains exceptional biodiversity due to the biogeographic characteristics of the area, its position at the foot of the Andes and within the transition zone between verdant rainforest and tropical savanna.

Project Tambopata will investigate the impact of tourism on populations of primates, birds, amphibians and reptiles in the reserve. A number of research volunteer positions tenable for three month periods beginning in January 1997 through December 1998 are available.

The project will unite international research volunteers, accepted from the United States and Europe, with Peruvian counterparts. At the project's base camp near the town of Puerto Maldonado, a small frontier town in the heart of the Peruvian Amazon, the principal research crew will begin the process of training volunteers in the zoological monitoring methods used to investigate rainforest fauna. After learning and practicing the necessary skills, volunteers will participate in the gathering of zoological data in the field in and around a number of established rainforest lodges/hotels which cater for national and international tourists. Volunteers will be supervised by members of the principal research crew who are responsible for all field research.

These volunteer positions are ideal for those wishing to gain or expand their experience in rainforest field-related research techniques, as well as learn more about the biology and ecology of Amazonian fauna, and would appeal to undergraduates or postgraduates (natural sciences) as well as amateur biologists who are interested in rainforest resource conservation.

For further information on Project Tambopata and the volunteer research program, please write to: Chris Kirkby, Project Tambopata, 64 Belsize Park, London NW3 4EH, U.K.; E-mail:


The Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve, the National Academy of Sciences of Bolivia, and the SI/MAB Biodiversity Program are organizing an international congress "Research and Management in the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve: Ten Years of Contributions to National Environmental Performance", which will take place in Trinidad, Beni Department, Bolivia, December 3-6, 1996.

The goal of the congress is to bring together national and international scientists and managers to present the results of their scientific research and conservation activities in the Biosphere Reserve during the past ten years, along with related experiences. The congress will be divided into five symposia: zoology; botany; local communities and management of resources; national system of protected areas of Bolivia; and experiences in successful management of biosphere reserves elsewhere in Latin America.

For information or logistics on travel and accommodations, please contact Carmen Miranda at: Directora Ejecutiva, Reserva de la Biosfera, Estacion Biologica del Beni, Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Avenida 16 de julio 1732, La Paz, Bolivia; Tel./Fax: 591-2-350-612; E-mail:


The Smithsonian Institution/MAB (SI/MAB) Biodiversity Program's Environmental Leadership Course, "From Ideas to Reality", will be held March 2-21, 1997 at Front Royal, Virginia. Senior environmental managers, biologists and ecologists, foresters, fishery managers, resource managers, and environmental policy-makers are encouraged to attend. Skills taught will be: how to define one's mission and achieve goals; develop support and trust with decision makers; utilize powerful, persuasive communication strategies, and create and deliver effective presentations. All participants are asked to bring a project to implement to the training. Cost of the course will be US$2500, which includes food, lodging, local transportation, materials, and use of lab and field equipment. It does not cover airfare or personal expenses.

The course, "Biodiversity Measuring, Monitoring & Research Certification", will be held May 11 - June 13 at Front Royal, Virginia. This intensive, five-week course provides a unique opportunity for professionals to gain expertise in current methodology for developing, carrying out, and maintaining long- term biodiversity inventory, monitoring and research programs. 1997 marks SI/MAB's fifth anniversary of this annual course, which has trained over 90 participants from 40 countries. These efforts continue to expand the international network, helping it to grow to be the largest network of its kind. During the first few days, participants will be introduced to the SI/MAB Biodiversity Program and other biodiversity-related efforts currently underway at the Smithsonian Institution. More than 40 distinguished speakers and instructors will present lectures on vegetation, mammal, amphibian and reptile populations, bird and invertebrate populations, freshwater fishes and aquatic invertebrates, and bacteria and micro-organisms. The training will assist the participants in incorporating their work and ideas within the measuring and monitoring framework established by SI/MAB. In addition, techniques and examples of other biodiversity monitoring programs will be discussed, giving the participants the tools necessary to integrate and apply these methods to their unique situations.

The cost of the certification course is USA$4000, which includes food, lodging, local transportation, books, materials, and use of field and lab equipment, but does not cover airfare to and from the course or personal expenses.

Regional training courses are also given by SI/MAB at various locations. These are intensive, two-week courses intended for professionals who have established, or will establish, long- term research plots for research and monitoring forest biodiversity. The training that the course provides meets the standards of the International Network of Biodiversity Plots.

Using the tested SI/MAB protocol, participants learn to quickly and easily establish permanent vegetation plots to analyze and communicate the results soon after the data are collected. The plot information can form the foundation upon which a variety of other monitoring protocols for other taxa can be included, and incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS). Ultimately, this approach can help to provide the user with as complete a picture as possible of a particular area's biodiversity. Tentative locations and dates: Cameroon, November 1996; Philippines, January/February 1997; Panama, January 1997; Nigeria, February 1997; Paraguay, July 1997.

For additional information on all the above courses, please contact: Christopher Ros, SI/MAB Biodiversity Program, 1100 Jefferson Dr., SW, Suite 3123, Washington, DC 20560; Fax: (202) 786-2557; E-Mail:


The Essig Museum of Entomology of the University of California is proud to announce the opening of a new online exhibit, "California's Endangered Insects", at the following address:

The site contains up-to-date information on California's 14 federally listed insects with photos, distributional information, and ideas on how interested volunteers may help. There are also sections dealing with proposed and extinct species. The site is not totally complete, so any comments or ideas for additional information are welcome by contacting: Michael S. Caterino, Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, 201 Wellman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720; E-Mail:


The Philippines-based International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is seeking an affiliate scientist for its Genetic Resources Center. IRRI, supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, is a non-profit, autonomous organization engaged in research and training in rice-related technology. The research agenda for the Institute's Genetic Resources Center is carried out in collaboration with other scientific divisions of IRRI and researchers in rice growing countries.

Applicants for this position should have a social scientist background in such disciplines as anthropology or sociology. The appointee will work on the socioeconomic basis of on-farm conservation of rice germplasm and will analyze village and household-level data related to the management of rice varieties by small-scale farmers in several Asian countries.

Candidates should have a Ph.D. with a particularly good understanding of farmers' decision-making processes; a background in agriculture; and fieldwork experience with small-scale farmers in developing countries. The position is located at IRRI's headquarters south of Manila and involves moderate international travel. The appointment will be for 2 years beginning in January 1997.

To apply send a comprehensive curriculum vitae and names, addresses and fax numbers of three referees by October 31 to: Dr. M.T. Jackson, Head, Genetic Resources Center, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila 1099, Philippines; Tel.: (63-2) 818 1926; Fax: (63-2) 891- 1292; E-mail:


Abrahamson, W. and Abrahamson, J. 1996. Effects of a low- intensity winter fire on long-burned Florida sand pine scrub. Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 171-183.

Agrawol, A. 1996. Reforestation in Ecuador's dry forest. Desert Plants 12(1): 12-14.

Akeroyd, J. and Hogan, E. 1996. Wild greens and herbs: a sustainable harvest? Plant Talk 6: 17. (Mediterranean)

Anon. 1996. Queensland's rainforest expands - but is it a good thing? Plant Talk 6: 15. (Rainforest species invade and replace the wet sclerophyll forest)

Anon. 1996. US environmental football. Plant Talk 6: 13. (Budget for environmental work)

Borrini-Feyerabend, G. 1996. Co-management: a new approach to conserving Uganda's forests. Plant Talk 6: 22-25.

Bradley, K. and Hammer, R. 1996. Florida's lost tree. Garden News July: 9. (Guapira discolor)

Brunton, D., Britton, D. and Wieboldt, T. 1996. Taxonomy, identify, and status of Isoetes virginica (Isoeteaceae). Castanea 61(2): 145-160. (Rare in Virginia and North Carolina)

Chengren, T., Ren, S. and Meng, J. 1996. Experiments on the introduction of Syringa pinnatifolia Hemsl. var. alashanensis Y. C. Ma & S.Q. Zhou and Acer stenolobum Rehd. var. megalophyllum W.P. Fang & Y.T. Wu. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 52-53. (China)

Cohn, J. 1996. Ultra-modern matchmaking. Zoogoer 25(4): 23-26. (Zoos tactics to save some of the world's most endangered cats)

Cowan, B. 1996. Update on a coastal dune and bluff restoration project. Fremontia 24(3): 17-19. (Monterey, California)

Cunningham, A. 1996. Medicinal plant trade, conservation and the MPSG. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 2-3. (Medicinal Plant Specialist Group)

Cunningham, A. 1996. Working towards a "Top 50" listing. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 3-6.

Denham, A. 1996. The Silphion Project. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 10. (Cultivation of northern temperate medicinal plants)

Duke, G. 1996. Towards medicinal plant conservation in a West Himalayan valley. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 8. (Palas Valley, Pakistan)

Ferrari, S., Cruz Neto, E., Iwanaga, S. and Correa, H. 1996. An unusual primate community at the Estacao Ecologica Serra dos Tres Irmaos, Rondonia, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 55-56.

Galbraith, D. 1996. The Canadian Botanical Conservation Network (CBCN). Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 32.

Gardner, M. 1996. Quest for a rare garden plant in Chile. Plant Talk 6: 28-29. (Berberidopsis corallina)

Gilman, B. 1996. Alvar landscapes. New York's stone prairies. Wildflower 12(3): 22-23. (Rare ecosystem)

Goldberg, C. 1996. In Hawaii, flora fights for its turf. New York Times (National Report) August 4: 14. (Native plants face threat from imports)

Gomes, M. 1996. A field study of muriquis in the Carlos Botelho State Park, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 61- 62.

Groger, A. and Kasparek, M. 1996. Directory of networks, organizations, and projects on medicinal plants. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 3.

Groves, C., Cassirer, E., Genter, D. and Reichel, J. 1996. Coeur d'Alene salamander (Plethodon idahoensis). Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 238-247. (Idaho, Montana, British Columbia)

Halloy, S. 1996. Developing plants as a conservation tool in Bolivia. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 7.

Hernandez Bermejo, J. and Leon, J. 1994. Neglected Crops. 1492 from a Different Perspective. FAO, Rome, Italy. 341 pp.

Holmes, T. 1996. Restoring oak populations. Part 1: the acorn harvest. Fremontia 24(3): 20-22. (California)

Hunt, D. (Ed.). 1996. Temperate Trees under Threat. International Dendrology Society, England. 200 pp. (369 species)

Kumar, R. and Young, C. 1996. Economic Policies for Sustainable Water Use in Thailand. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, England. 34 pp. (CREED Working Paper Series No. 4)

Laamanen, R. 1996. Non-timber forest products of Nepal. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 8-9.

Lange, D. 1996. Medicinal plant market study in Germany - state of project. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 9-10. (Trade in medicinal plants)

Ledoux, M. 1996. The diminutive Phragmipedium xerophyticum. Orchid Digest 60(3): 122-128. (Rare in Oaxaca, Mexico)

Little, C. 1996. America's trees are dying. Wildflower 12(3): 31-35. (Environmental pollution, disease)

Marinho-Filho, J. 1996. The Brazilian cerrado bat fauna and its conservation. Chiroptera Neotropical 2(1): 37-39.

Marshall, N. 1996. TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa starts medicinals project. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 6-7.

Masterson, D. 1996. The Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve: a new category of protected area in the Brazilian Amazon. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 64-65.

McDonald, H. 1996. The genus Calochortus in California: Part 1. Fremontia 24(3): 25-28. (Threatened)

McKerrow, A. 1996. Large-flowered skullcap (Scutellaria montana) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 44 pp.

McSharry, H. and Rubenstein, T. 1995. Recovery Plan for the Kaua'i Plant Cluster. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 292 pp.

Mehlman, D. 1996. The protection status of birds, mammals, and plants considered rare, threatened, or endangered in New Mexico, USA. Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 208-215.

Menges, E. and Gordon, D. 1996. Three levels of monitoring intensity for rare plant species. Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 227-237.

Mittermeier, R. 1996. New foundation dedicated to support for primate conservation. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 65- 66.

Morton, J. 1996. Grassland communities on Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Wildflower 12(3): 16-18. (Rare alvar ecosystem)

Munoz, M. 1996. Report on the III Symposium of the Iberian- Macaronesian Association of Botanic Gardens. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 46-47.

Murdock, N. 1996. Recovery Plan for Saint Francis' Satyr (Neonympha mitchellii francisci). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 38 pp.

Olson, S. 1996. The historical occurrence of fire in the Central Hardwoods, with emphasis on southcentral Indiana. Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 248-256. Ong, H. and Mohamad, M. 1996. Plant conservation at Rimba Ilmu, the botanic garden of the University of Malaya, Malaysia. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 29-31.

Peterson, M. 1996. Wilderness by state mandate: a survey of state-designated wilderness areas. Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 192-197. (USA)

Phitos, D., Strid, A., Snogerup, S. and Greuter, W. (Eds.). 1996. The Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. World Wide Fund for Nature, Athens, Greece. 527 pp.

Pilz, D. and Molina, R. (Eds.). 1996. Managing Forest Ecosystems to Conserve Fungus Diversity and Sustain Wild Mushroom Harvests. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Portland, Oregon. 103 pp.

Ponce, C. 1996. Politicas, estrategias y acciones para la conservacion de la diversidad biologica en los sistemas andinos de areas protegidas. FAO/PNUMA, Santiago, Chile. 83 pp.

Pritchard, P. 1996. Kemp's ridley, lost in France, returns to Florida. Florida Naturalist 69(2): 13, 22.

Pritchard, P. 1996. World's rarest sea turtle finds nesting ground in Volusia County. Florida Naturalist 69(2): 13.

Rae, D. and Jackson, A. 1996. Plant collection policies - are guidelines needed? Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 27-28.

Ross, J. 1996. Hardly a mouse or a molecule moves here without being noted. Smithsonian 27(4): 100-109. (Ecosystem studies at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center)

Saunders, B. 1996. Recovery Plan for Roan Mountain Bluet (Hedyotis purpurea var. montana). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 56 pp.

Schalfer, C. 1996. Gnarled alvar inhabitants tell ancient secrets on the Bruce Peninsula. Wildflower 12(3): 19-21. (Rare habitat, occurring only in southern Sweden, Estonia & around the Great Lakes in North America)

Schwartz, M. and Heim, J. 1996. Effects of a prescribed fire on degraded forest vegetation. Nat. Areas J. 16(3): 184- 191. (Illinois)

Sharpe, E. 1995. Recovery Plan for the Waianae Plant Cluster. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 230 pp.

Silva Junior, J. and Noronha, M. 1996. Discovery of a new species of marmoset in the Brazilian Amazon. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 58-59. (Callithrix saterei)

Simeone, A. 1996. Conservacion del pinguino de Humboldt Spheniscus humboldti Meyen 1934 en Chile y situacion de algunas colecciones existentes en zoologicos extranjeros. Bol. Chileno de Ornitologia 3: 25-29.

Skinner, M. 1996. California's vernal pools. A treasure worth saving. Plant Talk 6: 18-21.

Stewart-Cox, B. 1996. Dam threatens Thailand's finest teak forest. Plant Talk 6: 11. (Kaeng Sua Ten dam, Phrae Province)

Strathy, K. 1996. WAINIMATE - save the plants that save lives. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 10-11. (Women's Association for Natural Medicinal Therapy, Fiji)

Streekumar, P., Mitra, S. and Coomar, T. 1996. Euphorbia epiphylloides Kurz - a rare and endemic succulent of the Andamans, needing conservation. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 42.

Synge, H. 1996. The Biodiversity Convention explained. Part 6. The funding mechanism. Plant Talk 6: 26-27.

Tandon, V. 1996. CAMP Workshop: plants under threat - new list forged. Medicinal Plant Conservation 2: 12-13. (Conservation Assessment Management Plans, India)

Thiago de Mello, M. 1996. Animais Ameacados de Extincao. Comite Brasileiro da Associacao Mundial de Veterinaria, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 67 pp.

Thomas, P., Loope, L., Medeiros, A. and Connally, P. 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 158 pp.

Van Wyk, B. 1996. Mozambique puts plant diversity BEFORE easy profits. Plant Talk 6: 12. (Government halts major forestry project in Maputaland centre of endemism)

Vicens, M. 1996. A botanic garden of the Mediterranean Islands. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 36-38. (Soller Botanic Garden, collection of endangered plants)

Vitousek, P., D'Antonia, C., Loope, L. and Westbrooks, R. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am. Scientist 84(5): 468-478.

Wyse Jackson, P. and Dixon, K. 1996. Report on the Fourth International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress held in Perth, Western Australia. Bot. Gardens Conservation News 2(6): 19-26.

Zunino, G., Bravo, S., Ferreira, F. and Reisenman, C. 1996. Characteristics of two types of habitat and the status of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in northern Argentina. Neotropical Primates 4(2): 48-50.

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