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Department ofBotany

No. 162
December 1996

Editor: Jane Villa-Lobos


The new 1996 IUCN List of Threatened Animals was recently released by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre and the Species Survival Commission (SSC) at the World Conservation Congress of IUCN held in Canada in October. Based on 5,025 species assessments conducted by more than 500 scientists worldwide, it is the most comprehensive scientific assessment of the viability of threatened species to date, according to the IUCN. Previously the conservation world has used the status of birds to estimate the level of threat to all animals as this was the only group of species that had been fully assessed.

Different approaches are used to assess levels of threat to species, such as population decline, fragmentation of populations or low population numbers. Among the approaches for assessing endangerment is the rate of population decline over a ten year period. Using this criterion, critically endangered species are defined as those experiencing an 80% decline in population; endangered, 50%; and vulnerable, 20% decline.

Among the notable findings of the new Red List are: 1) A quarter of all known mammal species are at risk of extinction. Of the 26 orders of mammals, 24 include threatened species, and the six largest orders have more than 50 threatened species each. The highest proportion of threatened species is in the order that includes monkeys and apes (46%). 2) Eleven percent of all known bird species are threatened with extinction. Of the 27 orders of birds, 23 contain threatened species. 3) Twenty-five percent of all known amhibians are threatened with extinction. Twenty-five percent of all known reptiles are threatened with extinction, including 44% of the 23 species of crocodilians, an improvement in status from the 1970s. 4) Thirty-four percent of all known fishes, mostly freshwater, are threatened with extinction. More than 100 species of marine fishes were added to the 1996 Red List, including sharks, tuna, coral fish and seahorses. The status of the remaining 14,000 marine species has yet to be assessed. All species of sturgeon and paddlefish were found to be threatned or near threatened. Approximately 30% (77 species) of all 250 known European freshwater fishes are classified as threatened. The high proportion is indicative of widespread changes in the freshwater systems of Europe.

Very few of the invertebrate species have been assessed relative to their total numbers. Those that have received the most attention are crustaceans, insects and molluscs with more threatened molluscs included in the Red List than any other invertebrate group. Out of 70,000 documented mollusc species, some 2,049 species were assessed, of which 920 were identified as threatened.

The most significant threat to the majority of species at risk of extinction was found to be habitat reduction, fragmentation and degradation, reflecting human population growth combined with economic development. A surprising important factor was introduction of non-native species, along with exploitation, pollution and climate change.

The top five countries with the largest numbers of threatened mammals are Indonesia, China, India, Brazil, and Mexico. Those with the most threatened birds are Indonesia, Brazil, China, the Philippines, and India. The United States is among the top 20 countries with the most threatened species of mammals and among the top with the most threatened species of birds.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals is available on the World Wide Web at It is also available through: IUCN Publications Services Unit, 219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, England; Tel.: 44 1223 277894; Fax: 22 1223 277175; E-mail:


A consortium of The Field Museum, Chicago Zoological Society, University of Illinois at Chicago, John G. Shedd Aquarium and the University of Chicago was formed to provide intensive training in conservation biology for young professionals from developing countries, with special emphasis on the Northern Andes, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caribbean. By acquiring the tools necessary for assessing, analyzing and managing biological diversity, the participants will be better equipped to help establish conservation programs and direct biodiversity policies in their own countries.

Specifically, participants spend approximately half their time attending lectures, taking part in seminars, and engaging in discussions of relevant publications. Topics include habitat disturbance and fragmentation, island biogeography, conservation genetics, and design and protection of reserves. Participants gain experience writing grant proposals, and are provided with information on funding for biodiversity research and conservation from U.S. and international organizations. During the remainder of the time, participants develop a conservation-related project with their individual advisor at one of the five institutions.

Participants will be selected from a pool of applicants committed to using what they learn to help guide conservation programs in their own countries, and in a position that will allow them to put their knowledge to immediate, effective use in their home country.

Over the next three years (1997 through 1999), two sessions focusing on aquatic ecosystems and four sessions focusing on terrestrial ecosystems will be offered. Aquatic sessions will be offered in the Spring of '98 & '99, and will be 10 weeks in length. Summer terrestrial sessions will take place in '97 & '99 from mid-June through August. Autumn terrestrial sessions will take place in '97 & '98 from mid-August through mid-December. Six participants will be accepted for each aquatic and Autumn terrestrial sessions, and eight for each of the Summer terrestrial sessions.

Deadlines: February 1 for the Summer 1997 terrestrial session (20 June - 31 August); March 1 for the Autumn 1997 terrestrial session (22 August - 14 December). Submit the following: 1) a three-page curriculum vitae, which should include a description of your current and past positions, relevant professional experience and educational background; 2) names, addresses, telephone and Fax numbers and E-mail addresses of three references; and 3) a two-page statement of interest, discussing why you would like to attend the program, what aspects of conservation biology are of interest to you, and how you would implement your training when you return home after the program. Be sure to include your E-mail address and Fax number on all correspondence. Submit applications to: Dr. Wendy M. Jackson, Conservation Training Consortium, c/o The Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605; Tel.: (312) 922-9410, ext. 432; Fax: (312) 922-5421; E-mail:


Founded in 1989, SIMBIOTA is a volunteer organization run by a group of graduate students at the University of Wisconsin- Madison. SIMBIOTA's goal is to assist Latin American and Caribbean field biologists and conservationists (professional, amateur, or student) in gaining funds for their own projects in the Neotropics.

The name and logo are meant to symbolize mutual cooperation. It is hoped that SIMBIOTA will be a catalyst for stronger cooperation and support between biologists and conservationists in the Americas.

The directory is available on the World Wide Web at If you do not have access to the WWW and would like to receive a printed copy of the List of Potential Funding Sources (available in English or Spanish), contact: SIMBIOTA, Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706; Tel.: (608) 263-7595; Fax: (608) 262-6099; E-mail:


The British Petroleum Company, in conjunction with BirdLife International and Flora and Fauna International, supports undergraduate projects with long-term impact on conservation of biotic diversity. Projects must address conservation issues of global importance, have a high degree of host country involvement, and the majority of team members must be undergraduates. Each year four prizes of 3000 pounds and eight prizes of 1500 pounds are given to projects in these categories: globally threatened species; oceanic islands and marine habitats; tropical forests; and wetlands, grasslands, savannas, and deserts. An award of 10,000 pounds is given to the best proposal for follow-up work submitted by a previous year recipient. In 1997, the British Petroleum Conservation Programme will support the International Year of the Reef with a special award of 3000 pounds. For details contact Expeditions Officer, BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 ONA, England; Tel.: 44 1223-277318; Fax: 44 1223-277200; E-mail:

The Biological Research Station of the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve offers grants of up to US$2500 to support biological research which utilizes the resources of the preserve. Among the research areas supported are basic and applied ecology, animal behavior, systematics, evolution, and conservation. The 2000-acre preserve is located on the Helderberg Plateau, 30 miles southwest of Albany, New York. Habitats include hardwood-hemlock forests, conifer plantations, old fields, permanent and intermittent streams, and 10- and 100-acre lakes. Facilities include a wet and dry lab, library, and housing for researchers. Deadline for applications is February 1, 1997. Contact Richard L. Wyman, Executive Director, E.N. Huyck Preserve and Biological Research Station, P.O. Box 189, Rensselaerville, NY 12147.


February 5-9. "The Second International Symposium on the Biology and Conservation of Owls in the Northern Hemisphere" will be held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Focusing on the progress that has been made in research and management of owls and their habitats since 1987, the symposium will also include contributed papers, posters, and workshops. For more information, contact Dr. James R. Duncan, Manitoba Conservation Data Center, Department of Natural Resources, Box 24, 1495 St. James St., Winnipeg MB, R3H OW4, Canada; Tel.: (204) 945-7465; Fax: (204) 945-1365; E-mail:

February 12-15. An international conference, "Building Bridges with Traditional Knowledge", will be held at the University of Florida, Gainesville, which will explore issues involving indigenous peoples, conservation, development, and ethnoscience. This three-day conference will offer a unique opportunity for a diverse group of scholars and indigenous peoples to discuss conservation and development issues of particular importance to Latin America, North America, Polynesia, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Pre-registration: $85; on-site registration: $105. For more information, contact: Alexandra Paul/Christine Kelly, BBT Conference, P.O. Box 110329, Gainesville, FL 32611-0329; Fax: (352) 392-7127; E-mail:; Website:

February 13-16. The Karst Waters Institute will sponsor a symposium on the "Conservation and Protection of the Biota of Karst". The symposium, which will be held in Nashville, Tennessee, will include topics related to the biodiversity in karst, demography and genetics of karst biota, sampling subterranean fauna, and biodiversity hotspots in karstlands. For information on registration and submission of abstracts, contact Biodiversity Conference Chair, Karst Waters Institute, P.O. Box 490, Charles Town, WV 25414.

February 19-21. The 1997 Midwestern Rare Plant Conference will be held at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. The meetings are intended to provide a forum for exchanging research results on rare Midwestern plants, for setting regional plant conservation priorities, and for developing and implementing collaborative plant conservation projects in the Midwest. The first two days will be dedicated to scientific papers and posters, and the last day will be given to a conservation task force meeting organized by the Center for Plant Conservation. Proceedings will be published. For further information, contact Dr. Kayri Havens, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166; Tel. (314) 577-9487; E-mail:


Profit without Plunder: Reaping Revenue from Guyana's Tropical Forests without Destroying Them -- a new study by World Resources Institute (WRI) undertaken at the request of Guyana's President Cheddi Jagan -- calls for sweeping reforms of Guyana's forest concession policies and the development of ecotourism, gene hunting, and other non-timber alternatives to generate income and much needed economic growth.

Guyana's abundant forest resources, encompassing 85% of its land area at the heart of the Guiana Shield, represent the largest remaining intact tropical forest frontier in the world. Small wonder this nation is under enormous pressure to sell logging rights to boost short-term economic growth. But converting that value to profit without destroying the forest resource and maintaining the fragile ecosystem is proving to be a difficult and complex task.

But even with enlightened policies, Guyana still faces serious challenges. This new 68-page study is WRI's response. The publication's author, Dr. Nigel Sizer, explores ways to enhance income from the traditional timber industry and from such alternative forest-based development as tourism, genetic resource harvesting, and non-timber forest products. Based upon this extensive research, Dr. Sizer recommends several priority actions and emphasizes the need for international bilateral and multilateral agencies to better coordinate their efforts.

Profit Without Plunder illuminates the obstacles to managing forests in ways that are good for the economy, the environment and society. But it also provides practical alternatives to ill-planned and poorly monitored timber harvesting and puts both the regional debate on forest activities in Latin America and the Caribbean and the international debate on global forestry policies into perspective.

The paperback publication is available for $14.95. Contact World Resources Institute, 1709 New York Ave. N.W., Washington, DC 20006; Tel.: (202) 638-6300; Fax: (202) 638-0036; E-mail:


The School for Field Studies (SFS) and its Center for Rainforest Studies on the Atherton Tableland in North Queensland, Australia, seeks a Program Director to lead an interdisciplinary team of faculty in a unique educational program for college undergraduates. SFS is the largest U.S. private educational institution designed to give students the opportunity to contribute to critical environmental management issues in various ecosystems. Faculty will give traditional classroom lectures and work in the field with students on applied conservation issues. SFS utilizes case studies in order to teach students the complex variables involved in management decisions regarding environmental change. Responsibilities include: ensure that program design and delivery is being met by all faculty and staff; produce updated syllabi, schedule all program activities, and run daily meetings with staff and students; work with the Center Director on overall program design, hiring of local guest lecturers, program evaluation, and grant preparation. The Program Director will deliver as many as one-third of the lectures per semester and oversee student directed research projects. Faculty disciplines include a Resource Economist, an Ecologist and a Forest Resource Manager.

Requirements are : Ph.D. in a field related to the center topic (forestry, tropical rainforest management, tropical reforestation). At least three years teaching at the undergraduate level, experience teaching and working in an interdisciplinary team, program and supervisory management experience and a demonstrated work history of commitment to working on environmental issues from a problem solving perspective.

To apply, please send a CV and a cover letter explaining skills and experience to: The School for Field Studies, AUS-PD Search, 16 Broadway, Beverly, MA 01915; Tel.: (508) 922-7200, ext. 304; Fax: (508) 927-5127; E-mail:


Alder, T. 1996. Bringing back the birds: protecting and restoring feathered populations and their habitats. Science News 150(7): 108-109.

Adler, T. 1996. Mapping out endangered species' hot spots. Science News 150(7): 101.

Anon. 1996. Caribbean conservationists learn about ecotourism first-hand. Focus 18(5): 6. (Belize)

Anon. 1996. Cascade Head, Oregon. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 42.

Anon. 1996. Conservation spotlight: mission in the Mariana Islands. Endangered Species Update 13(7&8): 11. (American Zoo and Aquarium Association zoos help save endangered birds of Micronesia)

Anon. 1996. Endangered black-footed ferret making a comeback. Nat. Wildlife EnviroAction October: 13.

Anon. 1996. Environmentalists protest pact on California redwood forest. The New York Times September 30: A14.

Anon. 1996. Forest service tries to gain an urban foothold in Baltimore. The New York Times (National) September 22: 39. (Urban tree planting)

Anon. 1996. Gateway to canyonlands. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 30.

Anon. 1996. Mapping project details status of world forests. The Washington Post September 10: A13. (World Wildlife Fund and World Conservation Monitoring Centre)

Anon. 1996. Medicines from the wild: TRAFFIC examines impact on North American wildlife. TRAFFIC USA 15(3): 1.

Anon. 1996. Negotiations delay timber salvage in redwood forests. The Washington Post September 15: A3.

Anon. 1996. A stone age shrub is alive and thriving in Australia. The New York Times (International) October 20: 12. (Lomatia tasmania, Tasmania)

Anon. 1996. Trade threatens seahorses. Focus 18(5): 6. (New WWF report)

Anon. 1996. Utah gets new national monument. Nat. Wildlife EnviroAction October: 5. (Grand Staircase/ Escalante National Monument)

Anon. 1996. WWF makes breakthrough in tiger conservation. Focus 18(5): 1.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (Ed). IUCN Red List of Animals. IUCN and Conservation International, Cambridge, England and Washington, D.C. 368 pp.

Baskin, Y. 1996. Curbing undesirable invaders. BioScience 46(10): 732-736. (The Norway/United Nations Conference on alien species)

Black, C. 1996. Ivory Coast pledges to save dwindling rain forest. The Washington Post September 14: A20.

Boice, L. 1996. Managing endangered species on military lands. End. Species UPDATE 13(7&8): 1-6.

Busch, L. 1996. Saving whales contentiously. BioScience 46(10): 737-739. (Sanctuary for humpbacks)

Castro Parga, I., Moreno Saiz, J., Humphries, C. and Williams, P. 1996. Strengthening the natural and national park system of Iberia to conserve vascular plants. Bot. J. Linnean. Soc. 121(3): 189-205.

Churchill, S. 1996. Andean moss diversity and conservation: state of knowledge and perquisites for the future. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 169-176. (Trop. Andes contains 2/3 of total moss diversity recorded for the neotropics)

Claiborne, W. 1996. Biologists strive to save birds from lake's rest stop of death. The Washington Post September 15: A3. (Salton Sea, California)

Cushman, J. 1996. Agreement may avert cutting of ancient redwoods in California. The New York Times (National) September 29: 38.

Cushman, J. 1996. Swaps broaden federal efforts to shield land. The New York Times (National) September 30: A1, A14.

Delgadillo, C. 1996. Moss conservation in Mexico. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 177-181. (More than 900 species, 98 endemic taxa)

Di Silvestro, R. 1996. No longer top dog. Nat. Wildlife 34(6): 14-23. (Yellowstone coyotes)

Downer, C. 1996. Bigfoot of the Andes. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 8-9. (Mountain tapir of the Andes)

Egan, T. 1996. Clinton enters Utah battle over fate of wilderness area. The New York Times September 17: A12. (Canyons of Escalante National Monument)

Foster, D., Orwig, D. and McLachlan, J. 1996. Ecological and conservation insights from reconstructive studies of temperate old-growth forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11(10): 419-423.

Frahm, J. 1996. Diversity, life strategies, origins and distribution of tropical inselberg bryophytes. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 73-86.

Freeman, K. 1996. Rare bay owl found by chance. New York Times (Science Times) October 22: C6. (Congo bay owl found in Zaire)

Geatz, R. 1996. Beach blanket burlington. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 31. (Alburg Dunes State Park, Vermont)

Geatz, R. 1996. Mountain do. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 34. (Cranesville Swamp, Maryland)

Geatz, R. 1996. The tarmac stops here. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 34. (Pan American Highway blocked from Panamanian Darien)

Geatz, R. 1996. Under the presidents' noses. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 32. (Black Hills, South Dakota)

Geatz, R. 1996. Woodsman, chop that tree! Nature Conservancy 46(6): 33. (Abita Creek Flatwoods Preserve, Louisiana)

Hallingback, T. and Hodgetts, N. 1996. A corollary from the IUCN/IAB workshops: endangered bryophytes world-wide. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 223-226.

Hallingback, T., Hodgetts, N. and Urmi, E. 1996. How to use the new IUCN Red List categories on bryophytes. Guidelines proposed by the IUCN SSC Bryophyte Specialist Group. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 147-157.

Hallingback, T. and Tan, B. 1996. Towards a global Action Plan for endangered bryophytes. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 213-222.

Hedenas, L. 1996. How do we select species for conservation? Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 129-145.

Hilton, J. and Boyd, R. 1996. Microhabitat requirements and seed/microsite limitations of the rare granitic outcrop endemic Amphianthus pusillus (Scrophulariaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123(3): 189-196.

Hodgetts, N. 1996. Threatened bryophytes in Europe. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 183-200. (1,687 species, 406 (24.1%) threatened)

Hudson, R. 1996. AZA Species Survival Plan profile: West Indian rock iguanas. End. Species UPDATE 13(7&8): 9-10, 14. (American Zoo and Aquarium Association)

Kenworthy, K. 1996. U.S., timber firms agree to save old- growth tracts. The Washington Post September 19: A3. (Washington & Oregon)

Kingsworth, P. 1996. Logging off La Lope. BBC Wildlife 14(10): 64. (La Lope Forest Reserve, Gabon, threatened by loggers)

Levine, S. 1996. Rally for redwoods attracts 5,000. The Washington Post September 16: A11.

Linares, E., Gomez, A. and Churchill, P. 1996. Estado actual de la flora de musgos de Colombia. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 67-71. (Current knowledge of the moss flora of Colombia, 896 new species)

Line, L. 1996. Symbol of hope? Nat. Wildlife 34(6): 36-41. (Peregrine falcon population on the rise)

Lucas, G. 1996. Out on a limb: homeless wood storks find southern comfort. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 25-29.

Malik, A. 1996. Pepco donates inland islands. The Washington Post (Maryland Section) September 3: 1, 3. (Potomac River, Maryland)

Maraniss, D. 1996. Clinton acts to protect Utah land. The Washington Post September: A1, A10. (Grand Staircase - Escalante National Monument)

Matthew, K. 1996. The distribution of the little-known and rare Derris ovalifolia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) extended. Kew Bull. 51(3): 561-563.

Mendez, A. 1996. Tourism in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve - a vision. Kambul 6(2): 12. (Mexico)

Miller, J. 1996. Monkey business: in Belize, an endangered species gets a hand. The Washington Post October 20: E2. (Black howler monkey)

Moore, M. 1996. Mexicans waylay unprotected turtles: marines guarding endangered species shifted to site of rebel attack. The Washington Post October 10: A41-42.

Owen, J. 1996. Project lagoon not worth its salt. BBC Wildlife 14(10): 60. (Construction of a solar salt works along the shores of a lagoon will affect Mexico's Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve)

Pearce, F. 1996. Birds knocked from top of endangered list. New Scientist 152(2050): 5. (On IUCN Red List, 11% of birds and 25% of mammal species are threatened)

Pocs, T. 1996. Epipyllous liverwort diversity at worldwide level and its threat and conservation. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 109-127.

Robbins, C. 1996. Medicinal racks: an overview of the medicinal trade and other uses of North American deer antler. TRAFFIC USA 15(3): 2-4.

Schemo, D. 1996. Burning of Amazon picks up pace, with vast areas lost. The New York Times (International) September 12: 1.

Schneider, H. 1996. Environmentalists consume to save the Earth. The Washington Post October 24: A27. (World Conservation Congress)

Schneider, H. 1996. Facing world's pollution in the North. The Washington Post September 21: A15. (Canada)

Simons, M. 1996. European green police have carrot but no stick. The New York Times (International) September 8: 3. (European Environment Agency)

Sizer, N. 1996. Profit Without Plunder: Reaping Revenue from Guyana's Tropical Forests Without Destroying Them. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. 68 pp.

Soderstrom, L. 1996. Islands - endemism and threatened bryophytes. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 201-212.

Stolzenburg, W. 1996. Collision at the Galapagos: slow road of evolution meets the fast track of extinction. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 10-16.

Stolzenburg, W. 1996. A hive of shrimp. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 7. (Sponge-dwelling shrimp of the Caribbean)

Tan, B. and Iwatsuki, Z. 1996. Hot spots of mosses in east Asia. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 159-167.

Thigpen, J. 1996. Help wanted: tradtl. wisdom req'd. Nature Conservancy 46(6): 6. (Native people in Paraguay aid in inventory of Mbaracayu Forest Reserve)

Vana, J. 1996. Notes on the Jungermanniineae of the world. Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 99-107. (Most endangered taxa are the perennial shuttle species)

Voss, R. and Emmons, L. 1996. Mammalian diversity in neotropical lowland rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bull. Am. Mus. of Nat. History 230: 1-115.

Young, A., Boyle, T. and Brown, T. 1996. The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11(10): 413-418.

Young, J. and Soto, C. 1996. The growing role of corporations in species protection. End. Species UPDATE 13(7&8): 7-8,14.

Zander, R. 1996. Conservation of evolutionary diversity in Pottiaceae (Musci). Anal. Inst. Biol., Serie Bot. 67(1): 89-97. (22 genera are rare)


Ahmad, Z., Gamo, T. and Murata, N. 1996. International partners assist Pakistan in establishing plant genetic resources institute. DIVERSITY 12(3): 70-71.

Anishetty, N. 1996. Indian subcontinent benefits from FAO collaboration on genetic resources. DIVERSITY 12(3): 72.

Anon. 1996. Flying away home with "Mom". Washington Post November 10: A4. (To help endangered cranes, ultralight pilot teaches flock to migrate)

Anon. 1996. Global Environment Facility launches $74 million ecodevelopment project in India. DIVERSITY 12(3): 71-72.

Anon. 1996. India's "seed keepers" work to conserve biodiversity and community rights. DIVERSITY 12(3): 78-79.

Anon. 1996. Low-yield farming is greatest global threat to biodiversity, Avery tells ASTA. DIVERSITY 12(3): 4.

Anon. 1996. State-of-the-art genebank at CIMMYT to usher in "double-green revolution". DIVERSITY 12(3): 4.

Anon. 1996. World Bank moves to integrate agricultural development and biodiversity conservation. DIVERSITY 12(3): 16.

Arora, R. 1996. Indian region provides treasure house of wild plant genetic resources. DIVERSITY 12(3): 22-23.

Arora, R. and Horry, J. 1996. Collaboration with IPGRI advances sustainable development in south Asia. DIVERSITY 12(3): 55-57.

Bajaj, M. and Williams, J. T. 1996. Healing Forests, Healing People. International Development Research Centre, Medicinal Plants Network, New Delhi, India. 62 pp. (Report of a workshop on medicinal plants held in 1995)

Beissinger, S., Steadman, E., Wohlgenant, T., Blate, G. and Zack, S. 1996. Null models for assessing ecosystem conservation priorities: threatened birds as titers of threatened ecosystems in South America. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1343-1352.

Bennett, J. 1996. Floristic summary of 22 national parks in the midwestern United States. Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 295- 302.

Bennett, J. 1996. Similarities and life cycle distributions of floras of 22 national parks in the midwestern United States. Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 303-309.

Blaustein, A., Hoffman, P., Kiesecker, J. and Hays, J. 1996. DNA repair activity and resistance to solar UV-B radiation in eggs of the red-legged frog. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1398-1402. (Species decline, Oregon)

Briggs, M., Harris, L., Howe, J. and Halvorson, W. 1996. Using long-term monitoring to understand how adjacent land development affects natural areas: an example from Saguaro National Park, Arizona (USA). Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 354- 361.

Brocklehurst, A. 1996. Nations of south Asia face challenges and opportunities of biodiversity convention compliance. DIVERSITY 12(3): 53-54.

Bunin, J. and Jamieson, I. 1996. Responses to a model predator of New Zealand's endangered Takahe and its closest relative, the Pukeko. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1463- 1466.

Chandel, K. 1996. Hindustani center provides India and the world a trove of genetic diversity. DIVERSITY 12(3): 21.

Chandel, K. 1996. The Indian Society of Plant Genetic Resources. DIVERSITY 12(3): 43.

Christian, C., Potts, T., Burnett, G. and Lacher, T. 1996. Parrot conservation and ecotourism in the Windward Islands. J. Biogeography 23(3): 387-393.

Christman, C. 1996. Challenges of conserving the "global herd" addressed by American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. DIVERSITY 12(3): 18. (Rare breeds of horses and donkeys)

Conover, A. 1996. A onetime rancher wages lonely war to save rare plants. Smithsonian 27(8): 114-123. (One man turning 100 acres of alien trees into a refuge for Hawaii's endemic botanical treasures)

Cotton, C. 1996. Ethnobotany: Principles and Applications. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York.

Craik, W. 1996. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia: a model for regional management. Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 344-353.

Damania, A. 1996. In situ conservation and its implementation in the Indian context. DIVERSITY 12(3): 50- 52.

Damania, A. and Deshmukh, S. 1996. Marine coastal biodiversity benefits from conservation of mangrove ecosystems. DIVERSITY 12(3): 29-31.

Das, P. and Kapoor, D. 1996. National bureau committed to conserving India's rich fish resource base. DIVERSITY 12(3): 33-34.

de Lange, P. 1996. Critically endangered three kings vine (Tecomanthe speciosa) flowers after 50 year hiatus. Species 26-27: 11-13. (Three Kings Island Nature Reserve, New Zealand)

Erskine, W., Chandra, S., Chaudhry, M., Malik, I., Sarker, A., Sharma, B., Tufail, M. and Tyagi, M. 1996. A bottleneck in lentil: widening the genetic base in south Asia. DIVERSITY 12(3): 64.

Fiedler, P. 1996. Rare Lilies of California. California Native Plant Society, San Francisco, California. 160 pp.

Fisher, R. and Shaffer, H. 1996. The decline of amphibians in California's Great Central Valley. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1387-1397.

Ford, B. 1996. Status of deerberry, Vaccinium stamineum L. (Ericaceae), in Canada. Rhodora 97(891): 255-263. (Rare in Canada)

Goulding, M., Smith, N. and Mahar, D. 1996. Floods of Fortune: Ecology & Economy along the Amazon. Columbia University Press, New York, New York. 193 pp.

Green, A. 1996. Analyses of globally threatened Anatidae in relation to threats, distribution, migration patterns, and habitat use. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1435-1445. (New World Conservation Union threatened status applied to ducks, geese and swans)

Gullison, R., Panfil, S., Strouse, J. and Hubbell, S. 1996. Ecology and management of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Chimanes Forest, Beni, Bolivia. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122(1): 9-34.

Gupta, A. 1996. The honey bee network strengthens knowledge for crops, creativity and compensation. DIVERSITY 12(3): 76-78.

Halward, T. and Shaw, R. 1996. Germination requirements and conservation of an endangered Hawaiian plant species (Silene lanceolata). Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 335-343.

Hayes, J., Guffey, S., Kriegler, F., McCracken, G. and Parker, C. 1996. The genetic diversity of native, stocked, and hybrid populations of brook trout in the southern Appalachians. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1403-1411.

Hedrick, P., Lacy, R., Allendorf, F. and Soule, M. 1996. Directions in conservation biology: comments on Caughley. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1312-1320.

Helgason, T., Russell, S., Monro, A. and Vogel, J. 1996. What is mahogany? The importance of a taxonomic framework for conservation. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122(1): 47-59.

Hibbett, D. and Donoghue, M. 1996. Implications of phylogenetic studies for conservation of genetic diversity in Shiitake mushrooms. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1321-1327.

Holley, J. and Williams, J. 1996. India uniquely positioned to capitalize on abundant medicinal plant heritage. DIVERSITY 12(3): 35-36.

Holmes, B. 1996. Life on the edge. New Scientist September 21: 38-39. (Forest fragments, Brazil)

Holmes, B. 1996. The low-impact road. New Scientist September 21: 43. (Road in Yasuni, Ecuador)

Holmes, B. and Walker, G. 1996. How did paradise begin. New Scientist September 21: 34-37. (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)

Hudson, E. 1996. Red listing marine fishes. Species 26-27: 31-34.

Ingham, D. and Samways, M. 1996. Application of fragmentation and variegation models to epigaeic invertebrates in South Africa. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1353-1358.

Kajale, M. 1996. Archaeology and domestication of crops in the Indian subcontinent. DIVERSITY 12(3): 23-24.

Karihaloo, J. 1996. NBPGR publications on plant genetic resources. DIVERSITY 12(3): 47.

Khoshoo, T. 1996. Concern mounts over rapid erosion of Himalayan biodiversity. DIVERSITY 12(3): 24-25.

Kiester, A., Scott, J., Csuti, B., Noss, R., Butterfield, B., Sahr, K. and White, D. 1996. Conservation prioritization using GAP data. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1332-1342. (Idaho)

King, D., Griffin, C. and Degraaf, R. 1996. Effects of clearcutting on habitat use and reproductive success of the ovenbird in forested landscapes. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1380-1386. (New Hampshire)

Kittredge, D. 1996. Protection of habitat for rare wetland fauna during timber harvesting in Massachusetts (USA). Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 310-317.

Llewellyn, D., Shaffer, G., Craig, N., Creasman, L., Pashley, D., Swan, M. and Brown, C. 1996. A decision-support system for prioritizing restoration sites on the Mississippi River alluvial plain. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1446- 1455.

Loresto, G. and Jackson, M. 1996. South Asia partnerships forged to conserve rice genetic resources. DIVERSITY 12(3): 60-61.

Machtans, C., Villard, M. and Hannon, S. 1996. Use of riparian buffer strips as movement corridors by forest birds. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1366-1379. (Alberta, Canada)

Mason, D. 1996. Responses of Venezuelan understory birds to selective logging, enrichment strips, and vine cutting. Biotropica 28(3): 296-309.

McCue, K., Buckler, E. and Holtsford, T. 1996. A hierarchical view of genetic structure in the rare annual plant Clarkia springvillensis. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1425-1434. (California)

McDonald, B., Gravatt, C., Grimshaw, P. and Williams, J. 1995. The Flora of Girraween and Bald Rock National Parks. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Queensland, Australia. 100 pp. (42 rare and threatened species listed)

Miller, B., Reading, R. and Forrest, S. 1996. Prairie Night. Black-footed Ferrets and the Recovery of Endangered Species. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 320 pp.

Mooney, P. 1996. Leipzig is what happens to you when you're making other plans. DIVERSITY 12(3): 10.

Nath, R. 1996. India's plant quarantine system works to thwart potentially devastating crop losses. DIVERSITY 12(3): 49-50.

Newton, A., Cornelius, J., Baker, P., Gillies, A., Hernandez, M., Ramnarine, S., Mesen, J. and Watt, A. 1996. Mahogany as a genetic resource. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122(1): 61-73.

Nivsarkar, A., Gupta, S. and Vij, P. 1996. Stemming the threat to Indian livestock. DIVERSITY 12(3): 31-33.

Oates, J. (Compiler). 1996. African Primates: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, Revised Edition. IUCN Publications Services Unit, Cambridge, England. 80 pp. (64 species)

Paroda, R. 1996. India's National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources leads nationwide system. DIVERSITY 12(3): 43-47.

Pathak, P. and Hegde, N. 1996. Agroforestry and biodiversity: work in tandem to benefit India. DIVERSITY 12(3): 47-48.

Patrick, T., Allison, J. and Krakow, G. 1995. Protected Plants of Georgia. An Information Manual on Plants Designated by the State of Georgia as Endangered, Threatened, Rare, or Unusual. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Social Circle, Georgia. 246 pp. (198 species included)

Polak, A. 1995. Florula of the Herbs of Mabura Hill Guyana. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 116 pp.

Putterman, D. 1996. Leipzig conference approves FAO global plan of action ... ownership, equity issues dominate. DIVERSITY 12(3): 7.

Rajaram, S., Nagarajan, S., Jain, K., Dubin, H., Singh, R., Mohan, D., Smale, M. and Skovmand, B. 1996. India-CIMMYT collaboration expands genetic diversity of Indian wheats. DIVERSITY 12(3): 65-66.

Remanandan, P. 1996. Landraces of the primitive pigeonpea yield economic benefit and contribute to sustainability. DIVERSITY 12(3): 58.

Robertson, L., Valkoun, J. and Konopka, J. 1996. Collaborative efforts of ICARDA and the countries in south Asia aim toward conservation of genetic resources. DIVERSITY 12(3): 62-63.

Rodan, B. and Campbell, F. 1996. CITES and the sustainable management of Swietenia macrophylla King. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122(1): 83-87.

Rosburg, T. and Glenn-Lewin, D. 1996. Species compostion and environmental characteristics of grassland and ecotonal plant communities in the Loess Hills of Western Iowa (USA). Nat. Areas J. 16(4): 318-334.

Roy, M., Geffen, E., Smith, D. and Wayne, R. 1996. Molecular genetics of pre-1940 red wolves. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1413-1424. (Endangered, USA)

Rozkosny, R. and Vanhara, J. (Eds). 1996. Terrestrial Invertebrates of the Palava Biosphere Reserve of UNESCO. Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic. 630 pp.

Saberwall, V. and Kothari, A. 1996. The human dimension in conservation biology curricula in developing countries. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1328-1331.

Sehgal, S. 1996. Intellectual property rights and the seed industry in India. DIVERSITY 12(3): 79-80.

Shanmugasundaram, S., Engle, L. and Tsou, S. 1996. True potato seed technology to fight potato blight in developing countries. DIVERSITY 12(3): 68-70.

Sharma, B. 1996. Pioneers chart course of genetic resources in India and world. DIVERSITY 12(3): 41-43.

Siddiq, E. 1996. Utilization of Indian germplasm provides worldwide crop improvement. DIVERSITY 12(3): 38-40.

Siegel, J. 1996. "Subdivision versus agriculture": from false assumptions come false alternatives. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1473-1474. (Livestock grazing)

Singh, A. and Nigam, S. 1996. Gains in groundnut productivity illustrate success of resistance breeding based on exotic germplasm. DIVERSITY 12(3): 59-60.

Singh, K. and Robertson, L. 1996. New resistance genes provide key to increased productivity of south Asia's most important pulse crop. DIVERSITY 12(3): 63-64.

Smith, A. and McCance, E. 1996. An update on the Biodiversity Conservation Information System (BCIS). Species 26-27: 11-13. (Biodiversity conservation information system of SSC and its partners)

Smith, S. 1996. Reflections upon Leipzig: renewing the pact of dependence between humans and cultivated plants. DIVERSITY 12(3): 8.

Snook, L. 1996. Catastrophic disturbance, logging and the ecology of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King): grounds for listing major tropical timber species in CITES. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122(1): 35-46.

Song, Y. 1996. Population viability analysis for two isolated populations of Haianan Eld's deer. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1467-1472. (China)

Stone, S. 1996. Economic Trends in the Timber Industry of the Brazilian Amazon: Evidence from Paragominas. Environmental Economic Programme, International Institute of Environment and Development, London, England. 27 pp. (CREED Working Paper Series No. 6)

Strahan, R. (Ed). 1996. Mammals of Australia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 756 pp. (Conservation stauts given)

Stuart, C. and Stuart, T. 1996. Africa's Vanishing Wildlife. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 208 pp.

Subramanian, K. and Sasidharan, K. 1996. The panorama of Indian forests: a resevoir of plant and animal wealth. DIVERSITY 12(3): 26-29.

Sutcliffe, O. and Thomas, C. 1996. Open corridors appear to facilitate dispersal by ringlet butterflies (Aphantopus hyperantus) between woodland clearings. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1359-1365. (U.K.)

Swaminathan, M. 1996. Compensating farmers' rights and communities through a global fund for biodiversity conservation for sustainable food security. DIVERSITY 12(3): 73-75.

Tandon, V. 1996. Medicinal plants conservation provides communities with health and wealth. DIVERSITY 12(3): 36- 37.

Toll, J. 1996. System-wide genetic resources program leads way in effort to coordinate CGIAR center activities. DIVERSITY 12(3): 54-55.

Uhl, C., Kulakowski, D., Gerwing, J., Brown, M. and Cochrane, M. 1996. Sustainability: a touchstone concept for university operations, education, and research. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1308-1311.

Upadhya, M. 1996. True potato seed technology to fight potato blight in developing countries. DIVERSITY 12(3): 67-68.

Waite, T. and Parker, P. 1996. Dimensionless life histories and effective population size. Conservation Biology 10(5): 1456-1462.

Walker, G. 1996. Kinder cuts. New Scientist September 21: 40-42. (Logging in Brazil)

Walker, G. 1996. Slash & grow. New Scientist September 21: 28-33. (Brazilian Amazon basin)

Watson, F. 1996. A view from the forest floor: the impact of logging on indigenous peoples in Brazil. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122(1): 75-87.

Willis, K. 1996. Where did all the flowers go? The fate of temperate European flora during glacial periods. Endeavour 20(3): 110-114.

Wilson, D., Cole, F., Nichols, J., Rudran, R. and Foster, M. (Eds). 1996. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity. Standard Methods for Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 480 pp.

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